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A Review On Some Important Organic Extracts Added To The Plant Tissue Culture Media

Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 1 - 7, 16.04.2021

Öz

Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques of biotechnology used to grow plant cells, tissues and organs on a nutrient culture medium under aseptic conditions. This technique allows clonal propagation of rare, endemic or endangered plants. Moreover, plant tissue culture makes it possible to produce virus-free plants to be used in medicine, cosmetics and food sectors. The health of the cultures depends on growing conditions, type of explant and growth medium composition. Nutrition requirement of different types of tissues varies. Researchers have developed various types of growth medium to provide suitable nutrition for different plant types. There are inorganic and organic substrates and gelling agents in a basic growth medium. Researchers need some organic additives to promote growth and differentiation since the basic growth medium sometimes not sufficient. Here in this review, we discussed the use of organic additives such as coconut milk, yeast, potato and malt extract, tomato, pineapple and carrot juice.

Kaynakça

  • [1] O. L. Gamborg, “Media preparation,” in Plant tissue culture manual, K. Lındsey, Ed., Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991, pp. 1-24.
  • [2] Y. Kemeç Hürkan, “Bitki Biyoteknolojisinde Doku Kültürü Yöntemleri” in Tarımsal ve Endüstriyel Biyoteknoloji Uygulamaları, K. Hürkan, Ed.. Ankara, Türkiye: IKSAD Publishing House, 2020, pp. 92-93.
  • [3] M. Anis ve N. Ahmad, “Plant tissue culture: propagation, conservation and crop improvement,” Ed., Singapore: Springer Nature, 2016.
  • [4] R. Thejaswini and S. Narasimhan, “Undefined Organic Additives Stimulates in Vitro Seed Germination of Dendrobium ovatum (Willd.) Kraenzl, a Medicinal Orchid,”. Int. J. Pharm. Med. Biol. Sci., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 29-31, Jan. 2017.
  • [5] S. Khorsha, M. Alizadeh and K. Mashayekhi, “The usefulness of apricot gum as an organic additive in grapevine tissue culture media,” Adv. Hortic. Sci., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 111-118, May. 2016.
  • [6] Y. K. Hürkan, K. Hürkan and C. Akı, “Comparative growth media performances on in vitro propagation of some salep orchids”, Anadolu Univ. J. of Sci. and Technology C – Life Sci. and Biotech., vol. 7, no.1, pp. 52-62, Jan. 2018.
  • [7] Y. S. Huh, J. K. Lee, S. Y. Nam, K. Y. Paek, and G. U. Suh, “Improvement of asymbiotic seed germination and seedling development of Cypripedium macranthos Sw. with organic additives”, J. Plant Biotechnol., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 138-145, Mar. 2016.
  • [8] O. L. Gamborg, T. Murashige, T. A. Thorpe, and I. K. Vasil, “Plant tissue culture media,” In vitro, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 473-478, Jul. 1976.
  • [9] E. F. George, M. A. Hall and G.J. De Klerk, “The Components of Plant Tissue Culture Media II : Organic Additions, Osmotic and pH Effects, and Support Systems,” in Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture, E. F. George et al. Eds., Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2008, pp. 115-123.
  • [10] M. Zahara, A. Datta, P. Boonkorkaew and A. Mishra, “The effects of different media, sucrose concentrations and natural additives on plantlet growth of Phalaenopsis hybrid'Pink'.,” Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol., vol. 60, pp. 1-15, Jan/Dec. 2017.
  • [11] S. Kaur and K. K. Bhutani, “Organic growth supplement stimulants for in vitro multiplication of Cymbidium pendulum (Roxb.) Sw.,” Hortic. Sci., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 47-52, 2012.
  • [12] J. A. Gansau, H. Indan, S. N. Abdullah, D. David, H. Marbawi and R. Jawan, “Effects of organic additives and plant growth regulators on protocorm development of Dendrobium lowii,” Transactions on Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 462-468, Jun. 2016.
  • [13] S. Aktar, K. M. Nasiruddin K. Hossain, “Effects of different media and organic additives interaction on in vitro regeneration of Dendrobium orchid,” J. Agr. Rural Dev. Trop., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69-74, 2008.
  • [14] P. Gnasekaran, X. Rathinam, U. R. Sinniah and S. Subramaniam, “A study on the use of organic additives on the protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) growth of Phalaenopsis violacea orchid,” J. Phytol.. vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 29-33, 2010.
