Araştırma Makalesi
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 44, 75 - 136, 30.06.2021

Öz

Bu çalışma, komünist Çin rejiminin Doğu Türkistan dahilinde uygulamayı sürdürdüğü baskıcı asimilasyon politikalarını incelemektedir. Söz konusu politikalar; adil yargılanma hakkı, din hürriyeti, ifade hürriyeti, barışçıl toplanma hürriyeti ve seyahat hürriyeti gibi uluslararası, bölgesel ve yerel hukuki kaynaklar tarafından tanınıp düzenlenen pek çok negatif hakkı ihlal etmektedir. Mevzu bahis politikaların ürünü olarak ortaya çıkan sayısız ölçüsüz sınırlandırma, pozitif haklar kapsamında sıralayabileceğimiz eğitim hakkı, etno-kültürel kimlikleri koruma ve geliştirme hakkı ile çeşitli ekonomik hakların kullanımını da neredeyse imkansız hale getirmektedir. Baskıcı politikaların yumuşatılması ve eğer mümkünse tamamen yürürlükten kaldırılması sürecinde Türkiye’nin etkin bir rol oynayabileceğini iddia eden çalışmamız, hak ihlallerini yerinde kavramak ve daha net anlamlandırabilmek için Doğu Türkistan’ın başkenti Urumçi’de bir Türk başkonsolosluğu açılmasını önermektedir. Çalışmamıza göre; Türkiye’nin kültürel diplomasi kurumları aracılığıyla Kaşgar ve Turfan gibi Türk kimliğini yansıtan Doğu Türkistan şehirlerinde açılacak olan temsilcilikler, bahsi geçen hak ihlallerine karşı yürütülen diplomatik mücadele sürecine katkı sunabilir. Diplomatik kurumlar marifetiyle elde edilen bilgilerin analitik ve sistematik raporlandırılmasının Türkiye İnsan Hakları ve Eşitlik Kurumu tarafından tamamlanabileceğini ifade eden çalışmamız, söz konusu raporların Türk diplomatlar tarafından uluslararası platformlarda gündeme taşınabileceğini savunmaktadır. Çalışmamız, Çin ile yürütülen ikili görüşmelerde de dillendirilebilecek bu raporlara, küresel saygınlığını artırmak isteyen komünist rejimin duyarsız kalmayacağını ve Doğu Türkistan politikasının yumuşatılması için gerekli adımları atacağını iddia etmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • AI: China: Where are They? / Time for Answers about Mass Detentions in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, AI Publication Office, London 2018.
  • AI: Nowhere Feels Safe, AI Publication Office, London 2020.
  • ALBERT, Eleanor and MAIZLAND, Lindsay: “Democracy in Hong Kong”, Council on Foreign Relations, 30 June 2020, accessed at https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/democracy-hong-kong, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • ALEXY, Robert: A Theory of Constitutional Rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002.
  • ALGAN, Bülent: Ekonomik, Sosyal ve Kültürel Hakların Korunması, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara 2007.
  • ANAYTULLA, Guljennet: “Present State and Prospects of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang: An Ethnographic Perspective”, Chinese Education & Society, Volume: 41, No: 6, Year: 2008, pp. 37-49.
  • ANAYURT, Ömer: Türk Anayasa Hukukunda Toplanma Hürriyeti, Kazancı Yayınları, İstanbul 1998.
  • BAĞ, Mustafa: “Çin’den Türkiye’nin Doğu Türkistan Açıklamasına Tepki: Umarız Yanlış ile Doğruyu Ayırabilirler”, Euronews, 12 February 2019, accessed at https://tr.euronews.com/2019/02/11/-cinden-turkiye-nin-uygurlar-ile-ilgili-aciklamasina-tepki-geldi, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BAJPAI, Prableen: “Hong Kong vs. China: What’s the Difference?”, Investopedia, 2 June 2020, accessed at https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/121814/hong-kong-vs-china-understand-differences.asp, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BAKIR, Abdullah: “Doğu Türkistan Tarihinin Türk Tarihi Açısından Önemi”, Türk Dünyası İncelemeleri Dergisi, Volume: 8, No: 1, Year: 2008, pp. 35-39.
  • BARABANTSEVA, Elena: “The Politics of Everyday Ethnicity in China”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 12, No: 3, Year: 2011, pp. 355-361.
  • BARTER, Shane: “‘Second-order’ Ethnic Minorities in Asian Secessionist Conflicts: Problems and Prospects”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 16, No: 2, Year: 2015, pp. 123-135.
  • BAŞKAYA, Muzaffer: “Arşiv Belgelerine Göre Cumhuriyetin İlk Yıllarında Doğu Türkistan’ın Genel Durumu ve Türkiye ile Kültürel Münasebetler”, Bilig, Volume: 89, Year: 2019, pp. 215-236.
  • BEAUD, Sylvie: “Being Han in a Multi-ethnic Region of the People’s Republic of China”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 15, No: 4, Year: 2014, pp. 535-551.
  • BELLÉR-HANN, Ildikó: “Feudal Villains or Just Rulers? The Contestation of Historical Narratives in Eastern Xinjiang”, Central Asian Survey, Volume: 31, No: 3, Year: 2012, pp. 311-325.
  • BENSON, Linda: The Ili Rebellion: The Moslem Challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang, 1944-1949, M. E. Sharpe, New York 1990.
  • BEQUELIN, Nicholas: “Mesut Ozil’s Free Speech on China must be Preserved, Even if Arsenal Stay Silent”, Inews, 17 December 2019, accessed at https://inews.co.uk/opinion/mesut-ozils-free-speech-on-china-must-be-preserved-even-if-arsenal-stay-silent-376087, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BEQUELIN, Nicholas: “Mesut Ozil’s Uyghur Post: 10 Things You Need to Know about China’s Xinjiang Crisis”, AI, 18 December 2019, accessed at https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/-2019/12/ozils-uyghur-post-10-things-you-need-to-know-about-chinas-xinjiang-crisis/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BLANK, Stephen: “Xinjiang and China’s Security”, Global Economic Review, Volume: 32, No: 4, Year: 2003, pp. 121-148.
  • BOLIEK, Brooks: “Chinese Government Sends Religious Monitors to Xinjiang’s Hotan”, Radio Free Asia, 24 October 2016, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/the-chinese-government-sends-10242016142604.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BOVINGDON, Gardner: “The History of the History of Xinjiang”, Twentieth-Century China, Volume: 26, No: 2, Year: 2001, pp. 95-139.
  • BUCKLEY, Chris: “China is Detaining Muslims in Vast Numbers. The Goal: ‘Transformation.’”, The New York Times, 8 September 2018, accessed at https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/08/world/-asia/china-uighur-muslim-detention-camp.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BULUT, Nihat: Sanayi Devriminden Küreselleşmeye Sosyal Haklar, On İki Levha Yayınları, İstanbul 2009.
  • BÜRGE, Clément ve CHIN, Josh: “After Mass Detentions, China Razes Muslim Communities to Build a Loyal City”, The Wall Street Journal, 21 March 2019, accessed at https://www.wsj.com/artic-les/after-mass-detentions-china-razes-muslim-communities-to-build-a-loyal-city-115531338-70, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • CHARBONNEAU, Louis: “China Again in UN Hotseat Over Xinjiang Abuses”, HRW, 6 March 2020, accessed at https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/06/china-again-un-hotseat-over-xinjiang-abuses, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • CHOU, Bill: “The Change of China’s Rule in Xinjiang since the Early 1980s”, Chinese Law & Government, Volume: 45, No: 3, Year: 2012, pp. 3-10.
  • CHOU, Bill: “Implementation Measures of China’s Xinjiang Policies”, Chinese Law & Government, Volume: 45, No: 4, Year: 2012, pp. 3-8.
  • CHUNLI, Xia: “From Discourse Politics to Rule of Law: A Constructivist Framework for Understanding Regional Ethnic Autonomy in China”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 14, No: 4, Year: 2007, pp. 399-424.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “Xinjiang and China’s Relations with Central Asia, 1991-2001: Across the ‘Domestic-Foreign Frontier’?”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 4, No: 2, Year: 2003, pp. 207-224.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “The Problematic Progress of ‘Integration’ in the Chinese State’s Approach to Xinjiang, 1759 – 2005”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 8, No: 3, Year: 2007, pp. 261-289.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “China’s ‘War on Terror’ in Xinjiang: Human Security and the Causes of Violent Uighur Separatism”, Terrorism and Political Violence, Volume: 20, No: 2, Year: 2008, pp. 271-301.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “China and Shanghai Cooperation Organization: The Dynamics of ‘New Regionalism’, ‘Vassalization’, and Geopolitics in Central Asia”, The New Central Asia: The Regional Impact of International Actors, (Ed.) KAVALSKI, Emilian, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore 2010, pp. 117-147.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “Widening the Net: China’s Anti-terror Laws and Human Rights in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region”, The International Journal of Human Rights, Volume: 14, No: 4, Year: 2010, pp. 542-558.
  • CLARKE, Michael: Xinjiang and China’s Rise in Central Asia – A History, Routledge, London 2011.
  • CLOTHEY, Rebecca and KOKU, Emmanuel: “Oppositional Consciousness, Cultural Preservation, and Everyday Resistance on the Uyghur Internet”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 18, No: 3, Year: 2017, pp. 351-370.
