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The Relationshıp Between the Atmosphere, Emotion, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention in the Food and Beverage Enterprises

Yıl 2014, Sayı 1, 23 - 49, 01.01.2014

Öz

Today’s human beings spend their most of his life outdoors because of some reasons such as social, cultural etc. and people prefer food and beverage enterprises to meet their eating and drinking needs for the duration of his/her all time that they spend outside. Experiences, which have been got in this enterprises, could be effective on the future preferences. In this study, the effect of the restaurant atmosphere upon the emotion, the effect of emotion upon the satisfaction and the effect of satisfaction upon the behavioral intention have been investigated. In this research, 11 restaurants, operating a full-service and having a high quality environment in the city centre of Erzurum, are chosen as a sampling. 400 survey forms applied by using convenience sampling method to people who have visited these restaurants in the last three months. As a result of the elimination of incomplete questionnaires, a total of 397 questionnaires have been evaluated. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Regression Analyses were performed by using SPSS 20.0 software package. At the end of the research, the result “restaurant atmosphere has impact upon customers of the feelings, emotions have impact upon satisfaction of the customer and satisfaction has impact upon behavioral intentions” has been found

Kaynakça

  • Altunışık, R., Çoşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S., Yıldırım, E. (2012). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı, Geliştirilmiş 7. Baskı, Sakarya Yayıncılık.
  • Babin, B. J., Lee, Y.-K., Kim, E.-J., Griffin, M. (2005). Modeling Consumer Satisfaction and Wordof-Mouth: Restaurant Patronage in Korea, Journal of Services Marketing, 19(3), 133–139.
  • Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Rosado, A., Maroco, J., Ross, S. (2012). The Effects of Emotions on Football Spectators' Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions, European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(3), 227-242.
  • Bitner, M. J. (1992). Service Scapes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees, Journal of Marketing, 56, 57–71.
  • Cheng, C. C., Chiu, S.-I., Hu, H.-Y., Chang, Y.-Y. (2011). A Study on Exploring the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in the Fast Food Industry: With Relationship Inertia as a Mediator, African Journal of Business Management, 5(13), 5118-5126.
  • Çerik, Ş. ve Bozkurt, S. (2010), Çalışanların Örgütsel Sosyalizasyon ve Kariyer Çabalarına Yönelik Algılamaları Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi ve Banka Çalışanlarına Yönelik Bir Araştırma, Erciyes Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi, (35), 77-97.
  • Emir, O. ve Kılıç, İ. (2011). Müşterilerin Memnuniyet Düzeyleri İle Demografik Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişki: Antalya’daki Beş Yıldızlı Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Uygulama, Journal of Yasar University, 21(6), 3598-3621.
  • Eroğlu, S. A., Machleit, K. A., Chebat, J. C. (2005). The Interaction of Retail Density and Music Tempo: Effects on Shopper Responses, Psychology and Marketing, 22(7), 577–589.
  • Faullant, R., Matzler, K., Mooradian, T. A. (2011). Personality, Basic Emotions, and Satisfaction: Primary Emotions in the Mountaineering Experience, Tourism Management, 32, 1423-1430.
  • Ha, J. ve Jang, S.C. (Shawn) (2010). Effects of Service Quality and Food Quality: The Moderating Role of Atmospherics in an Ethnic Restaurant Segment, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29, 520–529.
  • Han, H., Back, K.-J., Barrett, B. (2009). Influencing Factors on Restaurant Customers’ Revisit Intentions: The Role of Emotions and Switching Barriers, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(4), 563–572.
  • Han, H., Ryu, K. (2009). The Roles of the Physical Environment, Price Perception, and Customer Satisfaction in Determining Customer Loyalty in the Restaurant Industry, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33, 487-510.
  • Heung, V.C.S., Gu, T. (2012). Influence of Restaurant Atmospherics on Patron Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 1167– 1177.
  • Homburg, C., Koschate, N., Hoyer, W. D. (2005). Do Satisfied Customers Really Pay More? A Study of the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Willingness to Pay, The Journal of Marketing, 69(2), 84-96.
  • İlter, B. ve Gökmen, H. (2009). Mevduat Bankalarında İlişkisel Fayda İle Müşteri Memnuniyeti Arasındaki İlişki Üzerine Bir İnceleme: İzmir İli Örneği, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 11(1), 1-32.
  • Jang, S.C. (Shawn) ve Namkung, Y. (2009). Perceived Quality, Emotions, and Behavioral Intentions: Application of an Extended Mehrabian–Russell Model to Restaurants, Journal of Business Research, 62, 451–460.
  • Jang, S.C. (Shawn), Liu, Y., Namkung, Y. (2011). Effects of Authentic Atmospherics in Ethnic Restaurants: Investigating Chinese Restaurants, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(5), 662 – 680.
  • Kaltcheva, V. D. ve Weitz, B. A. (2006). When Should a Retailer Create an Exciting Store Environment?, Journal of Marketing, 70, 107–118.
  • Kang, H.-C. ve Wang, Y.-W. (2009). The Relationships among Sea-Food Restaurant Service Quality, Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions Using Structural Equation Models: A Case of Pengh, The 9th International Conference on Electronic Business, Macau, November 30 - December 4, 629-633.
