Araştırma Makalesi
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A Research on Externalities in Transportation Sector

Yıl 2020, Sayı 12, 95 - 105, 31.07.2020
https://doi.org/10.47072/demiryolu.740115

Öz

Transportation activities have a significant role in the service sector. Transportation has led to major changes in the history of human development, economically, socially, culturally and politically. With the growth both in freight capacity and in the number of passengers, along with the boosting effect of the increased transportation speed, the developments in transportation services paved the way for globalization. While being carrying out, transportation services, besides many desirable outcomes, cause adverse effects faced by individuals and society; in other words, lead to the problem of externality. Externality is considered as the cost that needs to be eliminated when the producers or consumers do not bear all the consequences, or when they do not take into account the effects they reflect on a third party, of their behaviors. In this study, it is aimed to determine externalities identified as negativities occurring during the transportation services, to examine the economic effects of externalities, and to discuss the methods on internalizing externalities.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Y. Candemir, “Transportation education and training: in the world and in turkey,” Proceedings Book of 6th Transportation Congress, TMMOB Chamber of Civil Engineers, İstanbul, Turkey, 2005, pp.110-129. [Online]. Available: http://www.imo.org.tr/resimler/ekutuphane/pdf/3190.pdf, [Accessed 06.04.2020].
  • [2] A.E. Bakırcı, “Examination of constituents of vehicle operation costs, establishment of saving perspective,” Proceedings Book of 6th Transportation Congress, TMMOB Chamber of Civil Engineers, İstanbul, Turkey, 2005, pp. 395-404. [Online]. Available: http://www.imo.org.tr/resimler/ekutuphane/pdf/3190.pdf, [Accessed 06.04.2020].
  • [3] A. Kabasakal ve A. O. Solak, “Economic efficiency analysis of railway and road transportation systems,” Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1, pp.123-136, 2010.
  • [4] M. Kaynak, Development Economics, Gazi Bookstore, Ankara, 2007.
  • [5] C. N. Berberoğlu, “Environmental pollution problem from the economic perspective,” Eskişehir İTİA Journal, vol.1, no. 2, pp. 219, 1982.
  • [6] L.R. Brown, Eco-Ecology: Building on Economy for the Earth. TEMA Foundation Publication, No:42, 2003.
  • [7] S. Benk, “Urban transportation based negative exteriorities and prevention methods,” Ph.D dissertation, Dept. Graduate Schools and Institutes,Department of Public Finance, Uludağ Univ., Bursa, 2007.
  • [8] H. Zeybek, The Importance of Pricing in the Transportation Sector in the Improvement of Sustainable Development. United Nations - ESCAP Turkey Country Report, 2000.
  • [9] A. Z. Yalçın, “Evaluation of global environmental policies from the perspective of global public goods,” Balıkesir University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, vol:12 no:21, pp.288-309, 2009. [Online]. Available:http://sbe.balikesir.edu.tr/dergi/edergi/c12s21/makale/c12s21m18.pdf [Accessed 16.02.2020].
  • [10] TUBITAK, “High Speed Train Report”, [Online]. Available: http://kentvedemiryolu.com/yuksek-hizli-tren-tubitak-raporu/, [Accessed 04.03.2020].
  • [11] M. Nalçakan, “Importance of Rail Freight in Transportation Sector in terms of Turkey’s Economy and Analysis of Domestic Railway Freight Transport Demand by Econometric Model (Period between 1980 and 2000),” Ph.D dissertation, Social Sciences Institute, Anadolu Univ., 2003, Eskisehir.
  • [12] E. Öncü, “Financing and pricing policies in transportation,” TMMOB, Transportation Policies Congress, 16–17 October 2003, İstanbul, Turkey, pp. 67–80. [Online]. Available:http://www.imo.org.tr/resimler/ekutuphane/pdf/12163.pdf [Accessed 04.03.2020].
  • [13] R. G. Lipsey, P. O. Steiner, D. D. Purvis, Economy I. (Translation: Ö.F. Batırel et.al), Bilim Teknik Press, Eskişehir.1984.
  • [14] TUBITAK-TTGV, Transportation Sector Report. Science Technology Industry Discussions Platform, Clean Fabrication - Clean Product - Environment Friendly Technologies Working Group, Ankara, 2002.
  • [15] DPT, 8th BYKP Transportation (Specialized Commision) ÖİK Report. (Railway Transportation Sub-commission), Ankara, 2001.
  • [16] CEC White Paper, “European transport policy for 2010: time to decide”, White paper, Publications of the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 2001. [Online]. Available: http://www.central2013.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/Downloads/Document_Centre/OP_Resources/EU-transportpolicy2010_en.pdf, [Accessed 10.12.2010].
  • [17] E. Ferhatoğlu, “Environmental Taxes within the Framework of the Common Environmental Policy in the European Union”. [Online]. Available: http://www.econturk.org/Turkiyeekonomisi/cevre_vergisi.pdf, [Accessed 28.10.2010].
  • [18] Istanbul-City and Transport Planning Commission Report (Draft), 1st Istanbul Urban Transport Meeting Report. İstanbul, 2002.
  • [19] E. Babalık‐Sutcliffe, “Development of Action Plan of Turkey’s National Climate Change Project, Transportation Sector Current Situation Assessment Report (2nd draft-Web)”, September, 2010). [Online],Available: http://iklim.cob.gov.tr/iklim/Files/Ulastirma_Sektoru_Mevcut_Durum_Degerlendirmesi_Raporu.pdf, [Accessed 01.03.2020].
  • [20] A. Taban, Railway Infrastructure Pricing and Freight Transportation in Turkey, Republic of Turkey, DPT. General Directorate of Relations with the European Union, Publication no: DPT:2796, Ankara, 2009.