  • CONRAD, Naomi: “German Report Spells out China Human Rights Abuses against Uighur Muslims”, Deutsche Welle, 31 January 2020, accessed at https://www.dw.com/en/german-report-spells-out-china-human-rights-abuses-against-uighur-muslims/a-5221664-4, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • CÔTÉ, Isabelle: “Political Mobilization of a Regional Minority: Han Chinese Settlers in Xinjiang”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Volume: 34, No: 11, Year: 2011, pp. 1855-1873.
  • CÔTÉ, Isabelle: “The Enemies within: Targeting Han Chinese and Hui Minorities in Xinjiang”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 16, No: 2, Year: 2015, pp. 136-151.
  • CULPEPPER, Rucker: “Nationalist Competition on the Internet: Uyghur Diaspora versus the Chinese State Media”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 13, No: 2, Year: 2012, pp. 187-203.
  • DAVIS, Elizabeth: “Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China”, Asian Affairs: An American Review, Volume: 35, No: 1, Year: 2008, pp. 15-30.
  • DENYER, Simon: “Former İnmates of China’s Muslim ‘Re-education’ Camps Tell of Brainwashing, Torture”, The Washington Post, 17 May 2018, accessed at https://www.washingtonpost.com/-world/asia_pacific/former-inmates-of-chinas-muslim-reeducatio-n-camps-tell-of-brainwashingtorture/2018/05/16/32b330e8-5850-11e8-8b92-45fdd7aaef3c_story.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • DILLON, Michael: Xinjiang – China’s Muslim Far East, Routledge Curzon, London 2005.
  • DILLON, Michael: Contemporary China – An Introduction, Routledge, Abingdon 2009.
  • DOOLEY, Ben: “‘Eradicate the Tumors’: Chinese Civilians Drive Xinjiang Crackdown on Separatism”, Japan Times Online, 26 April 2018, accessed at https://www.japantimes.co.jp/-news/2018/04/26/asia-pacific/eradicate-tumors-chinese-civilians-drive-xinjiang-crack-down-separatism, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • DORIAN, James, WIGDORTZ, Brett and GLADNEY, Dru: “Central Asia and Xinjiang, China: Emerging Energy, Economic and Ethnic Relations”, Central Asian Survey, Volume: 16, No: 4, Year: 1997, pp. 461-486.
  • DOU, Eva: “China’s Muslim Crackdown Extends to Those Living Abroad”, The Wall Street Journal, 31 August 2018, accessed at https://www.wsj.com/articles/chinas-muslim-crackdown-extends-to-those-livingabroad-1535718957, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • DOU, Eva, PAGE, Jeremy and CHIN, Josh: “China’s Uighur Camps Swell as Beijing Widens the Dragnet”, The Wall Street Journal, 17 August 2018, accessed at https://www.wsj.com/articles/chinas-uighur-camps-swell-asbeiji-ng-widens-the-dragnet-153-4534894, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • EIU: Democracy Index 2019, Economist Publication Office, London 2019.
  • ERGAN, Uğur: “Çin’e Ozan Heyit Tepkisi”, Hürriyet, 12 February 2019, accessed at https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/dunya/cine-ozan-heyit-tepkisi-41113794, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • EVANS, Eliot: “Where Does Chinese Islamophobia Come from?”, Sup China, 16 June 2017, accessed at https://supchina.com/-2017/06/16/where-does-chinese-islamophobia-come-from/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • FAROOQ, Umar: “Chinese Uighurs Defy Ramadan Ban”, Al Jazeera, 5 July 2014, accessed at https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/07/chinese-uyghurs-defy-ramadan-ban-201-47471125107552.html, acccessed on 07.11.2020.
  • FENG, Emily: “Uighur Children Fall Victim to China Anti-Terror Drive”, Financial Times, 10 July 2018, accessed at https://www.ft.com/content/f0d3223a-7f4d-11e8-bc55-50daf11b720d, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • FERNANDEZ, Javier: “China Bans ‘Muhammad’ and ‘Jihad’ as Baby Names in Heavily Muslim Region”, The New York Times, 25 April 2017, accessed at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/-25/world/asia/china-xinjiang-ban-muslim-names-muhammad-jihad.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • FINLEY, Johanne: “Chinese Oppression in Xinjiang, Middle Eastern Conflicts and Global Islamic Solidarities among the Uyghurs”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 16, No: 53, Year: 2007, pp. 627-654.
  • FREEDOM HOUSE: Freedom in the World 2020: A Leaderless Struggle for Democracy, Freedom House Publication Office, Washington 2020.
  • GEMALMAZ, Semih: Ulusalüstü İnsan Hakları Hukukunun Genel Teorisine Giriş, Legal Yayıncılık, İstanbul 2007.
  • GOLDEN, Peter: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1992.
  • GÖREN, Zafer: “Seyahat ve Yerleşme Özgürlüğü”, İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, Volume: 15, No: 1-2, Year: 2016, pp. 337-347.
  • GÖZLER, Kemal: İnsan Hakları Hukuku, Ekin Yayınları, Bursa 2017.
  • GÖZLER, Kemal: Anayasa Hukukunun Genel Esasları, 10. Ed., Ekin Yayınları, Bursa 2018.
  • GÖZLER, Kemal: Türk Anayasa Hukuku Dersleri, 24. Ed., Ekin Yayınları, Bursa 2019.
  • GÖZÜBÜYÜK, Şeref: Anayasa Hukuku, 6. Ed., Turhan Yayınları, Ankara 1998.
  • GREER, Tanner: “48 Ways to Get Sent to a Chinese Concentration Camp”, Foreign Policy, 13 September 2018, accessed at https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/13/48-ways-to-get-sent-to-a-chinese-concentration-camp/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • GRIFFITHS, James: “Report: China Still Harvesting Organs from Prisoners on a Massive Scale”, CNN, 25 June 2016, accessed at https://edition.cnn.com/2016/06/23/asia/china-organ-harvest-ing/index.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • GROSE, Timothy: “The Xinjiang Class: Education, Integration, and the Uyghurs”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volume: 30, No: 1, Year: 2010, pp. 97-109.
  • GROSE, Timothy: “Uyghur Language Textbooks: Competing Images of a Multi-Ethnic China”, Asian Studies Review, Volume: 36, No: 3, Year: 2012, pp. 369-389.
  • GROSE, Timothy: “(Re)Embracing Islam in Neidi: the ‘Xinjiang Class’ and the Dynamics of Uyghur Ethno-national Identity”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 24, No: 91, Year: 2015, pp. 101-118.
  • GUPTA, Sonika and RAMACHANDRAN, Veena: “Bilingual Education in Xinjiang in the Post-2009 Period”, China Report, Volume: 52, No: 4, Year: 2016, pp. 306-323.
  • GÜNGÖREN-BULGAN, Birden: Georg Jellinek’in Hak ve Devlet Kuramı, On İki LevhaYayıncılık, İstanbul 2017.
  • HAN, Enze: “From Domestic to International: The Politics of Ethnic Identity in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia”, Nationalities Papers, Volume: 39, No: 6, Year: 2011, pp. 941-962.
  • HAN, Enze: “External Cultural Ties and the Politics of Language in China”, Ethnopolitics, Volume: 12, No: 1, Year: 2013, pp. 30-49.
  • HAO, Yufan and LIU, Weihua: “Xinjiang: Increasing Pain in the Heart of China’s Borderland”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 21, No: 74, Year: 2012, pp. 205-225.
  • HEFFRON, Claire: “Hotel in China is Fined £1,700 for Accepting Muslim Guests after Authorities Banned the Ethnic Minority from Staying in the Area ahead of Communist Party Congress”, Daily Mail, 10 October 2017, accessed at https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news-/china/article4965488/Chine-se-hotel-fined-1-700-accepting-Muslim-guests.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HIATT, Fred: “In China, Every Day is Kristallnacht”, The Washington Post, 3 November 2019, accessed at https://www.washington-post.com/opinions/2019/11/03/china-every-day-is-krist-allnacht/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HIERMAN, Brent: “The Pacification of Xinjiang: Uighur Protest and the Chinese State, 1988-2002”, Problems of Post-Communism, Volume: 54, No: 3, Year: 2007, pp. 48-62.
  • HODDIE, Matthew: “Tibet and the Segment-state Hypothesis”, Ethnopolitics, Volume: 13, No: 1, Year: 2014, pp. 67-85.
  • HOJA, Gulchehra: “Chinese Authorities Question Students in Xinjiang about Religious Habits”, Radio Free Asia, 15 August 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/chinese-authorities-question-students-08152016161405.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOJA, Gulchehra: “Restaurants Ordered to Remain Open in Xinjiang Amid Ramadan Fast”, Radio Free Asia, 26 May 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/ramadan052620-17080553.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “‘At Least 2,000 Uyghurs Killed’ in Yarkand Violence: Exile Leader”, Radio Free Asia, 5 August 2014, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/yarkand-08052014150547.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Innocent Bystander Shot by Police in Xinjiang’s Bugur Violence”, Radio Free Asia, 3 October 2014, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/civilian10032014170450.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Imam, Farmers Sentenced for Illegally Practicing Religion in China’s Xinjiang”, Radio Free Asia, 16 March 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyg-hur/uyghur-imam-farmers-sentenced-for-illegally-practicingre-ligion-in-chinas-xinjiang-031-62016112010.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Given 7-Year Prison Term for Viewing Muslim Film”, Radio Free Asia, 9 May 2016, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/film-0509201615144-1.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Under the Guise of Public Safety, China Demolishes Thousands of Mosques”, Radio Free Asia, 19 December 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/-under-the-guise-ofpubl-ic-safety-12192016140127.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Veterinarian Jailed for Treating Suspect Wounded in Xinjiang Violence”, Radio Free Asia, 17 August 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/vete-rinarian-08172017140951.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Woman Handed 10-Year Prison Term over Headscarf Claim”, Radio Free Asia, 19 September 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/headscarf-09192017174307.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Two Uyghur Students Die in China’s Custody Following Voluntary Return from Egypt”, Radio Free Asia, 21 December 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/-uyghur/students-12212017141002, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Muslim Scholar Dies in Chinese Police Custody”, Radio Free Asia, 1 January 2018, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/scholar-death0129201-81-804-27.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “More than Two Dozen Uyghurs from One Xinjiang County Perished in Re-education Camps”, Radio Free Asia, 27 June 2018, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/-news/uyghur/deaths-06272018141605.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Exile Group Leader’s Mother Died in Xinjiang Detention Center”, Radio Free Asia, 2 July 2018, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/mother-07022018164214.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOWELL, Anthony and FAN, Cindy: “Migration and Inequality in Xinjiang: A Survey of Han and Uyghur Migrants in Urumqi”, Eurasian Geography and Economics, Volume: 52, No: 1, Year: 2011, pp. 110-139.