  • Kim, W. G., Ng, C. Y. N., Kim, Y.-S. (2009). Influence of Institutional DINESERV on Customer Satisfaction, Return Intention, and Word-of-Mouth, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 10–17.
  • Kızgın, Y. (2009). Tüketicilerin Kredi Kartı Marka Tercihlerinin Kümeleme Analizi İle İncelenmesi: Muğla Örneği, Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(2), 93-110.
  • Kotler, P. (1973). Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool, Journal of Retailing, 49(4), 48–64.
  • Krishnan, H. S. ve Olshavsky, R. W. (1995). The Dual Role of Emotions in Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction, Advances in Consumer Research, 22, 454-460.
  • Ladhari R., Brun I., Morales M. (2008). Determinants of Dining Satisfaction and Post-Dining Behavioral Intentions, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 563–573.
  • Liang, R.-D., ve Zhang, J.-S. (2012). The Effect of Service Interaction Orientation on Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention: The Moderating Effect of Dining Frequency, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 24(1), 153 – 170.
  • Liljander, V. ve Strandvik, T. (1997). Emotions in Service Satisfaction, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 8(2), 148 – 169.
  • Lin, I. Y. ve Worthley, R. (2012). Servicescape Moderation on Personality Traits, Emotions, Satisfaction, and Behaviors, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 3, 31–42.
  • Mattila, A. S. ve Wirtz, J. (2001). Congruency of Scent and Music as a Driver of in-store Evaluations and Behavior, Journal of Retailing, 77, 273–289.
  • Mattila, A. S. ve Ro, H. (2008). Discrete Negative Emotions and Customer Dissatisfaction Responses in a Casual Restaurant Setting, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 32(1), 89-107.
  • Namkung, Y. ve Jang, S.C. (2007). Does Food Quality Really Matter in Restaurants? Its Impact On Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 31(3), 387-410.
  • Namkung, Y. ve Jang, S.C. (Shawn) (2010). Effects of Perceived Service Fairness on Emotions, and Behavioral Intentions in Restaurants, European Journal of Marketing, 44(9), 1233 – 1259.
  • Oh, H. (2000). Diners’ Perceptions of Quality, Value, and Satisfaction: A Practical Viewpoint, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 41(3), 58–66.
  • Özmen, A. (2009). Örnekleme, Ali Fuat Yüzer (Ed.), İstatistik, Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayını No: 1448, Açıköğretim Fakültesi Yayını No: 771.
  • Qingfeng, L. (2013) [URL: http://www.sei of blue mountain.com / upload / product / 201001/12646657149yhmg1vy.pdf (Erişim 30 Ocak 2013)
  • Ryu, K. ve Jang, S.C. (Shawn) (2008a). DINESCAPE: A Scale for Customers' Perception of Dining Environments, Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 11(1), 2-22.
  • Ryu, K., Han, H., Kim, T.-H. (2008). The Relationships among Overall Quick-Casual Restaurant Image, Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 459–469.
  • Ryu, K. ve Jang, S.C. (2008b). Influence of Restaurants' Physical Environments on Emotion and Behavioral Intention, The Service Industries Journal, 28(8), 1151-1165.
  • Ryu, K. ve Han, H. (2010). Influence of the Quality of Food, Service, and Physical Environment on Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention in Quick-Casual Restaurants: Moderating Role of Perceived Price, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 34(3), 310-329.
  • Ryu, K., Han, H., Jang, S.C. (Shawn) (2010), Relationships among Hedonic and Utilitarian Values, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions in the Fast-Casual Restaurant Industry, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(3), 416 – 432.
  • Ryu, K., Lee, H.-R., Kim, W. G. (2012). The Influence of the Quality of the Physical Environment, Food, and Service on Restaurant Image, Customer Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 200 – 223.
  • Spies, K., Hesse, F., Loesch, K. (1997). Store Atmosphere, Mood and Purchasing Behavior, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14, 1–17.
  • Sulek, J. M. ve Hensley, R. L. (2004). The Relative Importance of Food, Atmosphere, and Fairness of Wait: The Case of a Full-service Restaurant, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 45(3), 235-247.
  • Susskind, A. ve Viccari, A. (2011). A Look at the Relationship between Service Failures, Guest Satisfaction, and Repeat-Patronage Intentions of Casual Dining Guests, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 52(4), 438–444.
  • Varela-Neira, C., Vázquez-Casıelles, R., Iglesias-Arguelles, V. (2008). The Influence of Emotions on Customer's Cognitive Evaluations and Satisfaction in a Service Failure and Rcovery Context, The Service Industries Journal, 28(4), 497-512.
  • Weiss, R., Feinstein, A. H., Dalbor, M. (2004). Customer Satisfaction of Theme Restaurant Attributes and Their Influence on Return Intent, Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 7(1), 23-41.
  • Yüksel, A. ve Yüksel, F. (2007). Shopping Risk Perceptions: Effects on Tourists’ Emotions, Satisfaction and Expressed Loyalty Intentions, Tourism Management, 28(2007), 703-713.
  • Zhang, Y., Ma, Q., Li, Y. (2008). Impact of Scenario-based Customer Process Flow on Customer Emotion and Loyalty, Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics IEEE International Conference, 12-15 October, 1: 29 – 34.

YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ

Yıl 2014, Sayı 1, 23 - 49, 01.01.2014

Öz

Günümüz insanı sosyal, kültürel vb. nedenlerle hayatının önemli bir kısmını dışarıda geçirmektedir ve bu süre boyunca genellikle yeme içme ihtiyacını karşılamak amacıyla yiyecek içecek işletmelerini tercih etmektedir. Bu işletmelerde yaşadıkları deneyim ise gelecek tercihleri üzerinde etkili olabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada restoran atmosferinin duygular, duyguların memnuniyet ve memnuniyetin de davranışsal sadakat üzerindeki etkisi araştırılmıştır. Araştırmada Erzurum il merkezinde faaliyet gösteren, kaliteli bir ortama sahip 11 büyük ölçekli restoran dikkate alınmıştır. Kolayda örnekleme yöntemi ile toplam 400 anket formu bu restoranları son üç ay içerisinde ziyaret etmiş kişilere dağıtılmıştır. Eksik doldurulan anketlerin elenmesi sonucu toplam 397 anket değerlendirmeye alınmıştır. Açıklayıcı faktör analizi ve regresyon analizi için SPSS 20.0 paket programından yararlanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda, restoran atmosferinin müşterilerin duygularını, duyguların müşteri memnuniyetini ve memnuniyetin davranışsal sadakati etkilediği tespit edilmiştir