  • [15] S. Hartati, R. B. Arniputri, L. A. Soliah and O. Cahyono, “Effects of organic additives and naphthalene acetid acid (NAA) application on the in vitro growth of Black orchid hybrid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindley),” J. Agri. Sci., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 951-957, 2017.
  • [16] N. Nambiar, C. S. Tee and M. Maziah, “Effects of organic additives and different carbohydrate sources on proliferation of protocormlike bodies in'Dendrobium'Alya Pink,” Plant Omics, vol. 5, no. 1, 10-18, 2012.
  • [17] A. Alkhateeb, “Comparison effects of sucrose and date palm syrup on somatic embryogenesis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.),” Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 19-23, 2008.
  • [18] J. Van Overbeek, M. E. Conklın and A. F. Blakeslee, “Factors in coconut milk essential for growth and development of very young Datura embryos,” Science, vol. 94, pp. 350-351, 1941.
  • [19] J. Van Overbeek, M. E. Conklın and A. F. Blakeslee, “Cultivation in vitro of small Datura embryos,” Am. J. Bot., vol. 29, pp. 472-477, 1942.
  • [20] R J. Gautheret, “Manuel Technique de Culture des Tissue Végétaux,” Paris: Masson et Cie, 1942, pp. 165-170.
  • [21] S. M. Caplin and F. C. Steward, “Effects of coconut milk on the growth of explants from carrot root,” Science, vol. 108, pp. 655-657, 1948.
  • [22] G. Burnet and R. K. Ibrahim, “Tissue culture of Citrus peel and its potential for flavonoid synthesis,” Z. Pflanzenphysiol., vol. 69, pp. 152-162, 1973.
  • [23] T. S. Rangan, “Morphogenic investigations on tissue cultures of Panicum miliaceum,” Z. Pflanzenphysiol., vol. 72, pp. 456-459, 1974.
  • [24] C. Borkird and K. C. Sink, “Medium components for shoot cultures of chlorophyll-deficient mutants of Petunia inflata,” Plant Cell Rep., vol. 2, pp. 1-4, 1983.
  • [25] G. Morel and R. H. Wetmore, “Tissue culture of monocotyledons,” Am. J. Bot., vol. 38, pp. 138-140, 1951.
  • [26] H. E. Street, “Laboratory organization, Plant Tissue and Cell Culture” in Bot. Monographs, H. E. Street, Ed., London, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Public-ations, 1977, pp. 11-30.
  • [27] J. M. Al-Khayri, “Influence of yeast extract and casein hydrolysate on callus multiplication and somatic embryogenesis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.),” Sci. Hortic., vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 531-535, 2011.
  • [28] J. A. Gansau, R. Jawan ve S. J. Spiridrin, “Effect of yeast extract and coconut water on protocorm proliferation and growth development of Dimorphorchis rossii,” Acta Biol. Malays., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 59-63, 2015.
  • [29] R. A. Brink, D.C. Cooper and L. E. Ausherman, “A hybrid between Hordeum jubatum and Secale cereale,” J. Hered., vol. 35, pp. 67-75, 1944.
  • [30] W. J. Robbins and M. A. Bartley, “Vitamin B, and the growth of excised tomato roots,” Science, vol. 85, pp. 246-247, 1937.
  • [31] J. A. Woolfe, “The Potato in the Human Diet,” London: Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp.1-17.
  • [32] C. C. Chuang, T. W. Ouyang, H. Chia, S. M. Chou and C. K. Chıng, “A set of potato media for wheat anther,” in Plant Tissue Culture. Proceedings of the Peking Symposium, Pitman, Boston, London, Melbourne, 1978, pp. 51-56.
  • [33] L. J. Mcgregor and A. Mchughen, “The influence of various cultural factors on anther culture of four cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” Can. J. Plant Sci., vol. 70, pp. 183-192, 1990.
  • [34] S. Malmgren, “Orchid propagation: theory and practice,” in North American Native Terrestrial Orchid: Propagation and Production, C. Allen, Ed.,Maryland: North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Conference, 1996, pp. 63-71.
  • [35] J. Arditti and A. G. Abdul Karim, “Numerical and physical properties of orchid seeds and their biological implications,” New Phytol., vol. 145, pp. 367-421, 2000.
  • [36] Y. I. Lee ve N. Lee, “Plant regeneration from protocorm-derived callus of Cypripedium formosanum,” In vitro Cell. Dev. Bio., Plant., vol. 39, pp. 475-479, 2003.