  • HRW: Eradicating İdeological Viruses: China’s Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang’s Muslims, HRW Publication Office, London 2018.
  • HUANG, Keira: “Detained Uighur Economist Ilham Tohti Denied Food for Ten Days, Lawyer Says”, South China Morning Post, 27 June 2014, accessed at https://www.scmp.com/news/china/-article/15-41335/detained-uygur-economist-ilham-tohti-denied-food-10-days-custody-lawyer, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • IDEA: The Global State of Democracy 2019: Addressing the Ills, Reviving the Promise, IDEA Publication Office, Stockholm 2019.
  • JOHNSON, Ian: “China Seeks Tighter Grip in Wake of a Religious Revival”, The New York Times, 7 October 2016, accessed at https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/21/opinion/sunday/chinas-religion-xi.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • JOHNSON, Ian: “How the State Co-opting Religion in China”, Foreign Affairs, 7 October 2016, accessed at https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2019-01-07/how-state-co-opting-religion-china, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • JONİAK-LÜTHİ, Agnieszka: “Xinjiang’s Geographies in Motion”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 16, No: 4, Year: 2015, pp. 428-445.
  • JONİAK-LÜTHİ, Agnieszka: “Blurring Boundaries and Negotiating Subjectivities – The Uyghurized Han of Southern Xinjiang, China”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Volume: 39, No: 12, Year: 2016, pp. 2187-2204.
  • KALANTRY, Sital, GETGEN, Jocelyn and KOH, Steven: “Enhancing Enforcement of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights Using Indicators: A Focus on the Right to Education in the ICESCR”, Human Rights Quarterly, Volume: 32, No: 2, Year: 2010, pp. 253-310.
  • KAPANİ, Münci: Kamu Hürriyetleri, 5. Ed., Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Yayınları, Ankara 1981.
  • KARAN, Ulaş: İfade Özgürlüğü: Anayasa Mahkemesine Bireysel Başvuru El Kitapları Serisi 2, MRK Baskı ve Tanıtım, Ankara 2018.
  • KOLÇAK, Hakan: “Consociationalism under Examination: Is Consociationalism the Optimal Multiculturalist Approach for Turkey?”, Digest of Middle East Studies, Volume: 29, No: 1, Year: 2020, pp. 26-52.
  • KOLÇAK, Hakan: “Multiculturalism for True Equality: A Normative Argument for Multicultural Turkey”, International Journal of Human Rights and Constitutional Studies, Volume: 7, No: 2, Year: 2020, pp. 107-125.
  • KUL, Ömer: 100 Soruda Doğu Türkistan, Rumuz Yayınevi, İstanbul 2017.
  • KUL, Ömer: “1948 Sonrası Hariçte Doğu Türkistan Davası ve Tayvan Yönetiminin Tutumu”, Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı, Volume: 16, No: 24, Year: 2018, pp. 29-62.
  • KUO, Kendrick: “Revisiting the Salafi-jihadist Threat in Xinjiang”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volume: 32, No: 4, Year: 2012, pp. 528-544.
  • KUO, Lily and YU, Verna: “China Passes Controversial Hong Kong National Security Law”, The Guardian, 30 June 2020, accessed at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/30/china-passes-controversial-hong-kong-national-security-law, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • KUZU, Burhan: “Doğu Türkistan Raporu ve İnsan Hakları İhlalleri”, Selçuk Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, Volume: 6, No: 1-2, Year: 1998, pp. 45-97.
  • KÜBRA, Hatice: “Uygur Türkleri Yalnız Değil Mi?”, İnternet Haber, 13 February 2019, accessed at https://www.internethaber.com/uygur-turkleri-yalniz-degil-mi-2000605y.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • LEE, Jootaek: “The Human Rights Education: Definition, Research and Annotated Bibliography”, Emory International Law Review, Volume: 34, No: 3, Year: 2020, pp. 757-823.
  • LI, Mingjiang: “From Look-West to Act-West: Xinjiang’s Role in China – Central Asian Relations”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 25, No: 100, Year: 2016, pp. 515-528.
  • LONG, Qiao: “China Clamps Down on ‘Underage Religion’ among Muslim Uyghurs”, Radio Free Asia, 30 October 2014, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/underage-10302014120731.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • LONG, Qiao: “Tibetans, Uyghurs ‘Blacklisted’ at Hotels in Chinese Cities”, Radio Free Asia, 14 May 2015, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/china-minorities-051420151439-07.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • LONG, Qiao: “China Shutters Uyghur Websites for ‘Harming Ethnic Unity’”, Radio Free Asia, 27 January 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/china-uyghur-01272016122-318.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • LUNDBERG, Maria: “Regional National Autonomy and Minority Language Rights in the PRC”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 16, No: 3, Year: 2009, pp. 399-422.
  • LUNDBERG, Maria and ZHOU, Yong: “Regional National Autonomy under Challenge: Law, Practice and Recommendations”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 16, No: 3, Year: 2009, pp. 269-327.
  • LUQIU, Rose and YANG, Fan, “Anti-Muslim Sentiment is on the Rise in China. We Found that the Internet Fuels – and Fights – this”, The Washington Post, 12 May 2017, accessed at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkeycage/wp/2017/05/12/antimuslim-sentiment-is-on-the-rise-in-china-we-found-that-the-internet-fuels-and-fights-this/?utm_term=.a0fa4d2d-ce85, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • MACKERRAS, Colin: “Xinjiang in 2013: Problems and Prospects”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 15, No: 2, Year: 2014, pp. 247-250.
  • MAIZLAND, Lindsay: “China’s Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang”, Council on Foreign Relations, 30 June 2020, accessed at https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chinas-repression-uighurs-xinjiang, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • MARSHALL, Tim: Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps that Tells You Everything about the World, Simon and Schuster, New York 2015.
  • MCCOWAN, Tristan: “Reframing the Universal Right to Education”, Comparative Education, Volume: 46, No: 4, Year: 2010, pp. 509-525.
  • MCGARRY, John and O’LEARY, Brendan: “The Political Regulation of National and Ethnic Minorities”, Parliamentary Affairs, Volume: 47, No: 1, Year: 1994, pp. 94-115.
  • MILLWARD, James: Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang, Columbia University Press, New York 2007.
  • ODGAARD, Liselotte and NIELSEN, Thomas: “China’s Counterinsurgency Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 23, No: 87, Year: 2014, pp. 535-555.
  • O’LEARY, Brendan: “The Elements of Right-sizing and Right-peopling the State”, Right-sizing the State: The Politics of Moving Borders, (Ed.) O’LEARY, Brendan, LUSTICK, Ian and CALLAGHY, Thomas, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001, pp. 16-73.
  • ÖZBUDUN, Ergun: Türk Anayasa Hukuku, 15. Ed., Yetkin Yayıncılık, Ankara 2014.
  • PANNELL, Clifton and SCHMIDT, Philipp: “Structural Change and Regional Disparities in Xinjiang, China”, Eurasian Geography and Economics, Volume: 47, No: 3, Year: 2006, pp. 329-352.
  • POPE, Hugh: Sons of the Conquerors: The Rise of the Turkic World, Overlook Duckworth, New York 2005.
  • PRIMIANO, Christopher: “Participatory Democracy and Competitive Elections as the Way Forward in Xinjiang”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volume: 32, No: 4, Year: 2012, pp. 545-556.
  • QARLUQ, Abdureşit and MCMILLEN, Donald: “Towards a ‘Harmonious Society’? A Brief Case Study of the Post-liberation Settlement in Beijing of Uyghur Intellectuals and Their Relations with the Majority Society”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 12, No: 1, Year: 2011, pp. 1-31.
  • RAJAGOPALAN, Megha: “This is What a 21st-Century Police State Really Looks Like”, BuzzFeed, 17 October 2017, accessed at https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/meghara/the-police-state-of-the-future-is-already-here, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • RYONO, Angel and GALWAY, Matthew: “Xinjiang under China: Reflections on the Multiple Dimensions of the 2009 Urumqi Uprising”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 16, No: 2, Year: 2015, pp. 235-255.
  • SAĞLAM, Fazıl: Temel Hakların Sınırlanması ve Özü, Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Yayınları, Ankara 1982.
  • SAINSBURY, Michael: “Uighur Tension Persist as Old City Demolished”, The Australian, 6 January 2010, accessed at https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/uighur-tensions-persist-as-kashgars-old-city-demolished/newsstory/724e1652-965d0f8ecd0e57515d59e6d2, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SAUTMAN, Barry: “Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China: The Case of Xinjiang”, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Volume: 4, No: 1-2, Year: 1998, pp. 86-118.