Kaynakça

  • Altunışık, R., Çoşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S., Yıldırım, E. (2012). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı, Geliştirilmiş 7. Baskı, Sakarya Yayıncılık.
  • Babin, B. J., Lee, Y.-K., Kim, E.-J., Griffin, M. (2005). Modeling Consumer Satisfaction and Wordof-Mouth: Restaurant Patronage in Korea, Journal of Services Marketing, 19(3), 133–139.
  • Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Rosado, A., Maroco, J., Ross, S. (2012). The Effects of Emotions on Football Spectators' Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions, European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(3), 227-242.
  • Bitner, M. J. (1992). Service Scapes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees, Journal of Marketing, 56, 57–71.
  • Cheng, C. C., Chiu, S.-I., Hu, H.-Y., Chang, Y.-Y. (2011). A Study on Exploring the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in the Fast Food Industry: With Relationship Inertia as a Mediator, African Journal of Business Management, 5(13), 5118-5126.
  • Çerik, Ş. ve Bozkurt, S. (2010), Çalışanların Örgütsel Sosyalizasyon ve Kariyer Çabalarına Yönelik Algılamaları Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi ve Banka Çalışanlarına Yönelik Bir Araştırma, Erciyes Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi, (35), 77-97.
  • Emir, O. ve Kılıç, İ. (2011). Müşterilerin Memnuniyet Düzeyleri İle Demografik Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişki: Antalya’daki Beş Yıldızlı Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Uygulama, Journal of Yasar University, 21(6), 3598-3621.
  • Eroğlu, S. A., Machleit, K. A., Chebat, J. C. (2005). The Interaction of Retail Density and Music Tempo: Effects on Shopper Responses, Psychology and Marketing, 22(7), 577–589.
  • Faullant, R., Matzler, K., Mooradian, T. A. (2011). Personality, Basic Emotions, and Satisfaction: Primary Emotions in the Mountaineering Experience, Tourism Management, 32, 1423-1430.
  • Ha, J. ve Jang, S.C. (Shawn) (2010). Effects of Service Quality and Food Quality: The Moderating Role of Atmospherics in an Ethnic Restaurant Segment, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29, 520–529.
  • Han, H., Back, K.-J., Barrett, B. (2009). Influencing Factors on Restaurant Customers’ Revisit Intentions: The Role of Emotions and Switching Barriers, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(4), 563–572.
  • Han, H., Ryu, K. (2009). The Roles of the Physical Environment, Price Perception, and Customer Satisfaction in Determining Customer Loyalty in the Restaurant Industry, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33, 487-510.
  • Heung, V.C.S., Gu, T. (2012). Influence of Restaurant Atmospherics on Patron Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 1167– 1177.
  • Homburg, C., Koschate, N., Hoyer, W. D. (2005). Do Satisfied Customers Really Pay More? A Study of the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Willingness to Pay, The Journal of Marketing, 69(2), 84-96.
  • İlter, B. ve Gökmen, H. (2009). Mevduat Bankalarında İlişkisel Fayda İle Müşteri Memnuniyeti Arasındaki İlişki Üzerine Bir İnceleme: İzmir İli Örneği, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 11(1), 1-32.
  • Jang, S.C. (Shawn) ve Namkung, Y. (2009). Perceived Quality, Emotions, and Behavioral Intentions: Application of an Extended Mehrabian–Russell Model to Restaurants, Journal of Business Research, 62, 451–460.
  • Jang, S.C. (Shawn), Liu, Y., Namkung, Y. (2011). Effects of Authentic Atmospherics in Ethnic Restaurants: Investigating Chinese Restaurants, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(5), 662 – 680.
  • Kaltcheva, V. D. ve Weitz, B. A. (2006). When Should a Retailer Create an Exciting Store Environment?, Journal of Marketing, 70, 107–118.
  • Kang, H.-C. ve Wang, Y.-W. (2009). The Relationships among Sea-Food Restaurant Service Quality, Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions Using Structural Equation Models: A Case of Pengh, The 9th International Conference on Electronic Business, Macau, November 30 - December 4, 629-633.
  • Kim, W. G., Ng, C. Y. N., Kim, Y.-S. (2009). Influence of Institutional DINESERV on Customer Satisfaction, Return Intention, and Word-of-Mouth, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 10–17.
  • Kızgın, Y. (2009). Tüketicilerin Kredi Kartı Marka Tercihlerinin Kümeleme Analizi İle İncelenmesi: Muğla Örneği, Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(2), 93-110.
  • Kotler, P. (1973). Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool, Journal of Retailing, 49(4), 48–64.
  • Krishnan, H. S. ve Olshavsky, R. W. (1995). The Dual Role of Emotions in Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction, Advances in Consumer Research, 22, 454-460.
