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‘Thank you so much Mystery Solved’: Online Expressions of Gratitude by IMDb* Members

Yıl 2018, Cilt 169, Sayı 1, 21 - 50, 01.03.2018
https://doi.org/10.1501/Dilder_0000000246

Öz

The majority of research on expressions of gratitude has generally examined data gathered from discourse completion tasks, corpus, and questionnaires, while a few studies have analyzed data from naturally occurring talk or text (Yuan, 2001). Expanding the research on expressions of gratitude to a computermediated communication (CMC) context, this study investigated the discourse-pragmatic characteristics of 100 messages from one of the Internet movie database (IMDb) discussion boards, ‘I Need to Know’. Drawing on the speech act theory (Searle, 1976), and relational work (Locher & Watts, 2005), this study aimed to explore users’ expressions of gratitude when closing conversation as an indicator of polite (if not, politic) behavior of relational work within a potentially “impolite” asynchronous online context as compared to corpora data from Global Web-based English (GloWbE) for other CMC genres and to Contemporary Corpus of American English (COCA) and British National Corpus (BNC) for spoken examples.Accordingly, thanking formulae were found to be in line with GloWbE, COCA, and BNC, though there were differences in terms of the frequencies of use. As for strategies and functional sequences, the findings support the literature on face to face (Eisenstein & Bodman, 1986; 1993) and CMC politeness (Darics, 2010). Lastly, the current study underscored that regardless of the lack of close social ties between the interactants and highly anonymous nature of the context, relational work is still significant for IMDb members.

Kaynakça

  • Androutsopoulos, J. (2006). Introduction: Sociolinguistics and computer‐mediated communication. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 10(4), 419-438.
  • Bardovi-Harling, K., Rose, M., and Nickels, E. L. (2008). The use of conventional expressions of thanking, apologizing, and refusing. In proceeding of the 2007 second language research forum, Cascadilla Proceedings Project, Somerville, MA, pp. 113- 130. http://dx.doi. org/10.1111/0023-8333.00105
  • Brown, P. and Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Carr, C. T., Schrock, D. B., & Dauterman, P. R. (2012). Speech acts within social network sites’ status messages. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 31, 176-196. doi: 10.1177/0261927X12438535
  • Carlo, J. L., & Yoo, Y. (2007). “How may I help you?” Politeness in computer-mediated and face-to- face library reference transactions. Information and Organization, 17(4), 193-231.
  • Cheng, S. W. (2005). An exploratory cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development of expressions of gratitude by Chinese learners of English. A doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa.
  • Clark, J. (2011). “No, like proper north”: Re-drawing boundaries in an emergent community of practice. Discursive Approaches to Politeness, 8, 109.
  • Cui, X. (2012). A cross-linguistic study on expressions of gratitude by native and non-native English speakers. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), pp. 753-760. doi:10.4304/ jltr.3.4.753-760
  • Darics, E. (2010). Politeness in computer-mediated discourse of a virtual team. Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (1), 129-150.
  • Darics, E. (2013). Non-verbal signalling in digital discourse: The case of letter repetition. Discourse, Context & Media, 2(3), 141-148.
  • Das, A. (2010). Linguistic Politeness and Interpersonal Ties among Bengalis on the Social Network Site Orkut [R]: The Bulge Theory Revisited. ProQuest LLC.
  • Davies, Mark. (2004) BYU-BNC. (Based on the British National Corpus from Oxford University Press). Available online at http://corpus.byu.edu/bnc/.
  • Davies, Mark. (2013) Corpus of Global Web-Based English: 1.9 billion words from speakers in 20 countries. Available online at http://corpus2.byu.edu/glowbe/.
  • Davies, Mark. (2008-) The Corpus of Contemporary American English: 450 million words, 1990-present. Available online at http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/.
  • Eisenstein, M. and Bodman, J. (1986) ‘I very appreciate’: Expressions of gratitude by native and non-native speakers of American English. Applied Linguistics, 7 (2), pp.167-185.
  • Eisenstein, M. and Bodman, J. (1993). Expressing gratitude in American English. In G. Kasper and S. Blum-Kulka, (Eds.) Interlanguage Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • El Daly, H. M. (2010). On the philosophy of language: Searching for common grounds for pragmatics and discourse analysis. International Journal of Academic Research, 2 (6), 244-262.