  • SAUTMAN, Barry: “Self-representation and Ethnic Minority Rights in China”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 15, No: 2, Year: 2014, pp. 174-196.
  • SCHLUESSEL, Eric: “‘Bilingual’ Education and Discontent in Xinjiang”, Central Asian Survey, Volume: 26, No: 2, Year: 2007, pp. 251-277.
  • SCHLUESSEL, Eric: “History, Identity, and Mother-tongue Education in Xinjiang”, Central Asian Survey, Volume: 28, No: 4, Year: 2009, pp. 383-402.
  • SEZER, Murad: “Without Papers, Uighurs Fear for Their Future in Turkey”, Reuters, 27 March 2019, accessed at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-xinjiang-turkey-wider-image/without-papers-uighurs-fear-for-their-future-in-turkey-idUSKCN1R81ED, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SHARE, Michael: “The Great Game Revisited: Three Empires Collide in Chinese Turkestan (Xinjiang)”, Europe-Asia Studies, Volume: 67, No: 7, Year: 2015, pp. 1102-1129.
  • SHEPHERD, Christian: “China Tightens Regulation of Religion to ‘Block Extremism’”, Reuters, 7 September 2017, accessed at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-religion/china-tightens-regulation-of-religion-to-block-extremism-idUSKCN1BI1IH, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SHEPHERD, Christian: “Fear and Oppression in Xinjiang: China’s War on Uighur Culture”, Financial Times, 12 September 2019, accessed at https://www.ft.com/content/48508182-d426-11e9-8367-807ebd53ab77, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SHIH, Gerry: “China’s Mass Indoctrination Camps Evoke Cultural Revolution”, AP News, 18 May 2018, accessed at https://apnews.com/6e151296fb194f85ba69a8babd972e4b/China%E2%80-%99s-massindoctrinationcamps-evoke-Cultural-Revolution, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SINTASH, Bahram: Demolishing Faith: The Destruction and Desecration of Uyghur Mosques and Shrines, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2019.
  • STEELE, Liza and KUO, Raymond: “Terrorism in Xinjiang?”, Ethnopolitics, Volume: 6, No: 1, Year: 2007, pp. 1-19.
  • SULAIMAN, Eset: “Xinjiang Police Open Fire at Protest Against Clampdown on Islamic Dress”, Radio Free Asia, 20 May 2014, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/dress-05202014202002.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SULAIMAN, Eset: “Controls on Uyghur Villages, Mosques Continue into New Year”, Radio Free Asia, 6 January 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/control01062016160604.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SULAIMAN, Eset: “China Bans Uyghur Language in Schools in Key Xinjiang Prefecture”, Radio Free Asia, 28 July 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/language07282017143037.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • TANÖR, Bülent: Anayasa Hukukunda Sosyal Haklar, May Yayınları, İstanbul 1978.
  • TAŞAĞIL, Mehmet: Bozkırın Kağanlıkları: Hunlar, Tabgaçlar, Göktürkler, Uygurlar, Kronik Kitap, İstanbul 2020.
  • THUM, Rian: “What Really Happens in China’s ‘Re-education’ Camps”, The New York Times, 7 August 2018, accessed at www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/opinion/china-re-educationcamps.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • UHRP: Uyghur Voices on Education: Chinese Assimilative ‘Bilingual Education’ Policy in East Turkestan, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2015.
  • UHRP: End of the Road: One Belt, One Road and the Cumulative Economic Marginalization of the Uyghurs, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2016.
  • UHRP: Discrimination, Mistreatment and Coercion: Severe Labor Rights Abuses Faced by Uyghurs in China and East Turkestan, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2017.
  • UHRP: The Bingtuan: China’s Paramilitary Colonizing Force in East Turkestan, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2018.
  • UHRP: Ideological Transformation: Records of Mass Detention from Qaraqash, Hotan, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2020.
  • UHRP: Kashgar Coerced: Forced Reconstruction, Exploitation, and Surveillance in the Cradle of Uyghur Culture, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2020.
  • UHRP: Weaponized Passports: The Crisis of Uyghur Statelessness, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2020.
  • UYGUN, Oktay: “İnsan Hakları Açısından Yeni Anayasa Çalışmaları”, Maltepe Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, Volume: 2, No: 1, Year: 2008, pp. 323-335.
  • UYGUN, Oktay: Devlet Teorisi, 6. Ed., On İki Levha Yayıncılık, İstanbul 2019.
  • UYGUR, Feyzullah: “Mançuların İlk Doğu Türkistan İstilası”, Tarih Dergisi, No: 63, Year: 2016, pp. 27-40.
  • VÄLISLUUREAMET: International Security and Estonia, Välisluureamet Publication Office, Tallinn 2020.
  • VERGANI, Matteo: “Neojihadist Visual Politics: Comparing YouTube Videos of North Caucasus and Uyghur Militants”, Asian Studies Review, Volume: 39, No: 1, Year: 2015, pp. 1-22.
  • VINCENT, Andrew: The Politics of Human Rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010.
  • WANG, Maya: “More Evidence of China’s Horrific Abuses in Xinjiang”, HRW, 20 February 2020, accessed at https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/02/20/more-evidence-chinas-horrific-abuses-xinjiang, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WANG, Shuping: “The People’s Republic of China’s Policy on Minorities and International Approaches to Ethnic Groups: A Comparative Study”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 11, No: 1-2, Year: 2004, pp. 159-185.
  • WEE, Sui-Lee: “Chinese Police Shoot Man Dead at Checkpoint in Xinjiang”, Reuters, 17 April 2014, accessed at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-xinjiang/chinese-police-shoot-man-dead-at-checkpoint-in-xinjiang-idUSBREA3G0BC20140417, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WELLENS, Koen: “Negotiable Rights? China’s Ethnic Minorities and the Right to Freedom of Religion”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 16, No: 3, Year: 2009, pp. 433-454.
  • WELLMAN, Christopher: “Freedom of Movement and the Rights to Enter and Exit”, Migration in Political Theory: The Ethics of Movement and Membership, (Ed.) FINE, Sarah and YPI, Lea, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2016, pp. 80-104.
  • WEN, Philip and AUYEZOV, Olzhas: “Tracking China’s Muslim Gulag”, Reuters, 29 November 2018, accessed at https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/muslims-camps-china/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WILLIAMS, Sophie: “Macau: China’s Other ‘One Country, Two Systems’ Region”, BBC, 20 December 2019, accessed at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-50832919, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WINES, Michael: “To Protect an Ancient City, China Moves to Raze It”, The New York Times, 28 May 2009, accessed at https://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/28/world/asia/28kashgar.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WONG, Chun: “China’s Hard Edge: The Leader of Beijing’s Muslim Crackdown Gains Influence”, The Wall Street Journal, 7 April 2019, accessed at https://www.wsj.com/articles/chinas-hard-edge-the-leader-of-beijings-muslim-crackdown-gains-influence-11554655886, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WUC: 2016 Report on Human Rights Violations in East Turkestan, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2016.
  • WUC: Forced Labour in East Turkestan: State-sanctioned Hashar System, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2016.
  • WUC: 2016 Human Rights Situation in East Turkestan: Annual Report, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2017.
  • WUC: Seeking a Place to Breathe Freely: Current Challenges Faced by Uyghur Refugees & Asylum Seekers, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2017.
  • WUC: Parallel Submission to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) for the People’s Republic of China (PRC), WUC Publication Office, Munich 2018.
  • WUC: Internment Camps, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2020.
  • XU, Vicky et. al.: Uyghur for Sale: Re-education, Forced Labour and Surveillance beyond Xinjiang, ASPI Publication Office, Barton 2020.
  • YAYLA, Atilla: “İfade Hürriyeti Nedir, Ne Değildir”, Liberal Düşünce, Volume: 19, No: 73-74, Year: 2014, pp. 139-150.
  • YÜKSEL, Metin: Ölçülülük İlkesi: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Anayasa Hukuku İncelemesi, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara 2002.
  • ZANG, Xiaowei: “Uyghur Islamic Piety in Ürümchi, Xinjiang”, Chinese Sociological Review, Volume: 44, No: 4, Year: 2012, pp. 82-100.
  • ZENZ, Adrian: “Xinjiang’s Re-education and Securitization Campaign: Evidence from Domestic Security Budgets”, The Jamestown Foundation, 5 November 2018, accessed at https://jamestown.org/program/xinjiangs-re-education-and-securitization-campaign-evidence-from-domestic-security-budgets/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • ZHOU, Yong: “Legal Predicament of Combining ‘Regional’ and ‘National’ Autonomy: A Group Rights Perspective”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 16, No: 3, Year: 2009, pp. 329-348.

