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Log Damage and Value Loss Following Motor-manual Tree Harvesting in the Hyrcanian Forest, Northern Iran

Yıl 2017, Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1, 35 - 43, 30.06.2017

Öz

Damage is often seen as an important
consideration when conducting partial harvests in hardwood stands. Damage to
harvested logs, especially hardwood saw and veneer logs can be an even more
important concern relative to value loss associated with log degrades. The
objectives of this study is to determine damage type,
to quantity of the log damage volume and value loss throughout the tree felling
process. The log damage and value loss were examined by felling
function, species, and damage type, in Kheyrud Forest in the Hyrcanian Forest
of Iran. To estimate wood value loss following small-scale tree felling, a
total 206 beech and hornbeam trees were measured, and four types of damage
recorded: split damage, gouge damage, slab damage and scrape damage. Volume and
value losses of damaged logs were significantly sensitive to tree species and
tree diameter. The total value of logs damage was calculated as 46.87 m3
or 0.6 m3/ha (5.2%) for all trees. Slightly over half (51.6%) of the volume loss was from woody
tissue damage caused by splintering or breakage.
Value loss associated with splits was 32.5%, and
value loss associated with high stump was 9.9%. Slabs damage
caused a
small amount of average volume loss per damaged log. Splits damage caused the greatest
value loss to logs (183.3 USD per ha). Breakage damage caused losses of 165.3
USD per ha for the damaged logs while high stump was result 92.6 USD per ha in
value loss.

Kaynakça

  • Connell, M.J., 2003. Log Presentation: log damage arising from mechanical harvesting or processing. Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation. Project No. PN02. 1309. CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products. Australia. Melbourne.
  • Emadi, S., 1997. Determining of wood waste in different stages of logging process. MSc. Thesis. Tarbiat Modares University. Iran. Tehran.
  • Gerasimov, Y., Seliverstov, A., 2010. Industrial round-wood losses associated with harvesting systems in Russia. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 31 (2): 111-126.
  • Greene, W.D., McNeel, J.F., 1987. Productivity, costs, and levels of butt damage with a Bell Model T feller-buncher. Forest Products Journal 37 (11/12): 70-74.
  • Han, H.S., Renzie, C., 2005. Effect of Ground Slope, Stump Diameter, and Species on Stump Height for Feller-Buncher and Chainsaw Felling. International Journal of Forest Engineering 16 (2): 81-88.
  • Haynes, H.J.G., Visser, R.J.M., 2005. An applied hardwood Value recovery Study in the Appalachian region of Virginia and West Virginia. International Journal of Forest Engineering 16 (2): 7-13.
  • Holmes, T.P., Blat, G.M., Zweede, J.C., Pereira, R., Barreto, P., Boltz, F., Bauch, R., 2002. Financial and ecological indicators of reduced impact logging Performance in the eastern Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 163 (2): 93-110.
  • Jourgholami, M., 2012. Small-scale timber harvesting; mule logging in Hyrcanian Forest. Small-scale Forestry 11 (2): 255-262.
  • Kizha, A.R., Han H-S., 2015. Forest Residues Recovered from Whole-tree Timber Harvesting Operations. European Journal of Forest Engineering, 1(2): 46-55.
  • Marshall, H., Murphy, G.E., Boston, K., 2006. Evaluation of the economic impacts of length and diameter measurement error on mechanical processors and harvesters operating in pine stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 1661-1673.
  • McMorland, B., Guimier, D.Y., 1984. Analysis of felling butt damage in Interior British Columbia. Technical Note TN-76 (June 1984). Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. Vancouver.
  • McNeel, JF., Copithorne, R., 1996. Yarding systems and their effect on log quality and recovery levels in coastal timber of British Columbia, IN Proceedings: Forest Products Society, Portland.
  • Murphy, G., Buse, J.D., 1984. How to reduce felling related butt damage. NZ Logging Industry Research Association Technical Release. New Zealand. Rotorua 6 (6): 1-4.
  • Murphy, G., Twaddle, A.A., 1985. Techniques for the assessment and control of log value recovery in the News Land forest harvesting industry, proceeding of the 9th annual meeting of council of forest engineering, Oregon State University, 1-16. USA. Portland.
  • Nuutinen, Y., Väätäinen, K., Asikainen, A., Prinz, R., Heinonen, J., 2010. Operational efficiency and damage to sawlogs by feed rollers of the harvester head. Silva Fennica 44 (1): 121-139.
  • Sarikhani, N., 1972. The amount of wood waste during logging operation in Iranian forests in different work conditions, Faculty of Natural Resources Publication. University of Tehran. Iran.
  • Soleimanzade, E., 1987. Appropriate stump height to reduce waste during felling operation in the forest of beech and hornbeam trees. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. Technical Publication No. 48. Tehran.
  • Unver, S., Acar, H.H., 2009. A damage prediction model for quantity loss of skidded spruce logs during ground base skidding in north eastern Turkey. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 30 (1): 59-65.
  • Vanderberg, M.R., 2002. Harvested log damage and value loss associated with two ground-based harvesting systems in central Appalachia. MSc. Thesis. Davis College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Consumer Sciences. West Virginia University. Morgantown, West Virginia. 98p.
  • Wang, J., LeDoux, C.B., Vanderberg, M., McNeel, J., 2004. Log Damage and Value Loss Associated with Two Ground-Based Harvesting Systems in Central Appalachia. International Journal of Forest Engineering 15(1): 61-69.
  • Williston, E. 1979. Opportunity areas and leverage points, proceeding of the electronics work-shop, Sawmill and plywood clinic, Portland, Oregon, pp. 14-18.
Yıl 2017, Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1, 35 - 43, 30.06.2017