Ulaştırma Sektöründe Dışsallıklar Üzerine Bir Araştırma

Yıl 2020, Sayı 12, 95 - 105, 31.07.2020
https://doi.org/10.47072/demiryolu.740115

Öz

Ulaştırma faaliyetlerinin hizmet sektörü içinde çok önemli yeri bulunmaktadır. Ulaştırma, insanlığın gelişim tarihinde ekonomik, toplumsal, kültürel ve politik yönden önemli değişikliklerin yaşanmasına yol açmıştır. Taşınan yük kapasitesi ve yolcu sayısındaki artışla birlikte taşıma hızındaki artışın da etkisiyle ulaştırma hizmetlerindeki gelişmeler küreselleşmeyi beraberinde getirmiştir. Ulaştırma hizmetleri, pek çok olumlu etkisinin yanında söz konusu hizmetlerin gerçekleştirilmesi sürecinde bireylerin ve toplumun maruz kaldığı olumsuzlukların; başka bir söyleyişle dışsallık sorununun yaşanmasına yol açmaktadır. Dışsallık; üretici ya da tüketicilerin davranışlarının bütün sonuçlarına katlanmadıkları; başkaları üzerindeki etkilerini hesaba katmadıklarında beliren ve söz konusu etkilerinin ortadan kaldırılması gereken bir maliyet unsuru olarak ele alınmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, ulaştırma hizmetlerinin sunulması esnasında ortaya çıkan olumsuzluklar şeklinde tanımlanan dışsallıkların belirlenmesi, dışsallıkların ekonomik etkilerinin irdelenmesi ve dışsallıkların içselleştirilmesiyle ilgili yöntemlerin ele alınması amaçlanmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Y. Candemir, “Transportation education and training: in the world and in turkey,” Proceedings Book of 6th Transportation Congress, TMMOB Chamber of Civil Engineers, İstanbul, Turkey, 2005, pp.110-129. [Online]. Available: http://www.imo.org.tr/resimler/ekutuphane/pdf/3190.pdf, [Accessed 06.04.2020].
  • [2] A.E. Bakırcı, “Examination of constituents of vehicle operation costs, establishment of saving perspective,” Proceedings Book of 6th Transportation Congress, TMMOB Chamber of Civil Engineers, İstanbul, Turkey, 2005, pp. 395-404. [Online]. Available: http://www.imo.org.tr/resimler/ekutuphane/pdf/3190.pdf, [Accessed 06.04.2020].
  • [3] A. Kabasakal ve A. O. Solak, “Economic efficiency analysis of railway and road transportation systems,” Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1, pp.123-136, 2010.
  • [4] M. Kaynak, Development Economics, Gazi Bookstore, Ankara, 2007.
  • [5] C. N. Berberoğlu, “Environmental pollution problem from the economic perspective,” Eskişehir İTİA Journal, vol.1, no. 2, pp. 219, 1982.
  • [6] L.R. Brown, Eco-Ecology: Building on Economy for the Earth. TEMA Foundation Publication, No:42, 2003.
  • [7] S. Benk, “Urban transportation based negative exteriorities and prevention methods,” Ph.D dissertation, Dept. Graduate Schools and Institutes,Department of Public Finance, Uludağ Univ., Bursa, 2007.
  • [8] H. Zeybek, The Importance of Pricing in the Transportation Sector in the Improvement of Sustainable Development. United Nations - ESCAP Turkey Country Report, 2000.
  • [9] A. Z. Yalçın, “Evaluation of global environmental policies from the perspective of global public goods,” Balıkesir University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, vol:12 no:21, pp.288-309, 2009. [Online]. Available:http://sbe.balikesir.edu.tr/dergi/edergi/c12s21/makale/c12s21m18.pdf [Accessed 16.02.2020].