HUMAN RIGHTS IN EAST TURKESTAN: CURRENT VIOLATIONS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 44, 75 - 136, 30.06.2021

Öz

This article examines many oppressive assimilation policies enforced by the communist Chinese regime in East Turkestan. According to the article, these repressive policies violate various negative rights that are recognised and set out by international, regional and domestic legal documents, such as the right to a fair trial, the freedom of religion, the freedom of expression, the freedom of peaceful assembly and the freedom of movement. It is asserted that numerous restrictions imposed by these policies render some positive rights almost impossible to exercise, e.g. the right to education, the right to protect and promote ethno-cultural identities and several economic rights. The article maintains that Turkey would play a key role in softening and, if possible, nullifying these policies. It suggests that Turkey would establish a Turkish consulate general in Urumqi, the capital of East Turkestan, enabling Turkey to identify and comprehend all human rights abuses locally. The article stands up for the establishment of representative offices by the cultural diplomacy agencies of Turkey in the Turkic-dominated cities of East Turkestan, e.g. Kashgar and Turpan. These offices would contribute to the diplomatic struggle for softening the assimilationist East Turkestan policy. All materials collected by these diplomatic entities would be utilised by the Human Rights and Equality Institution of Turkey in the preparation of analytic and systematic reports on human rights breaches in East Turkestan. Such reports would then be brought forward to international platforms by Turkish diplomats. It would also be possible for these reports to be added to the agenda of bilateral discussions pursued with China. The communist regime, which wants to improve its global reputation, would not turn its back on all these reports and it would take the essential steps to soften the East Turkestan policy.

Kaynakça

  • AI: China: Where are They? / Time for Answers about Mass Detentions in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, AI Publication Office, London 2018.
  • AI: Nowhere Feels Safe, AI Publication Office, London 2020.
  • ALBERT, Eleanor and MAIZLAND, Lindsay: “Democracy in Hong Kong”, Council on Foreign Relations, 30 June 2020, accessed at https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/democracy-hong-kong, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • ALEXY, Robert: A Theory of Constitutional Rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002.
  • ALGAN, Bülent: Ekonomik, Sosyal ve Kültürel Hakların Korunması, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara 2007.
  • ANAYTULLA, Guljennet: “Present State and Prospects of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang: An Ethnographic Perspective”, Chinese Education & Society, Volume: 41, No: 6, Year: 2008, pp. 37-49.
  • ANAYURT, Ömer: Türk Anayasa Hukukunda Toplanma Hürriyeti, Kazancı Yayınları, İstanbul 1998.
  • BAĞ, Mustafa: “Çin’den Türkiye’nin Doğu Türkistan Açıklamasına Tepki: Umarız Yanlış ile Doğruyu Ayırabilirler”, Euronews, 12 February 2019, accessed at https://tr.euronews.com/2019/02/11/-cinden-turkiye-nin-uygurlar-ile-ilgili-aciklamasina-tepki-geldi, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BAJPAI, Prableen: “Hong Kong vs. China: What’s the Difference?”, Investopedia, 2 June 2020, accessed at https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/121814/hong-kong-vs-china-understand-differences.asp, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BAKIR, Abdullah: “Doğu Türkistan Tarihinin Türk Tarihi Açısından Önemi”, Türk Dünyası İncelemeleri Dergisi, Volume: 8, No: 1, Year: 2008, pp. 35-39.
  • BARABANTSEVA, Elena: “The Politics of Everyday Ethnicity in China”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 12, No: 3, Year: 2011, pp. 355-361.
  • BARTER, Shane: “‘Second-order’ Ethnic Minorities in Asian Secessionist Conflicts: Problems and Prospects”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 16, No: 2, Year: 2015, pp. 123-135.
  • BAŞKAYA, Muzaffer: “Arşiv Belgelerine Göre Cumhuriyetin İlk Yıllarında Doğu Türkistan’ın Genel Durumu ve Türkiye ile Kültürel Münasebetler”, Bilig, Volume: 89, Year: 2019, pp. 215-236.
  • BEAUD, Sylvie: “Being Han in a Multi-ethnic Region of the People’s Republic of China”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 15, No: 4, Year: 2014, pp. 535-551.
  • BELLÉR-HANN, Ildikó: “Feudal Villains or Just Rulers? The Contestation of Historical Narratives in Eastern Xinjiang”, Central Asian Survey, Volume: 31, No: 3, Year: 2012, pp. 311-325.
  • BENSON, Linda: The Ili Rebellion: The Moslem Challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang, 1944-1949, M. E. Sharpe, New York 1990.
  • BEQUELIN, Nicholas: “Mesut Ozil’s Free Speech on China must be Preserved, Even if Arsenal Stay Silent”, Inews, 17 December 2019, accessed at https://inews.co.uk/opinion/mesut-ozils-free-speech-on-china-must-be-preserved-even-if-arsenal-stay-silent-376087, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BEQUELIN, Nicholas: “Mesut Ozil’s Uyghur Post: 10 Things You Need to Know about China’s Xinjiang Crisis”, AI, 18 December 2019, accessed at https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/-2019/12/ozils-uyghur-post-10-things-you-need-to-know-about-chinas-xinjiang-crisis/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BLANK, Stephen: “Xinjiang and China’s Security”, Global Economic Review, Volume: 32, No: 4, Year: 2003, pp. 121-148.
  • BOLIEK, Brooks: “Chinese Government Sends Religious Monitors to Xinjiang’s Hotan”, Radio Free Asia, 24 October 2016, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/the-chinese-government-sends-10242016142604.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BOVINGDON, Gardner: “The History of the History of Xinjiang”, Twentieth-Century China, Volume: 26, No: 2, Year: 2001, pp. 95-139.
  • BUCKLEY, Chris: “China is Detaining Muslims in Vast Numbers. The Goal: ‘Transformation.’”, The New York Times, 8 September 2018, accessed at https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/08/world/-asia/china-uighur-muslim-detention-camp.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • BULUT, Nihat: Sanayi Devriminden Küreselleşmeye Sosyal Haklar, On İki Levha Yayınları, İstanbul 2009.
  • BÜRGE, Clément ve CHIN, Josh: “After Mass Detentions, China Razes Muslim Communities to Build a Loyal City”, The Wall Street Journal, 21 March 2019, accessed at https://www.wsj.com/artic-les/after-mass-detentions-china-razes-muslim-communities-to-build-a-loyal-city-115531338-70, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • CHARBONNEAU, Louis: “China Again in UN Hotseat Over Xinjiang Abuses”, HRW, 6 March 2020, accessed at https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/06/china-again-un-hotseat-over-xinjiang-abuses, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • CHOU, Bill: “The Change of China’s Rule in Xinjiang since the Early 1980s”, Chinese Law & Government, Volume: 45, No: 3, Year: 2012, pp. 3-10.
  • CHOU, Bill: “Implementation Measures of China’s Xinjiang Policies”, Chinese Law & Government, Volume: 45, No: 4, Year: 2012, pp. 3-8.
  • CHUNLI, Xia: “From Discourse Politics to Rule of Law: A Constructivist Framework for Understanding Regional Ethnic Autonomy in China”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 14, No: 4, Year: 2007, pp. 399-424.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “Xinjiang and China’s Relations with Central Asia, 1991-2001: Across the ‘Domestic-Foreign Frontier’?”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 4, No: 2, Year: 2003, pp. 207-224.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “The Problematic Progress of ‘Integration’ in the Chinese State’s Approach to Xinjiang, 1759 – 2005”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 8, No: 3, Year: 2007, pp. 261-289.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “China’s ‘War on Terror’ in Xinjiang: Human Security and the Causes of Violent Uighur Separatism”, Terrorism and Political Violence, Volume: 20, No: 2, Year: 2008, pp. 271-301.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “China and Shanghai Cooperation Organization: The Dynamics of ‘New Regionalism’, ‘Vassalization’, and Geopolitics in Central Asia”, The New Central Asia: The Regional Impact of International Actors, (Ed.) KAVALSKI, Emilian, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore 2010, pp. 117-147.
  • CLARKE, Michael: “Widening the Net: China’s Anti-terror Laws and Human Rights in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region”, The International Journal of Human Rights, Volume: 14, No: 4, Year: 2010, pp. 542-558.
  • CLARKE, Michael: Xinjiang and China’s Rise in Central Asia – A History, Routledge, London 2011.
  • CLOTHEY, Rebecca and KOKU, Emmanuel: “Oppositional Consciousness, Cultural Preservation, and Everyday Resistance on the Uyghur Internet”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 18, No: 3, Year: 2017, pp. 351-370.
  • CONRAD, Naomi: “German Report Spells out China Human Rights Abuses against Uighur Muslims”, Deutsche Welle, 31 January 2020, accessed at https://www.dw.com/en/german-report-spells-out-china-human-rights-abuses-against-uighur-muslims/a-5221664-4, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • CÔTÉ, Isabelle: “Political Mobilization of a Regional Minority: Han Chinese Settlers in Xinjiang”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Volume: 34, No: 11, Year: 2011, pp. 1855-1873.
  • CÔTÉ, Isabelle: “The Enemies within: Targeting Han Chinese and Hui Minorities in Xinjiang”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 16, No: 2, Year: 2015, pp. 136-151.
  • CULPEPPER, Rucker: “Nationalist Competition on the Internet: Uyghur Diaspora versus the Chinese State Media”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 13, No: 2, Year: 2012, pp. 187-203.
  • DAVIS, Elizabeth: “Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China”, Asian Affairs: An American Review, Volume: 35, No: 1, Year: 2008, pp. 15-30.
  • DENYER, Simon: “Former İnmates of China’s Muslim ‘Re-education’ Camps Tell of Brainwashing, Torture”, The Washington Post, 17 May 2018, accessed at https://www.washingtonpost.com/-world/asia_pacific/former-inmates-of-chinas-muslim-reeducatio-n-camps-tell-of-brainwashingtorture/2018/05/16/32b330e8-5850-11e8-8b92-45fdd7aaef3c_story.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • DILLON, Michael: Xinjiang – China’s Muslim Far East, Routledge Curzon, London 2005.
  • DILLON, Michael: Contemporary China – An Introduction, Routledge, Abingdon 2009.