  • Farenkia, B. M. (2012). Face-saving Strategies in Responding to Gratitude Expressions: Evidence from Canadian English. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(4), pp. 1-11. doi:10.5539/ijel.v2n4p1
  • Farnia, M. and Suleiman, R. (2009). An interlanguage pragmatic study of expressions of gratitude by Iranian EFL learners – A pilot study. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 5,108-140.
  • Ghobadi, A. and Fahim, M. (2009). The effect of explicit teaching of English ‘thanking formulas’ on Iranian EFL intermediate level students at English language institutes. Science Direct, 37, 526–537.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.02.010
  • Gonzales, A. (2013) Development of politeness strategies in participatory online environments. In Naoko Taguichi and Julie M. Sykes (Eds.) Technology in Interlanguage Pragmatics Research and Teaching, (pp. 101–120). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Graham, S. L. (2007). Disagreeing to agree: Conflict, (im) politeness and identity in a computer- mediated community. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(4), 742-759.
  • Hardaker, C. (2010). Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication: from user discussions to academic definitions. Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (2), 215-242.
  • Haugh, M. (2010). When is an email really offensive? Argumentativity and variability in evaluations of impoliteness. Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (1).
  • Herring, S. C. (1994). Politeness in computer culture: Why women thank and men flame. In: Cultural Performances: Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference (pp. 278-294). Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Women and Language Group.
  • Herring, S. C. (1996). Introduction. In: S. C. Herring (Ed.), Computer-mediated communication: Linguistic, social and cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 1-10). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Herring, S. C. (1999). Interactional coherence in CMC. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 4(4). Retrieved 10/24/10, from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol4/issue4/ herring.html
  • Herring, S. C. (2004). Computer-mediated discourse analysis: An approach to researching online behavior. In: S. A. Barab, R. Kling, & J. H. Gray (Eds.), Designing for virtual communities in the service of learning (pp. 338-376). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Herring, S. C. (2007). A faceted classification scheme for computer-mediated discourse. Language@Internet, 4, article 1. Retrieved 10/24/13, fromhttp://www.languageatinternet. de/articles/2007/761
  • Hongladarom, K., & Hongladarom, S. (2005). Politeness in Thai computer-mediated communication. PRAGMATICS AND BEYOND NEW SERIES, 139, 145.
  • Jautz, S. (2013). Thanking Formulae in English: Explorations across varieties and genres. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Johansen, S.H. (2008). A comparative study of gratitude expressions in Norwegian and English from an interlanguage pragmatic and second language acquisition research perspective. A doctoral dissertation, University of Oslo.
  • Internet Movie Database (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Movie_Database.
  • Intachakra, S. (2004). Contrastive pragmatics and language teaching: Apologies and thanks in English and Thai. Regional Language Centre Journal, 35 (1), pp. 37-62.
  • IMDb Badges (n.d.) In IMDb. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from http://www.imdb.com/badge/.
  • Kashdan, T. B., Mishra, A., Breen, W. E. and Froh, J. J. (2009). Gender differences in gratitude: Examining appraisals, narratives, the willingness to express emotions, and changes in psychological needs. Journal of Personality, 77, 691-730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467- 6494.2009.00562.x
  • Koutlaki, S. (2002). Offers and expressions of thanks as face enhancing acts: tæ’arof in Persian. Journal of Pragmatics, 34, pp. 1733-1756.
  • Leech, G. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. New York: Longman.
  • Leech, G. (2007). Politeness: is there an East-West divide?. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture, 3(2), 167-206.
  • Locher, M. (2010). Intro: Politeness and Impoliteness in computer-mediated communication, Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (1), 1-7.
  • Locher, M. A., & Watts, R. J. (2005). Politeness theory and relational work. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture, 1(1), 9-33.
  • Lorenzo-Dus, N., Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, P., & Bou-Franch, P. (2011). Online polylogues and impoliteness: The case of postings sent in response to the Obama Reggaeton YouTube video. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, (10), 2578-2593.