  • [10] TUBITAK, “High Speed Train Report”, [Online]. Available: http://kentvedemiryolu.com/yuksek-hizli-tren-tubitak-raporu/, [Accessed 04.03.2020].
  • [11] M. Nalçakan, “Importance of Rail Freight in Transportation Sector in terms of Turkey’s Economy and Analysis of Domestic Railway Freight Transport Demand by Econometric Model (Period between 1980 and 2000),” Ph.D dissertation, Social Sciences Institute, Anadolu Univ., 2003, Eskisehir.
  • [12] E. Öncü, “Financing and pricing policies in transportation,” TMMOB, Transportation Policies Congress, 16–17 October 2003, İstanbul, Turkey, pp. 67–80. [Online]. Available:http://www.imo.org.tr/resimler/ekutuphane/pdf/12163.pdf [Accessed 04.03.2020].
  • [13] R. G. Lipsey, P. O. Steiner, D. D. Purvis, Economy I. (Translation: Ö.F. Batırel et.al), Bilim Teknik Press, Eskişehir.1984.
  • [14] TUBITAK-TTGV, Transportation Sector Report. Science Technology Industry Discussions Platform, Clean Fabrication - Clean Product - Environment Friendly Technologies Working Group, Ankara, 2002.
  • [15] DPT, 8th BYKP Transportation (Specialized Commision) ÖİK Report. (Railway Transportation Sub-commission), Ankara, 2001.
  • [16] CEC White Paper, “European transport policy for 2010: time to decide”, White paper, Publications of the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 2001. [Online]. Available: http://www.central2013.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/Downloads/Document_Centre/OP_Resources/EU-transportpolicy2010_en.pdf, [Accessed 10.12.2010].
  • [17] E. Ferhatoğlu, “Environmental Taxes within the Framework of the Common Environmental Policy in the European Union”. [Online]. Available: http://www.econturk.org/Turkiyeekonomisi/cevre_vergisi.pdf, [Accessed 28.10.2010].
  • [18] Istanbul-City and Transport Planning Commission Report (Draft), 1st Istanbul Urban Transport Meeting Report. İstanbul, 2002.
  • [19] E. Babalık‐Sutcliffe, “Development of Action Plan of Turkey’s National Climate Change Project, Transportation Sector Current Situation Assessment Report (2nd draft-Web)”, September, 2010). [Online],Available: http://iklim.cob.gov.tr/iklim/Files/Ulastirma_Sektoru_Mevcut_Durum_Degerlendirmesi_Raporu.pdf, [Accessed 01.03.2020].
  • [20] A. Taban, Railway Infrastructure Pricing and Freight Transportation in Turkey, Republic of Turkey, DPT. General Directorate of Relations with the European Union, Publication no: DPT:2796, Ankara, 2009.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Bilimsel Yayınlar (Hakemli Araştırma ve Derleme Makaleler)
Yazarlar

Meserret NALÇAKAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ESKİŞEHİR TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0648-1311
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Temmuz 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 20 Mayıs 2020
Kabul Tarihi 6 Temmuz 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 12

Kaynak Göster

IEEE M. Nalçakan , "A Research on Externalities in Transportation Sector", Demiryolu Mühendisliği, sayı. 12, ss. 95-105, Tem. 2020, doi:10.47072/demiryolu.740115