  • DOOLEY, Ben: “‘Eradicate the Tumors’: Chinese Civilians Drive Xinjiang Crackdown on Separatism”, Japan Times Online, 26 April 2018, accessed at https://www.japantimes.co.jp/-news/2018/04/26/asia-pacific/eradicate-tumors-chinese-civilians-drive-xinjiang-crack-down-separatism, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • DORIAN, James, WIGDORTZ, Brett and GLADNEY, Dru: “Central Asia and Xinjiang, China: Emerging Energy, Economic and Ethnic Relations”, Central Asian Survey, Volume: 16, No: 4, Year: 1997, pp. 461-486.
  • DOU, Eva: “China’s Muslim Crackdown Extends to Those Living Abroad”, The Wall Street Journal, 31 August 2018, accessed at https://www.wsj.com/articles/chinas-muslim-crackdown-extends-to-those-livingabroad-1535718957, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • DOU, Eva, PAGE, Jeremy and CHIN, Josh: “China’s Uighur Camps Swell as Beijing Widens the Dragnet”, The Wall Street Journal, 17 August 2018, accessed at https://www.wsj.com/articles/chinas-uighur-camps-swell-asbeiji-ng-widens-the-dragnet-153-4534894, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • EIU: Democracy Index 2019, Economist Publication Office, London 2019.
  • ERGAN, Uğur: “Çin’e Ozan Heyit Tepkisi”, Hürriyet, 12 February 2019, accessed at https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/dunya/cine-ozan-heyit-tepkisi-41113794, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • EVANS, Eliot: “Where Does Chinese Islamophobia Come from?”, Sup China, 16 June 2017, accessed at https://supchina.com/-2017/06/16/where-does-chinese-islamophobia-come-from/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • FAROOQ, Umar: “Chinese Uighurs Defy Ramadan Ban”, Al Jazeera, 5 July 2014, accessed at https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/07/chinese-uyghurs-defy-ramadan-ban-201-47471125107552.html, acccessed on 07.11.2020.
  • FENG, Emily: “Uighur Children Fall Victim to China Anti-Terror Drive”, Financial Times, 10 July 2018, accessed at https://www.ft.com/content/f0d3223a-7f4d-11e8-bc55-50daf11b720d, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • FERNANDEZ, Javier: “China Bans ‘Muhammad’ and ‘Jihad’ as Baby Names in Heavily Muslim Region”, The New York Times, 25 April 2017, accessed at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/-25/world/asia/china-xinjiang-ban-muslim-names-muhammad-jihad.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • FINLEY, Johanne: “Chinese Oppression in Xinjiang, Middle Eastern Conflicts and Global Islamic Solidarities among the Uyghurs”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 16, No: 53, Year: 2007, pp. 627-654.
  • FREEDOM HOUSE: Freedom in the World 2020: A Leaderless Struggle for Democracy, Freedom House Publication Office, Washington 2020.
  • GEMALMAZ, Semih: Ulusalüstü İnsan Hakları Hukukunun Genel Teorisine Giriş, Legal Yayıncılık, İstanbul 2007.
  • GOLDEN, Peter: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1992.
  • GÖREN, Zafer: “Seyahat ve Yerleşme Özgürlüğü”, İstanbul Kültür Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, Volume: 15, No: 1-2, Year: 2016, pp. 337-347.
  • GÖZLER, Kemal: İnsan Hakları Hukuku, Ekin Yayınları, Bursa 2017.
  • GÖZLER, Kemal: Anayasa Hukukunun Genel Esasları, 10. Ed., Ekin Yayınları, Bursa 2018.
  • GÖZLER, Kemal: Türk Anayasa Hukuku Dersleri, 24. Ed., Ekin Yayınları, Bursa 2019.
  • GÖZÜBÜYÜK, Şeref: Anayasa Hukuku, 6. Ed., Turhan Yayınları, Ankara 1998.
  • GREER, Tanner: “48 Ways to Get Sent to a Chinese Concentration Camp”, Foreign Policy, 13 September 2018, accessed at https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/13/48-ways-to-get-sent-to-a-chinese-concentration-camp/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • GRIFFITHS, James: “Report: China Still Harvesting Organs from Prisoners on a Massive Scale”, CNN, 25 June 2016, accessed at https://edition.cnn.com/2016/06/23/asia/china-organ-harvest-ing/index.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • GROSE, Timothy: “The Xinjiang Class: Education, Integration, and the Uyghurs”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volume: 30, No: 1, Year: 2010, pp. 97-109.
  • GROSE, Timothy: “Uyghur Language Textbooks: Competing Images of a Multi-Ethnic China”, Asian Studies Review, Volume: 36, No: 3, Year: 2012, pp. 369-389.
  • GROSE, Timothy: “(Re)Embracing Islam in Neidi: the ‘Xinjiang Class’ and the Dynamics of Uyghur Ethno-national Identity”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 24, No: 91, Year: 2015, pp. 101-118.
  • GUPTA, Sonika and RAMACHANDRAN, Veena: “Bilingual Education in Xinjiang in the Post-2009 Period”, China Report, Volume: 52, No: 4, Year: 2016, pp. 306-323.
  • GÜNGÖREN-BULGAN, Birden: Georg Jellinek’in Hak ve Devlet Kuramı, On İki LevhaYayıncılık, İstanbul 2017.
  • HAN, Enze: “From Domestic to International: The Politics of Ethnic Identity in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia”, Nationalities Papers, Volume: 39, No: 6, Year: 2011, pp. 941-962.
  • HAN, Enze: “External Cultural Ties and the Politics of Language in China”, Ethnopolitics, Volume: 12, No: 1, Year: 2013, pp. 30-49.
  • HAO, Yufan and LIU, Weihua: “Xinjiang: Increasing Pain in the Heart of China’s Borderland”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 21, No: 74, Year: 2012, pp. 205-225.
  • HEFFRON, Claire: “Hotel in China is Fined £1,700 for Accepting Muslim Guests after Authorities Banned the Ethnic Minority from Staying in the Area ahead of Communist Party Congress”, Daily Mail, 10 October 2017, accessed at https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news-/china/article4965488/Chine-se-hotel-fined-1-700-accepting-Muslim-guests.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HIATT, Fred: “In China, Every Day is Kristallnacht”, The Washington Post, 3 November 2019, accessed at https://www.washington-post.com/opinions/2019/11/03/china-every-day-is-krist-allnacht/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HIERMAN, Brent: “The Pacification of Xinjiang: Uighur Protest and the Chinese State, 1988-2002”, Problems of Post-Communism, Volume: 54, No: 3, Year: 2007, pp. 48-62.
  • HODDIE, Matthew: “Tibet and the Segment-state Hypothesis”, Ethnopolitics, Volume: 13, No: 1, Year: 2014, pp. 67-85.
  • HOJA, Gulchehra: “Chinese Authorities Question Students in Xinjiang about Religious Habits”, Radio Free Asia, 15 August 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/chinese-authorities-question-students-08152016161405.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOJA, Gulchehra: “Restaurants Ordered to Remain Open in Xinjiang Amid Ramadan Fast”, Radio Free Asia, 26 May 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/ramadan052620-17080553.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “‘At Least 2,000 Uyghurs Killed’ in Yarkand Violence: Exile Leader”, Radio Free Asia, 5 August 2014, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/yarkand-08052014150547.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Innocent Bystander Shot by Police in Xinjiang’s Bugur Violence”, Radio Free Asia, 3 October 2014, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/civilian10032014170450.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Imam, Farmers Sentenced for Illegally Practicing Religion in China’s Xinjiang”, Radio Free Asia, 16 March 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyg-hur/uyghur-imam-farmers-sentenced-for-illegally-practicingre-ligion-in-chinas-xinjiang-031-62016112010.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Given 7-Year Prison Term for Viewing Muslim Film”, Radio Free Asia, 9 May 2016, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/film-0509201615144-1.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Under the Guise of Public Safety, China Demolishes Thousands of Mosques”, Radio Free Asia, 19 December 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/-under-the-guise-ofpubl-ic-safety-12192016140127.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Veterinarian Jailed for Treating Suspect Wounded in Xinjiang Violence”, Radio Free Asia, 17 August 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/vete-rinarian-08172017140951.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Woman Handed 10-Year Prison Term over Headscarf Claim”, Radio Free Asia, 19 September 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/headscarf-09192017174307.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Two Uyghur Students Die in China’s Custody Following Voluntary Return from Egypt”, Radio Free Asia, 21 December 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/-uyghur/students-12212017141002, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Muslim Scholar Dies in Chinese Police Custody”, Radio Free Asia, 1 January 2018, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/scholar-death0129201-81-804-27.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “More than Two Dozen Uyghurs from One Xinjiang County Perished in Re-education Camps”, Radio Free Asia, 27 June 2018, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/-news/uyghur/deaths-06272018141605.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOSHUR, Shohret: “Uyghur Exile Group Leader’s Mother Died in Xinjiang Detention Center”, Radio Free Asia, 2 July 2018, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/mother-07022018164214.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • HOWELL, Anthony and FAN, Cindy: “Migration and Inequality in Xinjiang: A Survey of Han and Uyghur Migrants in Urumqi”, Eurasian Geography and Economics, Volume: 52, No: 1, Year: 2011, pp. 110-139.
  • HRW: Eradicating İdeological Viruses: China’s Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang’s Muslims, HRW Publication Office, London 2018.