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Connell, M.J., 2003. Log Presentation: log damage arising from mechanical harvesting or processing. Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation. Project No. PN02. 1309. CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products. Australia. Melbourne.
  • Emadi, S., 1997. Determining of wood waste in different stages of logging process. MSc. Thesis. Tarbiat Modares University. Iran. Tehran.
  • Gerasimov, Y., Seliverstov, A., 2010. Industrial round-wood losses associated with harvesting systems in Russia. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 31 (2): 111-126.
  • Greene, W.D., McNeel, J.F., 1987. Productivity, costs, and levels of butt damage with a Bell Model T feller-buncher. Forest Products Journal 37 (11/12): 70-74.
  • Han, H.S., Renzie, C., 2005. Effect of Ground Slope, Stump Diameter, and Species on Stump Height for Feller-Buncher and Chainsaw Felling. International Journal of Forest Engineering 16 (2): 81-88.
  • Haynes, H.J.G., Visser, R.J.M., 2005. An applied hardwood Value recovery Study in the Appalachian region of Virginia and West Virginia. International Journal of Forest Engineering 16 (2): 7-13.
  • Holmes, T.P., Blat, G.M., Zweede, J.C., Pereira, R., Barreto, P., Boltz, F., Bauch, R., 2002. Financial and ecological indicators of reduced impact logging Performance in the eastern Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 163 (2): 93-110.
  • Jourgholami, M., 2012. Small-scale timber harvesting; mule logging in Hyrcanian Forest. Small-scale Forestry 11 (2): 255-262.
  • Kizha, A.R., Han H-S., 2015. Forest Residues Recovered from Whole-tree Timber Harvesting Operations. European Journal of Forest Engineering, 1(2): 46-55.
  • Marshall, H., Murphy, G.E., Boston, K., 2006. Evaluation of the economic impacts of length and diameter measurement error on mechanical processors and harvesters operating in pine stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 1661-1673.
  • McMorland, B., Guimier, D.Y., 1984. Analysis of felling butt damage in Interior British Columbia. Technical Note TN-76 (June 1984). Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. Vancouver.
  • McNeel, JF., Copithorne, R., 1996. Yarding systems and their effect on log quality and recovery levels in coastal timber of British Columbia, IN Proceedings: Forest Products Society, Portland.
  • Murphy, G., Buse, J.D., 1984. How to reduce felling related butt damage. NZ Logging Industry Research Association Technical Release. New Zealand. Rotorua 6 (6): 1-4.
  • Murphy, G., Twaddle, A.A., 1985. Techniques for the assessment and control of log value recovery in the News Land forest harvesting industry, proceeding of the 9th annual meeting of council of forest engineering, Oregon State University, 1-16. USA. Portland.
  • Nuutinen, Y., Väätäinen, K., Asikainen, A., Prinz, R., Heinonen, J., 2010. Operational efficiency and damage to sawlogs by feed rollers of the harvester head. Silva Fennica 44 (1): 121-139.
  • Sarikhani, N., 1972. The amount of wood waste during logging operation in Iranian forests in different work conditions, Faculty of Natural Resources Publication. University of Tehran. Iran.
  • Soleimanzade, E., 1987. Appropriate stump height to reduce waste during felling operation in the forest of beech and hornbeam trees. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. Technical Publication No. 48. Tehran.
  • Unver, S., Acar, H.H., 2009. A damage prediction model for quantity loss of skidded spruce logs during ground base skidding in north eastern Turkey. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 30 (1): 59-65.
  • Vanderberg, M.R., 2002. Harvested log damage and value loss associated with two ground-based harvesting systems in central Appalachia. MSc. Thesis. Davis College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Consumer Sciences. West Virginia University. Morgantown, West Virginia. 98p.
  • Wang, J., LeDoux, C.B., Vanderberg, M., McNeel, J., 2004. Log Damage and Value Loss Associated with Two Ground-Based Harvesting Systems in Central Appalachia. International Journal of Forest Engineering 15(1): 61-69.
  • Williston, E. 1979. Opportunity areas and leverage points, proceeding of the electronics work-shop, Sawmill and plywood clinic, Portland, Oregon, pp. 14-18.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Meghdad JOURGHOLAMİ

Maryam Etehadi ABARİ Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2017
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017 Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA JOURGHOLAMİ, M., & ABARİ, M. E. (2017). Log Damage and Value Loss Following Motor-manual Tree Harvesting in the Hyrcanian Forest, Northern Iran. European Journal of Forest Engineering, 3(1), 35-43.

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The works published in European Journal of Forest Engineering (EJFE) are licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.