  • Ladhari R., Brun I., Morales M. (2008). Determinants of Dining Satisfaction and Post-Dining Behavioral Intentions, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 563–573.
  • Liang, R.-D., ve Zhang, J.-S. (2012). The Effect of Service Interaction Orientation on Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention: The Moderating Effect of Dining Frequency, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 24(1), 153 – 170.
  • Liljander, V. ve Strandvik, T. (1997). Emotions in Service Satisfaction, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 8(2), 148 – 169.
  • Lin, I. Y. ve Worthley, R. (2012). Servicescape Moderation on Personality Traits, Emotions, Satisfaction, and Behaviors, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 3, 31–42.
  • Mattila, A. S. ve Wirtz, J. (2001). Congruency of Scent and Music as a Driver of in-store Evaluations and Behavior, Journal of Retailing, 77, 273–289.
  • Mattila, A. S. ve Ro, H. (2008). Discrete Negative Emotions and Customer Dissatisfaction Responses in a Casual Restaurant Setting, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 32(1), 89-107.
  • Namkung, Y. ve Jang, S.C. (2007). Does Food Quality Really Matter in Restaurants? Its Impact On Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 31(3), 387-410.
  • Namkung, Y. ve Jang, S.C. (Shawn) (2010). Effects of Perceived Service Fairness on Emotions, and Behavioral Intentions in Restaurants, European Journal of Marketing, 44(9), 1233 – 1259.
  • Oh, H. (2000). Diners’ Perceptions of Quality, Value, and Satisfaction: A Practical Viewpoint, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 41(3), 58–66.
  • Özmen, A. (2009). Örnekleme, Ali Fuat Yüzer (Ed.), İstatistik, Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayını No: 1448, Açıköğretim Fakültesi Yayını No: 771.
  • Qingfeng, L. (2013) [URL: http://www.sei of blue mountain.com / upload / product / 201001/12646657149yhmg1vy.pdf (Erişim 30 Ocak 2013)
  • Ryu, K. ve Jang, S.C. (Shawn) (2008a). DINESCAPE: A Scale for Customers' Perception of Dining Environments, Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 11(1), 2-22.
  • Ryu, K., Han, H., Kim, T.-H. (2008). The Relationships among Overall Quick-Casual Restaurant Image, Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 459–469.
  • Ryu, K. ve Jang, S.C. (2008b). Influence of Restaurants' Physical Environments on Emotion and Behavioral Intention, The Service Industries Journal, 28(8), 1151-1165.
  • Ryu, K. ve Han, H. (2010). Influence of the Quality of Food, Service, and Physical Environment on Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention in Quick-Casual Restaurants: Moderating Role of Perceived Price, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 34(3), 310-329.
  • Ryu, K., Han, H., Jang, S.C. (Shawn) (2010), Relationships among Hedonic and Utilitarian Values, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions in the Fast-Casual Restaurant Industry, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(3), 416 – 432.
  • Ryu, K., Lee, H.-R., Kim, W. G. (2012). The Influence of the Quality of the Physical Environment, Food, and Service on Restaurant Image, Customer Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 200 – 223.
  • Spies, K., Hesse, F., Loesch, K. (1997). Store Atmosphere, Mood and Purchasing Behavior, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14, 1–17.
  • Sulek, J. M. ve Hensley, R. L. (2004). The Relative Importance of Food, Atmosphere, and Fairness of Wait: The Case of a Full-service Restaurant, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 45(3), 235-247.
  • Susskind, A. ve Viccari, A. (2011). A Look at the Relationship between Service Failures, Guest Satisfaction, and Repeat-Patronage Intentions of Casual Dining Guests, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 52(4), 438–444.
  • Varela-Neira, C., Vázquez-Casıelles, R., Iglesias-Arguelles, V. (2008). The Influence of Emotions on Customer's Cognitive Evaluations and Satisfaction in a Service Failure and Rcovery Context, The Service Industries Journal, 28(4), 497-512.
  • Weiss, R., Feinstein, A. H., Dalbor, M. (2004). Customer Satisfaction of Theme Restaurant Attributes and Their Influence on Return Intent, Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 7(1), 23-41.
  • Yüksel, A. ve Yüksel, F. (2007). Shopping Risk Perceptions: Effects on Tourists’ Emotions, Satisfaction and Expressed Loyalty Intentions, Tourism Management, 28(2007), 703-713.
  • Zhang, Y., Ma, Q., Li, Y. (2008). Impact of Scenario-based Customer Process Flow on Customer Emotion and Loyalty, Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics IEEE International Conference, 12-15 October, 1: 29 – 34.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Sevtap ÜNAL Bu kişi benim
Atatürk Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi


Gülizar AKKUŞ Bu kişi benim
Atatürk Üniversitesi, Turizm Fakültesi


Çetin AKKUŞ Bu kişi benim
Atatürk Üniversitesi, Turizm Fakültesi

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ocak 2014
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2014, Cilt , Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @ { gaziturizm622218, journal = {Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {2149-0163}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversitesi}, year = {2014}, number = {1}, pages = {23 - 49}, title = {YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ}, key = {cite}, author = {Ünal, Sevtap and Akkuş, Gülizar and Akkuş, Çetin} }
APA Ünal, S. , Akkuş, G. & Akkuş, Ç. (2014). YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ . Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi , (1) , 23-49 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gaziturizm/issue/48837/622218
MLA Ünal, S. , Akkuş, G. , Akkuş, Ç. "YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ" . Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi (2014 ): 23-49 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gaziturizm/issue/48837/622218>
Chicago Ünal, S. , Akkuş, G. , Akkuş, Ç. "YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ". Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi (2014 ): 23-49
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ AU - SevtapÜnal, GülizarAkkuş, ÇetinAkkuş Y1 - 2014 PY - 2014 N1 - DO - T2 - Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 23 EP - 49 VL - IS - 1 SN - 2149-0163- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ %A Sevtap Ünal , Gülizar Akkuş , Çetin Akkuş %T YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ %D 2014 %J Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi %P 2149-0163- %V %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Ünal, Sevtap , Akkuş, Gülizar , Akkuş, Çetin . "YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ". Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi / 1 (Ocak 2014): 23-49 .
AMA Ünal S. , Akkuş G. , Akkuş Ç. YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ. GÜTFD. 2014; (1): 23-49.
Vancouver Ünal S. , Akkuş G. , Akkuş Ç. YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ. Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi. 2014; (1): 23-49.
IEEE S. Ünal , G. Akkuş ve Ç. Akkuş , "YİYECEK İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİNDE ATMOSFER, DUYGU, MEMNUNİYET VE DAVRANIŞSAL SADAKAT İLİŞKİSİ", Gazi Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi, sayı. 1, ss. 23-49, Oca. 2014