  • [37] S. F. Lo, S. M. Nalawade, C. L. Kuo, C. L. Chen and S. H. Tsay, “Asymbiotic germination of immature seeds, plantlet development and ex-vitro establishment of plants of Dendrobium tosaense Makino- a medicinally important orchid,” In vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Plant., vol. 40, pp. 528-535, 2004.
  • [38] L. Dix ve J. Van Staden, “Auxin and gibberellin-like substances in coconut milk and malt extract,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 239-246, 1981.
  • [39] T. S Rangan, “Clonal propagation,” Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, I. K. Vasil, Ed., New York: Acad. Press,. 1984, vol. 1, pp. 68-73.
  • [40] T. S. Rangan, T. Murashıge and W. P. Bıtters, “In vitro initiation of nucellar embryos in monoembryonic Citrus,” HortScience, vol. 3, pp. 226-227, 1968.
  • [41] T. Das, G. C. Mıtra and A. Chatterjee, “Micropropagation of Citrus sinensis var. mosambi: an important scion,” Phytomorph., vol. 45, pp. 57-64, 1995.
  • [42] F. De Pasquale, F. Carimi and F. G. Crescımanno, “Somatic embryogenesis from styles of different cultivars of Citrus limon (L.),” Burm. Aust. J. Bot., vol. 42, pp. 587-594, 1994.
  • [43] F. Carimi, F. De Pasquale and F. G. Crescımanno, “Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from pistil thin cell layers of Citrus,” Plant Cell Rep., vol. 18, pp. 935-940, 1999.
  • [44] R. L. M. Pıerık, P. A. Sprenkels, B. Van Der Harst and Q. G. Van Der Meys, “Seed germination and further development of plantlets of Paphiopedilum ciliolare Pfitz.,” İn vitro. Sci. Hortic., vol. 34, pp. 139-153, 1988.
  • [45] R. Suddep, P. K. Rajeevan, P. K. Valsalakumari and C. K. Geetha, “Influence of organic supplements on shoot proliferation in Dendrobium,” J. Hort., vol. 3, no. 1-2, pp. 38-44, 1997.
  • [46] M. Minea, C. Piluek, A. Menakanit and S. Tantiwiwat, “A study on seed germination and seedling development of Spathoglottis orchids,” Kasetsart J. Nati. Sci., vol. 38, pp. 141-156, 2004.
  • [47] J. Van Staden and J. Stewart, “Cytokinins in banana fruit,” Z. Pflanzenphysiol., vol. 76, pp. 280-283, 1975.
  • [48] L. C. Huang, C. J. Lin, C. I. Kuo, B. L Huang and T. Murashige, “Paphiopedilum cloning in vitro,” Sci. Hortic., vol. 91, pp. 111-121, 2001.
  • [49] M. Durmuş, Ö. Yetgin, M. M. Abed, E. K. Haji ve K. Akcay, “Domates bitkisi, besin içeriği ve sağlık açısından değerlendirmesi,” Int J. Life Sci. Biotechnol, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 59-74, 2018.
  • [50] E. F. Vacin and F. W. Went, “Use of tomato juice in the asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds,” Bot. Gaz., vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 175-183, 1949.
  • [51] C. K. Kitsaki, S. Zygouraki, M. Ziobora and S. Kintzios, “In vitro germination, protocorm formation and plantlet development of mature versus immature seeds from several Ophrys species (Orchidaceae),” Plant Cell Rep., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 284-290, 2004.
  • [52] K. D. Sharma, S. Karki, N. S. Thakur and S. Attri, “Chemical composition, functional properties, and processing of carrot-a review,” J. Food Sci. Tech., vol. 49, pp. 22–32, 2012.
  • [53] D. Puchooa and R. A. Ramburn, “A study on the use of carrot juice in the tissue culture of Daucus carota, “Afr. J. Biotechnol., vol. 3, pp. 248–252, 2004.
  • [54] M. Zahara, A. Datta and P. Boonkorkaew, “Effects of sucrose, carrot juice and culture media on growth and net CO2 exchange rate in Phalaenopsis hybrid ‘Pink’.,” Sci. Hortic., vol. 205, pp. 17–24, 2016.