  • HUANG, Keira: “Detained Uighur Economist Ilham Tohti Denied Food for Ten Days, Lawyer Says”, South China Morning Post, 27 June 2014, accessed at https://www.scmp.com/news/china/-article/15-41335/detained-uygur-economist-ilham-tohti-denied-food-10-days-custody-lawyer, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • IDEA: The Global State of Democracy 2019: Addressing the Ills, Reviving the Promise, IDEA Publication Office, Stockholm 2019.
  • JOHNSON, Ian: “China Seeks Tighter Grip in Wake of a Religious Revival”, The New York Times, 7 October 2016, accessed at https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/21/opinion/sunday/chinas-religion-xi.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • JOHNSON, Ian: “How the State Co-opting Religion in China”, Foreign Affairs, 7 October 2016, accessed at https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2019-01-07/how-state-co-opting-religion-china, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • JONİAK-LÜTHİ, Agnieszka: “Xinjiang’s Geographies in Motion”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 16, No: 4, Year: 2015, pp. 428-445.
  • JONİAK-LÜTHİ, Agnieszka: “Blurring Boundaries and Negotiating Subjectivities – The Uyghurized Han of Southern Xinjiang, China”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Volume: 39, No: 12, Year: 2016, pp. 2187-2204.
  • KALANTRY, Sital, GETGEN, Jocelyn and KOH, Steven: “Enhancing Enforcement of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights Using Indicators: A Focus on the Right to Education in the ICESCR”, Human Rights Quarterly, Volume: 32, No: 2, Year: 2010, pp. 253-310.
  • KAPANİ, Münci: Kamu Hürriyetleri, 5. Ed., Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Yayınları, Ankara 1981.
  • KARAN, Ulaş: İfade Özgürlüğü: Anayasa Mahkemesine Bireysel Başvuru El Kitapları Serisi 2, MRK Baskı ve Tanıtım, Ankara 2018.
  • KOLÇAK, Hakan: “Consociationalism under Examination: Is Consociationalism the Optimal Multiculturalist Approach for Turkey?”, Digest of Middle East Studies, Volume: 29, No: 1, Year: 2020, pp. 26-52.
  • KOLÇAK, Hakan: “Multiculturalism for True Equality: A Normative Argument for Multicultural Turkey”, International Journal of Human Rights and Constitutional Studies, Volume: 7, No: 2, Year: 2020, pp. 107-125.
  • KUL, Ömer: 100 Soruda Doğu Türkistan, Rumuz Yayınevi, İstanbul 2017.
  • KUL, Ömer: “1948 Sonrası Hariçte Doğu Türkistan Davası ve Tayvan Yönetiminin Tutumu”, Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı, Volume: 16, No: 24, Year: 2018, pp. 29-62.
  • KUO, Kendrick: “Revisiting the Salafi-jihadist Threat in Xinjiang”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volume: 32, No: 4, Year: 2012, pp. 528-544.
  • KUO, Lily and YU, Verna: “China Passes Controversial Hong Kong National Security Law”, The Guardian, 30 June 2020, accessed at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/30/china-passes-controversial-hong-kong-national-security-law, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • KUZU, Burhan: “Doğu Türkistan Raporu ve İnsan Hakları İhlalleri”, Selçuk Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, Volume: 6, No: 1-2, Year: 1998, pp. 45-97.
  • KÜBRA, Hatice: “Uygur Türkleri Yalnız Değil Mi?”, İnternet Haber, 13 February 2019, accessed at https://www.internethaber.com/uygur-turkleri-yalniz-degil-mi-2000605y.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • LEE, Jootaek: “The Human Rights Education: Definition, Research and Annotated Bibliography”, Emory International Law Review, Volume: 34, No: 3, Year: 2020, pp. 757-823.
  • LI, Mingjiang: “From Look-West to Act-West: Xinjiang’s Role in China – Central Asian Relations”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 25, No: 100, Year: 2016, pp. 515-528.
  • LONG, Qiao: “China Clamps Down on ‘Underage Religion’ among Muslim Uyghurs”, Radio Free Asia, 30 October 2014, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/underage-10302014120731.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • LONG, Qiao: “Tibetans, Uyghurs ‘Blacklisted’ at Hotels in Chinese Cities”, Radio Free Asia, 14 May 2015, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/china-minorities-051420151439-07.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • LONG, Qiao: “China Shutters Uyghur Websites for ‘Harming Ethnic Unity’”, Radio Free Asia, 27 January 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/china-uyghur-01272016122-318.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • LUNDBERG, Maria: “Regional National Autonomy and Minority Language Rights in the PRC”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 16, No: 3, Year: 2009, pp. 399-422.
  • LUNDBERG, Maria and ZHOU, Yong: “Regional National Autonomy under Challenge: Law, Practice and Recommendations”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 16, No: 3, Year: 2009, pp. 269-327.
  • LUQIU, Rose and YANG, Fan, “Anti-Muslim Sentiment is on the Rise in China. We Found that the Internet Fuels – and Fights – this”, The Washington Post, 12 May 2017, accessed at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkeycage/wp/2017/05/12/antimuslim-sentiment-is-on-the-rise-in-china-we-found-that-the-internet-fuels-and-fights-this/?utm_term=.a0fa4d2d-ce85, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • MACKERRAS, Colin: “Xinjiang in 2013: Problems and Prospects”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 15, No: 2, Year: 2014, pp. 247-250.
  • MAIZLAND, Lindsay: “China’s Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang”, Council on Foreign Relations, 30 June 2020, accessed at https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chinas-repression-uighurs-xinjiang, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • MARSHALL, Tim: Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps that Tells You Everything about the World, Simon and Schuster, New York 2015.
  • MCCOWAN, Tristan: “Reframing the Universal Right to Education”, Comparative Education, Volume: 46, No: 4, Year: 2010, pp. 509-525.
  • MCGARRY, John and O’LEARY, Brendan: “The Political Regulation of National and Ethnic Minorities”, Parliamentary Affairs, Volume: 47, No: 1, Year: 1994, pp. 94-115.
  • MILLWARD, James: Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang, Columbia University Press, New York 2007.
  • ODGAARD, Liselotte and NIELSEN, Thomas: “China’s Counterinsurgency Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang”, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume: 23, No: 87, Year: 2014, pp. 535-555.
  • O’LEARY, Brendan: “The Elements of Right-sizing and Right-peopling the State”, Right-sizing the State: The Politics of Moving Borders, (Ed.) O’LEARY, Brendan, LUSTICK, Ian and CALLAGHY, Thomas, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001, pp. 16-73.
  • ÖZBUDUN, Ergun: Türk Anayasa Hukuku, 15. Ed., Yetkin Yayıncılık, Ankara 2014.
  • PANNELL, Clifton and SCHMIDT, Philipp: “Structural Change and Regional Disparities in Xinjiang, China”, Eurasian Geography and Economics, Volume: 47, No: 3, Year: 2006, pp. 329-352.
  • POPE, Hugh: Sons of the Conquerors: The Rise of the Turkic World, Overlook Duckworth, New York 2005.
  • PRIMIANO, Christopher: “Participatory Democracy and Competitive Elections as the Way Forward in Xinjiang”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volume: 32, No: 4, Year: 2012, pp. 545-556.
  • QARLUQ, Abdureşit and MCMILLEN, Donald: “Towards a ‘Harmonious Society’? A Brief Case Study of the Post-liberation Settlement in Beijing of Uyghur Intellectuals and Their Relations with the Majority Society”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 12, No: 1, Year: 2011, pp. 1-31.
  • RAJAGOPALAN, Megha: “This is What a 21st-Century Police State Really Looks Like”, BuzzFeed, 17 October 2017, accessed at https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/meghara/the-police-state-of-the-future-is-already-here, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • RYONO, Angel and GALWAY, Matthew: “Xinjiang under China: Reflections on the Multiple Dimensions of the 2009 Urumqi Uprising”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 16, No: 2, Year: 2015, pp. 235-255.
  • SAĞLAM, Fazıl: Temel Hakların Sınırlanması ve Özü, Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Yayınları, Ankara 1982.
  • SAINSBURY, Michael: “Uighur Tension Persist as Old City Demolished”, The Australian, 6 January 2010, accessed at https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/uighur-tensions-persist-as-kashgars-old-city-demolished/newsstory/724e1652-965d0f8ecd0e57515d59e6d2, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SAUTMAN, Barry: “Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China: The Case of Xinjiang”, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Volume: 4, No: 1-2, Year: 1998, pp. 86-118.
  • SAUTMAN, Barry: “Self-representation and Ethnic Minority Rights in China”, Asian Ethnicity, Volume: 15, No: 2, Year: 2014, pp. 174-196.
  • SCHLUESSEL, Eric: “‘Bilingual’ Education and Discontent in Xinjiang”, Central Asian Survey, Volume: 26, No: 2, Year: 2007, pp. 251-277.
  • SCHLUESSEL, Eric: “History, Identity, and Mother-tongue Education in Xinjiang”, Central Asian Survey, Volume: 28, No: 4, Year: 2009, pp. 383-402.
  • SEZER, Murad: “Without Papers, Uighurs Fear for Their Future in Turkey”, Reuters, 27 March 2019, accessed at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-xinjiang-turkey-wider-image/without-papers-uighurs-fear-for-their-future-in-turkey-idUSKCN1R81ED, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SHARE, Michael: “The Great Game Revisited: Three Empires Collide in Chinese Turkestan (Xinjiang)”, Europe-Asia Studies, Volume: 67, No: 7, Year: 2015, pp. 1102-1129.
