Yıl 2020, Cilt 20 , Sayı , Sayfalar 79 - 98 2020-11-25

Merkezi/Orta Küçük Asya’nın Kuzeybatı ve Komşu Bölgelerindeki Yollar ve Güzergahlar: Roma’dan Bizans’a, Osmanlı Dönemi’nde 17. Yüzyıla Kadarki Kaderlerine Dair Bazı Yorumlar
Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century

Klaus BELKE [1]


Çalışma, kuzeybatı Asia Minor'daki (ve merkez/orta bölümlerindeki) Roma'dan Bizans Dönemi'ne kadar olan yolların gelişimini inceleyerek, Türk döneminde 17. yüzyıla kadar bazı değişikliklere işaret eder. Uzun mesafeli trafiğin ana güzergâhlarına ilişkin dikkate değer bir süreklilik vardı, ancak bu güzergahlar, farklı askeri ve ekonomik odaklara ve ihtiyaçlara karşılık gelecek şekilde ayrıntılı olarak değişebilir. Yolların tasarım ve yapım teknikleri değişti, ekonomik kaynaklara bağlı olarak devlet, vagonlar ve at arabalarından yük hayvanlarına kadar olan değişime harcama yapabiliyordu. Antikçağ’ın sonunda Roma İmparatorluk Dönemi’nin geniş, taş döşemeli uzun-mesafe yollarının ihmal edilmesi Asia Minor'daki taşıt trafiğinin kademeli olarak azalmasıyla bağlantılıdır. İ.S. 6. yüzyıla kadar seyahat ve taşıma, basit kağnı arabaları üzerindeki kısa mesafe taşımacılığı hariç, binek ve yük hayvanlarına dayanmaktadır. Yollar bu ulaşım araçlarına uyarlandı, daha dar bir hale geldi ve sarp geçitlerde basamaklandırıldı.

7. yüzyıldan itibaren doğu eyaletlerinin kaybedilmesinin ardından ve Anadolu'nun neredeyse yıllık gerçekleşen Arap istilaları sırasında, Bizanslılar Roma Dönemi'nin ve Geç Antik Çağ'ın ana yollarından kısmen farklı olan, ancak çoğunlukla Roma seleflerinden miras kalan yolları seçti. Asia Minor boyunca ana yollar genellikle kabul edilebilir bir düzen içinde tutuldu, ancak çok az yeni yol inşa edildi.

Selçuklu fethinden sonra yollar tekrardan emniyetsiz bir duruma geldi. Ana iletişim hatları en azından Bizans kontrolü altındaki bölgelerde değişmedi. Osmanlılar, Bizanslılar'ın askeri seferler ve ticaret için kullandıkları yolların çoğunu devraldı. Yine de, en azından sınırlı sayıya sahip tamamen yeni yol inşa etmeye hazır oldukları anlaşılıyor. Bina teknikleri aşağı yukarı Bizans seleflerinin örneklerini izledi.

The paper examines the development of roads in northwestern (and parts of Central) Asia Minor from the Roman to the Byzantine period, pointing also to some changes in the Turkish period until about the 17th century. There was a remarkable continuity regarding the main routes of long distance traffic, but these routes could change in detail, corresponding to different military and economic focuses and needs. Design and building techniques of the roads changed, depending on the economic resources the state was able to spend and above all on the change from wagons and carts to pack animals. Neglect of the wide, paved long-distance roads of the Roman imperial period at the end of antiquity was linked to the gradual decrease of vehicular traffic in Asia Minor. By the sixth century AD, travel and transport relied on mounts and pack animals, except for some short-distance trans-portation on simple oxcarts. Roads were adapted to these means of transport and became narrower and stepped at steep passages.

From the seventh century onwards, following the loss of the eastern provinces and during the nearly annual Arab invasions of Anatolia, the Byzantines chose routes that were partly different from the main routes of the Roman period and Late Antiquity, but which mostly were also inherited from their Roman predecessors. The main routes through Asia Minor were generally maintained in an acceptable order, but very few really new roads were built.

After the Seljuk conquests roads became insecure again. The main lines of communication did not change, at least not in regions under Byzantine control. The Ottomans took over most of the roads used by the Byzantines for their military campaigns and for trade. It seems, however, that they were readier to build at least a limited number of entirely new roads. Their building techniques more or less followed the examples of their Byzantine predecessors.
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Orcid: 0000-0002-6189-7523
Yazar: Klaus BELKE
Kurum: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften
Ülke: Austria


Tarihler

Başvuru Tarihi : 26 Mayıs 2020
Kabul Tarihi : 22 Haziran 2020
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 25 Kasım 2020

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { gephyra742745, journal = {Gephyra}, issn = {1309-3924}, eissn = {2651-5059}, address = {}, publisher = {Nalan Eda AKYÜREK ŞAHİN}, year = {2020}, volume = {20}, pages = {79 - 98}, doi = {10.37095/gephyra.742745}, title = {Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century}, key = {cite}, author = {Belke, Klaus} }
APA Belke, K . (2020). Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century . Gephyra , 20 , 79-98 . DOI: 10.37095/gephyra.742745
MLA Belke, K . "Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century" . Gephyra 20 (2020 ): 79-98 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gephyra/issue/56927/742745>
Chicago Belke, K . "Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century". Gephyra 20 (2020 ): 79-98
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century AU - Klaus Belke Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.37095/gephyra.742745 DO - 10.37095/gephyra.742745 T2 - Gephyra JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 79 EP - 98 VL - 20 IS - SN - 1309-3924-2651-5059 M3 - doi: 10.37095/gephyra.742745 UR - https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.742745 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Gephyra Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century %A Klaus Belke %T Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century %D 2020 %J Gephyra %P 1309-3924-2651-5059 %V 20 %N %R doi: 10.37095/gephyra.742745 %U 10.37095/gephyra.742745
ISNAD Belke, Klaus . "Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century". Gephyra 20 / (Kasım 2020): 79-98 . https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.742745
AMA Belke K . Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century. GEPHYRA. 2020; 20: 79-98.
Vancouver Belke K . Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century. Gephyra. 2020; 20: 79-98.
IEEE K. Belke , "Roads and Routes in Northwestern and Adjoining Parts of Central Asia Minor: From the Romans to Byzantium, with Some Remarks on their Fate during the Ottoman Period up to the 17th Century", Gephyra, c. 20, ss. 79-98, Kas. 2020, doi:10.37095/gephyra.742745