Bitki Doku Kültürü Besiyerine Eklenen Bazı Önemli Organik Ekstraktlar Üzerine Derleme

Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 1 - 7, 16.04.2021

Öz

Bitki doku kültürü aseptik koşullar altında, yapay bir besiyerinde, hücre, doku ve organ gibi bitki kısımlarından veya bütün bir bitkiden bitkisel ürün (sekonder metabolit) veya yeni bir bitki elde etmeyi (bitkilerin vejetatif kısımlarından mikroçoğaltım) sağlayan bitki biyoteknolojisinin önemli bir alanıdır. Bu alan sayesinde bitkileri klonal olarak çoğaltarak; nadir, endemik ve nesli tükenme tehlikesi altındaki türlerin korunmasına olanak sağlanmaktadır. Hastalık ve virüslerden ari (arınmış) bitkiler yetiştirilmekte, gen kaynakları korunmakta, ilaç, kozmetik ve gıda sektörü gibi pek çok alanda kullanılan sekonder metabolit üretimine olanak sağlanmaktadır. Bitki doku kültüründe kültürlerin sağlıklı gelişimleri, fiziksel çevre koşullarına, kullanılan eksplant çeşidine ve besiyeri içeriğine bağlıdır. Kültüre alınan bitkilerin, vejatatif dokularının büyüme ve morfogenez için gerekli olan beslenme ihtiyacı bitkiden bitkiye farklılık göstermektedir. Bu beslenme ihtiyacından kaynaklı olarak araştırmacılar farklı besiyeri ortamları tasarlamışlardır. Temel bir besiyerinde inorganik bileşikler, organik bileşikler ve jel yapıcılar bulunmaktadır. Büyüme ve farklılaşma için bu ortam her zaman yeterli olmadığından dolayı araştırmacılar büyüme ve farklılaşmayı teşvik edecek bazı organik eklentilere gereksinim duymuşlardır. Bunlar moleküler mekanizması tanımlanmamış destek maddeleri (organik ekstraktlar)’dir. Bu derleme; hindistan cevizi sütü, maya, patates ve malt ekstraktı, domates, ananas ve havuç suyu gibi organik ekstraktların bitki doku kültüründe kullanım alanlarına ve kültüre ne gibi yararlarının olduğuna dair bilgiler çeşitli literatürlerin incelenip bir araya getirilmesi amacı ile hazırlanmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • [1] O. L. Gamborg, “Media preparation,” in Plant tissue culture manual, K. Lındsey, Ed., Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991, pp. 1-24.
  • [2] Y. Kemeç Hürkan, “Bitki Biyoteknolojisinde Doku Kültürü Yöntemleri” in Tarımsal ve Endüstriyel Biyoteknoloji Uygulamaları, K. Hürkan, Ed.. Ankara, Türkiye: IKSAD Publishing House, 2020, pp. 92-93.
  • [3] M. Anis ve N. Ahmad, “Plant tissue culture: propagation, conservation and crop improvement,” Ed., Singapore: Springer Nature, 2016.
  • [4] R. Thejaswini and S. Narasimhan, “Undefined Organic Additives Stimulates in Vitro Seed Germination of Dendrobium ovatum (Willd.) Kraenzl, a Medicinal Orchid,”. Int. J. Pharm. Med. Biol. Sci., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 29-31, Jan. 2017.
  • [5] S. Khorsha, M. Alizadeh and K. Mashayekhi, “The usefulness of apricot gum as an organic additive in grapevine tissue culture media,” Adv. Hortic. Sci., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 111-118, May. 2016.
  • [6] Y. K. Hürkan, K. Hürkan and C. Akı, “Comparative growth media performances on in vitro propagation of some salep orchids”, Anadolu Univ. J. of Sci. and Technology C – Life Sci. and Biotech., vol. 7, no.1, pp. 52-62, Jan. 2018.
  • [7] Y. S. Huh, J. K. Lee, S. Y. Nam, K. Y. Paek, and G. U. Suh, “Improvement of asymbiotic seed germination and seedling development of Cypripedium macranthos Sw. with organic additives”, J. Plant Biotechnol., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 138-145, Mar. 2016.
  • [8] O. L. Gamborg, T. Murashige, T. A. Thorpe, and I. K. Vasil, “Plant tissue culture media,” In vitro, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 473-478, Jul. 1976.
  • [9] E. F. George, M. A. Hall and G.J. De Klerk, “The Components of Plant Tissue Culture Media II : Organic Additions, Osmotic and pH Effects, and Support Systems,” in Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture, E. F. George et al. Eds., Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2008, pp. 115-123.
  • [10] M. Zahara, A. Datta, P. Boonkorkaew and A. Mishra, “The effects of different media, sucrose concentrations and natural additives on plantlet growth of Phalaenopsis hybrid'Pink'.,” Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol., vol. 60, pp. 1-15, Jan/Dec. 2017.