  • SHEPHERD, Christian: “China Tightens Regulation of Religion to ‘Block Extremism’”, Reuters, 7 September 2017, accessed at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-religion/china-tightens-regulation-of-religion-to-block-extremism-idUSKCN1BI1IH, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SHEPHERD, Christian: “Fear and Oppression in Xinjiang: China’s War on Uighur Culture”, Financial Times, 12 September 2019, accessed at https://www.ft.com/content/48508182-d426-11e9-8367-807ebd53ab77, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SHIH, Gerry: “China’s Mass Indoctrination Camps Evoke Cultural Revolution”, AP News, 18 May 2018, accessed at https://apnews.com/6e151296fb194f85ba69a8babd972e4b/China%E2%80-%99s-massindoctrinationcamps-evoke-Cultural-Revolution, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SINTASH, Bahram: Demolishing Faith: The Destruction and Desecration of Uyghur Mosques and Shrines, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2019.
  • STEELE, Liza and KUO, Raymond: “Terrorism in Xinjiang?”, Ethnopolitics, Volume: 6, No: 1, Year: 2007, pp. 1-19.
  • SULAIMAN, Eset: “Xinjiang Police Open Fire at Protest Against Clampdown on Islamic Dress”, Radio Free Asia, 20 May 2014, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/dress-05202014202002.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SULAIMAN, Eset: “Controls on Uyghur Villages, Mosques Continue into New Year”, Radio Free Asia, 6 January 2016, accessed at http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/control01062016160604.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • SULAIMAN, Eset: “China Bans Uyghur Language in Schools in Key Xinjiang Prefecture”, Radio Free Asia, 28 July 2017, accessed at https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/language07282017143037.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • TANÖR, Bülent: Anayasa Hukukunda Sosyal Haklar, May Yayınları, İstanbul 1978.
  • TAŞAĞIL, Mehmet: Bozkırın Kağanlıkları: Hunlar, Tabgaçlar, Göktürkler, Uygurlar, Kronik Kitap, İstanbul 2020.
  • THUM, Rian: “What Really Happens in China’s ‘Re-education’ Camps”, The New York Times, 7 August 2018, accessed at www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/opinion/china-re-educationcamps.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • UHRP: Uyghur Voices on Education: Chinese Assimilative ‘Bilingual Education’ Policy in East Turkestan, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2015.
  • UHRP: End of the Road: One Belt, One Road and the Cumulative Economic Marginalization of the Uyghurs, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2016.
  • UHRP: Discrimination, Mistreatment and Coercion: Severe Labor Rights Abuses Faced by Uyghurs in China and East Turkestan, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2017.
  • UHRP: The Bingtuan: China’s Paramilitary Colonizing Force in East Turkestan, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2018.
  • UHRP: Ideological Transformation: Records of Mass Detention from Qaraqash, Hotan, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2020.
  • UHRP: Kashgar Coerced: Forced Reconstruction, Exploitation, and Surveillance in the Cradle of Uyghur Culture, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2020.
  • UHRP: Weaponized Passports: The Crisis of Uyghur Statelessness, UHRP Publication Office, Washington 2020.
  • UYGUN, Oktay: “İnsan Hakları Açısından Yeni Anayasa Çalışmaları”, Maltepe Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, Volume: 2, No: 1, Year: 2008, pp. 323-335.
  • UYGUN, Oktay: Devlet Teorisi, 6. Ed., On İki Levha Yayıncılık, İstanbul 2019.
  • UYGUR, Feyzullah: “Mançuların İlk Doğu Türkistan İstilası”, Tarih Dergisi, No: 63, Year: 2016, pp. 27-40.
  • VÄLISLUUREAMET: International Security and Estonia, Välisluureamet Publication Office, Tallinn 2020.
  • VERGANI, Matteo: “Neojihadist Visual Politics: Comparing YouTube Videos of North Caucasus and Uyghur Militants”, Asian Studies Review, Volume: 39, No: 1, Year: 2015, pp. 1-22.
  • VINCENT, Andrew: The Politics of Human Rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010.
  • WANG, Maya: “More Evidence of China’s Horrific Abuses in Xinjiang”, HRW, 20 February 2020, accessed at https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/02/20/more-evidence-chinas-horrific-abuses-xinjiang, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WANG, Shuping: “The People’s Republic of China’s Policy on Minorities and International Approaches to Ethnic Groups: A Comparative Study”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 11, No: 1-2, Year: 2004, pp. 159-185.
  • WEE, Sui-Lee: “Chinese Police Shoot Man Dead at Checkpoint in Xinjiang”, Reuters, 17 April 2014, accessed at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-xinjiang/chinese-police-shoot-man-dead-at-checkpoint-in-xinjiang-idUSBREA3G0BC20140417, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WELLENS, Koen: “Negotiable Rights? China’s Ethnic Minorities and the Right to Freedom of Religion”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 16, No: 3, Year: 2009, pp. 433-454.
  • WELLMAN, Christopher: “Freedom of Movement and the Rights to Enter and Exit”, Migration in Political Theory: The Ethics of Movement and Membership, (Ed.) FINE, Sarah and YPI, Lea, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2016, pp. 80-104.
  • WEN, Philip and AUYEZOV, Olzhas: “Tracking China’s Muslim Gulag”, Reuters, 29 November 2018, accessed at https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/muslims-camps-china/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WILLIAMS, Sophie: “Macau: China’s Other ‘One Country, Two Systems’ Region”, BBC, 20 December 2019, accessed at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-50832919, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WINES, Michael: “To Protect an Ancient City, China Moves to Raze It”, The New York Times, 28 May 2009, accessed at https://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/28/world/asia/28kashgar.html, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WONG, Chun: “China’s Hard Edge: The Leader of Beijing’s Muslim Crackdown Gains Influence”, The Wall Street Journal, 7 April 2019, accessed at https://www.wsj.com/articles/chinas-hard-edge-the-leader-of-beijings-muslim-crackdown-gains-influence-11554655886, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • WUC: 2016 Report on Human Rights Violations in East Turkestan, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2016.
  • WUC: Forced Labour in East Turkestan: State-sanctioned Hashar System, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2016.
  • WUC: 2016 Human Rights Situation in East Turkestan: Annual Report, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2017.
  • WUC: Seeking a Place to Breathe Freely: Current Challenges Faced by Uyghur Refugees & Asylum Seekers, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2017.
  • WUC: Parallel Submission to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) for the People’s Republic of China (PRC), WUC Publication Office, Munich 2018.
  • WUC: Internment Camps, WUC Publication Office, Munich 2020.
  • XU, Vicky et. al.: Uyghur for Sale: Re-education, Forced Labour and Surveillance beyond Xinjiang, ASPI Publication Office, Barton 2020.
  • YAYLA, Atilla: “İfade Hürriyeti Nedir, Ne Değildir”, Liberal Düşünce, Volume: 19, No: 73-74, Year: 2014, pp. 139-150.
  • YÜKSEL, Metin: Ölçülülük İlkesi: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Anayasa Hukuku İncelemesi, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara 2002.
  • ZANG, Xiaowei: “Uyghur Islamic Piety in Ürümchi, Xinjiang”, Chinese Sociological Review, Volume: 44, No: 4, Year: 2012, pp. 82-100.
  • ZENZ, Adrian: “Xinjiang’s Re-education and Securitization Campaign: Evidence from Domestic Security Budgets”, The Jamestown Foundation, 5 November 2018, accessed at https://jamestown.org/program/xinjiangs-re-education-and-securitization-campaign-evidence-from-domestic-security-budgets/, accessed on 07.11.2020.
  • ZHOU, Yong: “Legal Predicament of Combining ‘Regional’ and ‘National’ Autonomy: A Group Rights Perspective”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume: 16, No: 3, Year: 2009, pp. 329-348.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Hukuk
Bölüm Kamu Hukuku Bölümü
Yazarlar

Osman ERCAN
BİTLİS EREN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2186-8963
Türkiye


Hakan KOLÇAK Bu kişi benim
RECEP TAYYİP ERDOĞAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, HUKUK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1185-4055
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 44

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { duhfd959965, journal = {Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1300-2929}, eissn = {2458-7907}, address = {Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi, 21280 / Diyarbakır}, publisher = {Dicle Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {26}, pages = {75 - 136}, doi = {}, title = {DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ}, key = {cite}, author = {Ercan, Osman and Kolçak, Hakan} }
APA Ercan, O. & Kolçak, H. (2021). DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ . Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi , 26 (44) , 75-136 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/duhfd/issue/63313/959965
MLA Ercan, O. , Kolçak, H. "DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ" . Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi 26 (2021 ): 75-136 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/duhfd/issue/63313/959965>
Chicago Ercan, O. , Kolçak, H. "DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ". Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi 26 (2021 ): 75-136
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ AU - Osman Ercan , Hakan Kolçak Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 75 EP - 136 VL - 26 IS - 44 SN - 1300-2929-2458-7907 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ %A Osman Ercan , Hakan Kolçak %T DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ %D 2021 %J Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1300-2929-2458-7907 %V 26 %N 44 %R %U
ISNAD Ercan, Osman , Kolçak, Hakan . "DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ". Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi 26 / 44 (Haziran 2021): 75-136 .
AMA Ercan O. , Kolçak H. DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ. DÜHFD. 2021; 26(44): 75-136.
Vancouver Ercan O. , Kolçak H. DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ. Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi. 2021; 26(44): 75-136.
IEEE O. Ercan ve H. Kolçak , "DOĞU TÜRKİSTAN’DA İNSAN HAKLARI: GÜNCEL İHLALLER VE GELECEK BEKLENTİLERİ", Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 26, sayı. 44, ss. 75-136, Haz. 2021