  • Morand, D. A., & Ocker, R. J. (2003, January). Politeness theory and computer-mediated communication: A sociolinguistic approach to analyzing relational messages. In System Sciences, 2003. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 10-pp). IEEE.
  • Norrick, N. R. (1978). Expressive illocutionary acts. Journal of Pragmatics, 2(3), 277-291.
  • Pishghadam, R., & Zarei, S. (2011). Expressions of gratitude: A case of EFL learners. Review of European Studies, 3(2), p140.
  • Planchenault, G. (2010). Virtual community and politeness: The use of female markers of identity and solidarity in a transvestite’s website. Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (1). [Special Issue on “Politeness and Impoliteness in CMC Genres”]
  • Searle, J. R. (1976). A classification of illocutionary acts. Language in Society, 5, pp.1-24. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500006837
  • Schauer, G. and Adolphs, S. (2006). Expressions of gratitude in corpus and DCT data: Vocabulary, formulaic sequences, and pedagogy. Systems, 34, pp. 119-134.
  • Schallert, D. L., Chiang, Y. H. V., Park, Y., Jordan, M. E., Lee, H., Janne Cheng, A. C., ... & Song, K. (2009). Being polite while fulfilling different discourse functions in online classroom discussions. Computers & Education, 53(3), 713-725.
  • Shum, W., & Lee, C. (2013). (Im) politeness and disagreement in two Hong Kong Internet discussion forums. Journal of Pragmatics, 50(1), 52-83.
  • Spencer-Oatey, H. (2000). Rapport management: A framework for analysis. In H. Spencer-Oatey (Ed.), Culturally speaking. New York, NY: Continuum.
  • Spencer-Oatey, H. (2002). Managing rapport in talk: Using rapport sensitive incidents to explore the motivational concerns underlying the management of relations. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(5), 529-545.
  • Spencer-Oatey, H. (2005). (Im)Politeness, Face, and perceptions of Rapport: Unpacking their bases and interrelationships. Journal of Politeness Research, 1(1), 95–119.
  • Tsohatzidis, S. L. (2010). Speech Act Theory: Some current options. Intercultural Pragmatics, 7(2), 341. doi:10.1515/IPRG.2010.015
  • Vásquez, C. (2011). Complaints online: The case of TripAdvisor. Journal of Pragmatics, 43 (6), 1707-1717.
  • Vásquez, C. (2012). Narrativity and involvement in online consumer reviews: The case of TripAdvisor. Narrative Inquiry, 22 (1), 105-121.
  • Vásquez, C. (forthcoming). “Usually not one to complain but…”: Constructing identities in online reviews. For inclusion in C. Tagg & P. Seargeant (Eds.), The language of social media: Community and identity on the internet. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Vinagre, M. (2008). Politeness strategies in collaborative e-mail exchanges. Computers & Education, 50(3), 1022-1036.
  • Wang, N., Johnson, W. L., Mayer, R. E., Rizzo, P., Shaw, E., & Collins, H. (2008). The politeness effect: Pedagogical agents and learning outcomes. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(2), 98-112.
  • Watts, Richard J. (2003). Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Watts, R. J. (2005). Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice. S. Ide, & K. Ehlich (Eds.). Walter de Gruyter.
  • Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wong, M. L-Y. (2009) Expressions of gratitude by Hong Kong Speakers of English: Research from the International Corpus of English in Hong Kong (ICE-HK). Journal of Pragmatics, 42, pp. 1243-1257. doi:1016/j.pragma.2009.09.022.
  • Wood, A. F., & Smith, M. J. (2004). Online communication: Linking technology, identity, & culture. Psychology Press.