  • [11] S. Kaur and K. K. Bhutani, “Organic growth supplement stimulants for in vitro multiplication of Cymbidium pendulum (Roxb.) Sw.,” Hortic. Sci., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 47-52, 2012.
  • [12] J. A. Gansau, H. Indan, S. N. Abdullah, D. David, H. Marbawi and R. Jawan, “Effects of organic additives and plant growth regulators on protocorm development of Dendrobium lowii,” Transactions on Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 462-468, Jun. 2016.
  • [13] S. Aktar, K. M. Nasiruddin K. Hossain, “Effects of different media and organic additives interaction on in vitro regeneration of Dendrobium orchid,” J. Agr. Rural Dev. Trop., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69-74, 2008.
  • [14] P. Gnasekaran, X. Rathinam, U. R. Sinniah and S. Subramaniam, “A study on the use of organic additives on the protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) growth of Phalaenopsis violacea orchid,” J. Phytol.. vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 29-33, 2010.
  • [15] S. Hartati, R. B. Arniputri, L. A. Soliah and O. Cahyono, “Effects of organic additives and naphthalene acetid acid (NAA) application on the in vitro growth of Black orchid hybrid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindley),” J. Agri. Sci., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 951-957, 2017.
  • [16] N. Nambiar, C. S. Tee and M. Maziah, “Effects of organic additives and different carbohydrate sources on proliferation of protocormlike bodies in'Dendrobium'Alya Pink,” Plant Omics, vol. 5, no. 1, 10-18, 2012.
  • [17] A. Alkhateeb, “Comparison effects of sucrose and date palm syrup on somatic embryogenesis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.),” Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 19-23, 2008.
  • [18] J. Van Overbeek, M. E. Conklın and A. F. Blakeslee, “Factors in coconut milk essential for growth and development of very young Datura embryos,” Science, vol. 94, pp. 350-351, 1941.
  • [19] J. Van Overbeek, M. E. Conklın and A. F. Blakeslee, “Cultivation in vitro of small Datura embryos,” Am. J. Bot., vol. 29, pp. 472-477, 1942.
  • [20] R J. Gautheret, “Manuel Technique de Culture des Tissue Végétaux,” Paris: Masson et Cie, 1942, pp. 165-170.
  • [21] S. M. Caplin and F. C. Steward, “Effects of coconut milk on the growth of explants from carrot root,” Science, vol. 108, pp. 655-657, 1948.
  • [22] G. Burnet and R. K. Ibrahim, “Tissue culture of Citrus peel and its potential for flavonoid synthesis,” Z. Pflanzenphysiol., vol. 69, pp. 152-162, 1973.
  • [23] T. S. Rangan, “Morphogenic investigations on tissue cultures of Panicum miliaceum,” Z. Pflanzenphysiol., vol. 72, pp. 456-459, 1974.
  • [24] C. Borkird and K. C. Sink, “Medium components for shoot cultures of chlorophyll-deficient mutants of Petunia inflata,” Plant Cell Rep., vol. 2, pp. 1-4, 1983.
  • [25] G. Morel and R. H. Wetmore, “Tissue culture of monocotyledons,” Am. J. Bot., vol. 38, pp. 138-140, 1951.
  • [26] H. E. Street, “Laboratory organization, Plant Tissue and Cell Culture” in Bot. Monographs, H. E. Street, Ed., London, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Public-ations, 1977, pp. 11-30.
  • [27] J. M. Al-Khayri, “Influence of yeast extract and casein hydrolysate on callus multiplication and somatic embryogenesis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.),” Sci. Hortic., vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 531-535, 2011.
  • [28] J. A. Gansau, R. Jawan ve S. J. Spiridrin, “Effect of yeast extract and coconut water on protocorm proliferation and growth development of Dimorphorchis rossii,” Acta Biol. Malays., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 59-63, 2015.
  • [29] R. A. Brink, D.C. Cooper and L. E. Ausherman, “A hybrid between Hordeum jubatum and Secale cereale,” J. Hered., vol. 35, pp. 67-75, 1944.
  • [30] W. J. Robbins and M. A. Bartley, “Vitamin B, and the growth of excised tomato roots,” Science, vol. 85, pp. 246-247, 1937.
  • [31] J. A. Woolfe, “The Potato in the Human Diet,” London: Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp.1-17.