Çok teşekkürler! gizem çözüldü: IMDb kullanıcılarının çevrimiçi şükran ifadeleri

Yıl 2018, Cilt 169, Sayı 1, 21 - 50, 01.03.2018
https://doi.org/10.1501/Dilder_0000000246

Öz

Şükran ifadeleri üzerine yapılan araştırmaların çoğu söylem tamamlama görevleri, derlem, ve anketlerden gelen verileri incelemişken, az sayıda çalışma da doğal olarak gerçekleşen konuşma ya da metinleri bu açıdan incelemişlerdir (Yuan, 2001). İlgili araştırma alanını bilgisayar ortamlı iletişime uygulayan bu çalışma İnternet Film Veritabanı’ndaki(IMDb) tartışma odalarından çekilmiş 100 mesajın söylemsel ve pragmatik özelliklerini incelemiştir. Bu çalışmanın teorik temeli Searle’ın Söz Edimleri Kuramı (1976) ve Locher ve Watts’ın ilişkisel çalışma (2005) kuramlarına dayanmaktadır. Bu kuramlardan yola çıkarak, bu çalışma kullanıcıların bir sohbeti kapatırken kullandıkları çevrimiçi şükran ifadelerini bir kaç (GlowBE - Küresel Web Tabanlı Derlem Güncel, COCA - Amerikan İngilizcesi Derlemi ve BNC - Britanya Ulusal Derlemi) derlemden alınan veriyle kıyaslayarak potansiyel olarak kaba olarak adlandırılabilecek bir ortam olan eşzamansız çevrimiçi bağlamda örneklenen ilişkisel çalışma örneği olarak incelemiştir. Bulgular teşekkür etme kalıplarının kullanım sıklığı dışında derlem verileriyle pek çok benzerliğe sahip olduğunu göstermektedir. Çalışma, ayrıca, anılan çevrimiçi verilerin söz dizilerinin stratejik ve işlevsel özellikleri açısından da gerçek zamanlı yüz yüze iletişim ve diğer bilgisayar tabanlı iletişim biçimleri ile pek çok ortak noktaya sahip olduğunu belirtmektedir. Son olarak, bu çalışma, yakın sosyal bağların eksikliğine ve anılan bağlamın anonim doğasına bakmaksızın ilişkisel çalışmanın IMDb kullanıcıları açısından önemi vurgulamaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Androutsopoulos, J. (2006). Introduction: Sociolinguistics and computer‐mediated communication. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 10(4), 419-438.
  • Bardovi-Harling, K., Rose, M., and Nickels, E. L. (2008). The use of conventional expressions of thanking, apologizing, and refusing. In proceeding of the 2007 second language research forum, Cascadilla Proceedings Project, Somerville, MA, pp. 113- 130. http://dx.doi. org/10.1111/0023-8333.00105
  • Brown, P. and Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Carr, C. T., Schrock, D. B., & Dauterman, P. R. (2012). Speech acts within social network sites’ status messages. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 31, 176-196. doi: 10.1177/0261927X12438535
  • Carlo, J. L., & Yoo, Y. (2007). “How may I help you?” Politeness in computer-mediated and face-to- face library reference transactions. Information and Organization, 17(4), 193-231.
  • Cheng, S. W. (2005). An exploratory cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development of expressions of gratitude by Chinese learners of English. A doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa.
  • Clark, J. (2011). “No, like proper north”: Re-drawing boundaries in an emergent community of practice. Discursive Approaches to Politeness, 8, 109.
  • Cui, X. (2012). A cross-linguistic study on expressions of gratitude by native and non-native English speakers. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), pp. 753-760. doi:10.4304/ jltr.3.4.753-760
  • Darics, E. (2010). Politeness in computer-mediated discourse of a virtual team. Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (1), 129-150.
  • Darics, E. (2013). Non-verbal signalling in digital discourse: The case of letter repetition. Discourse, Context & Media, 2(3), 141-148.
  • Das, A. (2010). Linguistic Politeness and Interpersonal Ties among Bengalis on the Social Network Site Orkut [R]: The Bulge Theory Revisited. ProQuest LLC.
  • Davies, Mark. (2004) BYU-BNC. (Based on the British National Corpus from Oxford University Press). Available online at http://corpus.byu.edu/bnc/.
  • Davies, Mark. (2013) Corpus of Global Web-Based English: 1.9 billion words from speakers in 20 countries. Available online at http://corpus2.byu.edu/glowbe/.
  • Davies, Mark. (2008-) The Corpus of Contemporary American English: 450 million words, 1990-present. Available online at http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/.
  • Eisenstein, M. and Bodman, J. (1986) ‘I very appreciate’: Expressions of gratitude by native and non-native speakers of American English. Applied Linguistics, 7 (2), pp.167-185.