  • [32] C. C. Chuang, T. W. Ouyang, H. Chia, S. M. Chou and C. K. Chıng, “A set of potato media for wheat anther,” in Plant Tissue Culture. Proceedings of the Peking Symposium, Pitman, Boston, London, Melbourne, 1978, pp. 51-56.
  • [33] L. J. Mcgregor and A. Mchughen, “The influence of various cultural factors on anther culture of four cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” Can. J. Plant Sci., vol. 70, pp. 183-192, 1990.
  • [34] S. Malmgren, “Orchid propagation: theory and practice,” in North American Native Terrestrial Orchid: Propagation and Production, C. Allen, Ed.,Maryland: North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Conference, 1996, pp. 63-71.
  • [35] J. Arditti and A. G. Abdul Karim, “Numerical and physical properties of orchid seeds and their biological implications,” New Phytol., vol. 145, pp. 367-421, 2000.
  • [36] Y. I. Lee ve N. Lee, “Plant regeneration from protocorm-derived callus of Cypripedium formosanum,” In vitro Cell. Dev. Bio., Plant., vol. 39, pp. 475-479, 2003.
  • [37] S. F. Lo, S. M. Nalawade, C. L. Kuo, C. L. Chen and S. H. Tsay, “Asymbiotic germination of immature seeds, plantlet development and ex-vitro establishment of plants of Dendrobium tosaense Makino- a medicinally important orchid,” In vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Plant., vol. 40, pp. 528-535, 2004.
  • [38] L. Dix ve J. Van Staden, “Auxin and gibberellin-like substances in coconut milk and malt extract,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 239-246, 1981.
  • [39] T. S Rangan, “Clonal propagation,” Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, I. K. Vasil, Ed., New York: Acad. Press,. 1984, vol. 1, pp. 68-73.
  • [40] T. S. Rangan, T. Murashıge and W. P. Bıtters, “In vitro initiation of nucellar embryos in monoembryonic Citrus,” HortScience, vol. 3, pp. 226-227, 1968.
  • [41] T. Das, G. C. Mıtra and A. Chatterjee, “Micropropagation of Citrus sinensis var. mosambi: an important scion,” Phytomorph., vol. 45, pp. 57-64, 1995.
  • [42] F. De Pasquale, F. Carimi and F. G. Crescımanno, “Somatic embryogenesis from styles of different cultivars of Citrus limon (L.),” Burm. Aust. J. Bot., vol. 42, pp. 587-594, 1994.
  • [43] F. Carimi, F. De Pasquale and F. G. Crescımanno, “Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from pistil thin cell layers of Citrus,” Plant Cell Rep., vol. 18, pp. 935-940, 1999.
  • [44] R. L. M. Pıerık, P. A. Sprenkels, B. Van Der Harst and Q. G. Van Der Meys, “Seed germination and further development of plantlets of Paphiopedilum ciliolare Pfitz.,” İn vitro. Sci. Hortic., vol. 34, pp. 139-153, 1988.
  • [45] R. Suddep, P. K. Rajeevan, P. K. Valsalakumari and C. K. Geetha, “Influence of organic supplements on shoot proliferation in Dendrobium,” J. Hort., vol. 3, no. 1-2, pp. 38-44, 1997.
  • [46] M. Minea, C. Piluek, A. Menakanit and S. Tantiwiwat, “A study on seed germination and seedling development of Spathoglottis orchids,” Kasetsart J. Nati. Sci., vol. 38, pp. 141-156, 2004.
  • [47] J. Van Staden and J. Stewart, “Cytokinins in banana fruit,” Z. Pflanzenphysiol., vol. 76, pp. 280-283, 1975.
  • [48] L. C. Huang, C. J. Lin, C. I. Kuo, B. L Huang and T. Murashige, “Paphiopedilum cloning in vitro,” Sci. Hortic., vol. 91, pp. 111-121, 2001.
  • [49] M. Durmuş, Ö. Yetgin, M. M. Abed, E. K. Haji ve K. Akcay, “Domates bitkisi, besin içeriği ve sağlık açısından değerlendirmesi,” Int J. Life Sci. Biotechnol, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 59-74, 2018.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Biyoloji
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Yasemin KEMEÇ HÜRKAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN VE EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ, BİYOLOJİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-4089-2683
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 16 Nisan 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

IEEE Y. Kemeç Hürkan , "Bitki Doku Kültürü Besiyerine Eklenen Bazı Önemli Organik Ekstraktlar Üzerine Derleme", Environmental Toxicology and Ecology, c. 1, sayı. 1, ss. 1-7, Nis. 2021