  • Eisenstein, M. and Bodman, J. (1993). Expressing gratitude in American English. In G. Kasper and S. Blum-Kulka, (Eds.) Interlanguage Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • El Daly, H. M. (2010). On the philosophy of language: Searching for common grounds for pragmatics and discourse analysis. International Journal of Academic Research, 2 (6), 244-262.
  • Farenkia, B. M. (2012). Face-saving Strategies in Responding to Gratitude Expressions: Evidence from Canadian English. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(4), pp. 1-11. doi:10.5539/ijel.v2n4p1
  • Farnia, M. and Suleiman, R. (2009). An interlanguage pragmatic study of expressions of gratitude by Iranian EFL learners – A pilot study. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 5,108-140.
  • Ghobadi, A. and Fahim, M. (2009). The effect of explicit teaching of English ‘thanking formulas’ on Iranian EFL intermediate level students at English language institutes. Science Direct, 37, 526–537.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.02.010
  • Gonzales, A. (2013) Development of politeness strategies in participatory online environments. In Naoko Taguichi and Julie M. Sykes (Eds.) Technology in Interlanguage Pragmatics Research and Teaching, (pp. 101–120). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Graham, S. L. (2007). Disagreeing to agree: Conflict, (im) politeness and identity in a computer- mediated community. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(4), 742-759.
  • Hardaker, C. (2010). Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication: from user discussions to academic definitions. Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (2), 215-242.
  • Haugh, M. (2010). When is an email really offensive? Argumentativity and variability in evaluations of impoliteness. Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (1).
  • Herring, S. C. (1994). Politeness in computer culture: Why women thank and men flame. In: Cultural Performances: Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference (pp. 278-294). Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Women and Language Group.
  • Herring, S. C. (1996). Introduction. In: S. C. Herring (Ed.), Computer-mediated communication: Linguistic, social and cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 1-10). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Herring, S. C. (1999). Interactional coherence in CMC. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 4(4). Retrieved 10/24/10, from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol4/issue4/ herring.html
  • Herring, S. C. (2004). Computer-mediated discourse analysis: An approach to researching online behavior. In: S. A. Barab, R. Kling, & J. H. Gray (Eds.), Designing for virtual communities in the service of learning (pp. 338-376). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Herring, S. C. (2007). A faceted classification scheme for computer-mediated discourse. Language@Internet, 4, article 1. Retrieved 10/24/13, fromhttp://www.languageatinternet. de/articles/2007/761
  • Hongladarom, K., & Hongladarom, S. (2005). Politeness in Thai computer-mediated communication. PRAGMATICS AND BEYOND NEW SERIES, 139, 145.
  • Jautz, S. (2013). Thanking Formulae in English: Explorations across varieties and genres. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Johansen, S.H. (2008). A comparative study of gratitude expressions in Norwegian and English from an interlanguage pragmatic and second language acquisition research perspective. A doctoral dissertation, University of Oslo.
  • Internet Movie Database (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Movie_Database.
  • Intachakra, S. (2004). Contrastive pragmatics and language teaching: Apologies and thanks in English and Thai. Regional Language Centre Journal, 35 (1), pp. 37-62.
  • IMDb Badges (n.d.) In IMDb. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from http://www.imdb.com/badge/.
  • Kashdan, T. B., Mishra, A., Breen, W. E. and Froh, J. J. (2009). Gender differences in gratitude: Examining appraisals, narratives, the willingness to express emotions, and changes in psychological needs. Journal of Personality, 77, 691-730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467- 6494.2009.00562.x
  • Koutlaki, S. (2002). Offers and expressions of thanks as face enhancing acts: tæ’arof in Persian. Journal of Pragmatics, 34, pp. 1733-1756.
  • Leech, G. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. New York: Longman.
  • Leech, G. (2007). Politeness: is there an East-West divide?. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture, 3(2), 167-206.
  • Locher, M. (2010). Intro: Politeness and Impoliteness in computer-mediated communication, Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (1), 1-7.
  • Locher, M. A., & Watts, R. J. (2005). Politeness theory and relational work. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture, 1(1), 9-33.
  • Lorenzo-Dus, N., Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, P., & Bou-Franch, P. (2011). Online polylogues and impoliteness: The case of postings sent in response to the Obama Reggaeton YouTube video. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, (10), 2578-2593.
  • Morand, D. A., & Ocker, R. J. (2003, January). Politeness theory and computer-mediated communication: A sociolinguistic approach to analyzing relational messages. In System Sciences, 2003. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 10-pp). IEEE.
  • Norrick, N. R. (1978). Expressive illocutionary acts. Journal of Pragmatics, 2(3), 277-291.
  • Pishghadam, R., & Zarei, S. (2011). Expressions of gratitude: A case of EFL learners. Review of European Studies, 3(2), p140.
  • Planchenault, G. (2010). Virtual community and politeness: The use of female markers of identity and solidarity in a transvestite’s website. Journal of Politeness Research, 6 (1). [Special Issue on “Politeness and Impoliteness in CMC Genres”]
  • Searle, J. R. (1976). A classification of illocutionary acts. Language in Society, 5, pp.1-24. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500006837
  • Schauer, G. and Adolphs, S. (2006). Expressions of gratitude in corpus and DCT data: Vocabulary, formulaic sequences, and pedagogy. Systems, 34, pp. 119-134.
  • Schallert, D. L., Chiang, Y. H. V., Park, Y., Jordan, M. E., Lee, H., Janne Cheng, A. C., ... & Song, K. (2009). Being polite while fulfilling different discourse functions in online classroom discussions. Computers & Education, 53(3), 713-725.
  • Shum, W., & Lee, C. (2013). (Im) politeness and disagreement in two Hong Kong Internet discussion forums. Journal of Pragmatics, 50(1), 52-83.
  • Spencer-Oatey, H. (2000). Rapport management: A framework for analysis. In H. Spencer-Oatey (Ed.), Culturally speaking. New York, NY: Continuum.
  • Spencer-Oatey, H. (2002). Managing rapport in talk: Using rapport sensitive incidents to explore the motivational concerns underlying the management of relations. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(5), 529-545.
  • Spencer-Oatey, H. (2005). (Im)Politeness, Face, and perceptions of Rapport: Unpacking their bases and interrelationships. Journal of Politeness Research, 1(1), 95–119.
  • Tsohatzidis, S. L. (2010). Speech Act Theory: Some current options. Intercultural Pragmatics, 7(2), 341. doi:10.1515/IPRG.2010.015
  • Vásquez, C. (2011). Complaints online: The case of TripAdvisor. Journal of Pragmatics, 43 (6), 1707-1717.
  • Vásquez, C. (2012). Narrativity and involvement in online consumer reviews: The case of TripAdvisor. Narrative Inquiry, 22 (1), 105-121.
  • Vásquez, C. (forthcoming). “Usually not one to complain but…”: Constructing identities in online reviews. For inclusion in C. Tagg & P. Seargeant (Eds.), The language of social media: Community and identity on the internet. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Vinagre, M. (2008). Politeness strategies in collaborative e-mail exchanges. Computers & Education, 50(3), 1022-1036.
  • Wang, N., Johnson, W. L., Mayer, R. E., Rizzo, P., Shaw, E., & Collins, H. (2008). The politeness effect: Pedagogical agents and learning outcomes. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(2), 98-112.
  • Watts, Richard J. (2003). Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Watts, R. J. (2005). Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice. S. Ide, & K. Ehlich (Eds.). Walter de Gruyter.
  • Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wong, M. L-Y. (2009) Expressions of gratitude by Hong Kong Speakers of English: Research from the International Corpus of English in Hong Kong (ICE-HK). Journal of Pragmatics, 42, pp. 1243-1257. doi:1016/j.pragma.2009.09.022.
  • Wood, A. F., & Smith, M. J. (2004). Online communication: Linking technology, identity, & culture. Psychology Press.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Dil Bilim
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Zeynep KÖYLÜ Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Mart 2018
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 169, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Köylü, Z. (2018). ‘Thank you so much Mystery Solved’: Online Expressions of Gratitude by IMDb* Members . Dil Dergisi , 169 (1) , 21-50 . DOI: 10.1501/Dilder_0000000246