Araştırma Makalesi
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

An Athenian in Miletupolis. The Gravestone of Hypermenes from the Classical Age - An important Document on the Relationship between Miletupolis and Athens

Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı , 219 - 252, 15.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.1003719

Öz

In 2017, a large burial stele, which was found as a result of illegal excavation in a parcel in the Melde locality belonging to the district of Mustafakemalpaşa/Bursa (on the land of the General Directorate of Agricultural Enterprises - TİGEM), was brought to the Bursa Museum. In antiquity Melde, where the stele was found, was the location of the city of Miletupolis. This tombstone would have stood in one of the necropolises of this city. In the article, this stele is examined and is interpreted through its epigraphic, historical and archaeological aspects.
A one-day salvage excavation was carried out by the Bursa Museum at the site of the stele. The tomb was formed as a cist from large blocks that were cut neatly, and a skeleton was found inside. The stele was found lying on the tomb. As can be seen in the photographs of the find spot, it is understood that the stele did not lie deep under the ground (Fig. 1-4). The stele was found broken in two pieces underground. On the upper part, there is an Ancient Greek funerary inscription of 3 lines, which is reminiscent of the stoichedon style and reads: (The tomb of) Hypermenes from Athens, son of Hagnodemos. The inscription does not tell us why this Athenian lived in Miletupolis.
On the main body of the stele, a standing grown man facing to the right and a dog siting at his feet and pointing its head upwards towards its owner are depicted in high relief. This main motif depicted on the stele is well known in the archaeological world and these steles are known as the tombstones with a “man and dog” theme. The stylistic features of the stele and its reliefs and the lettering of the inscription indicate that the work was made during the Classical Period. Although a number of tombstones produced in this style between the Late Archaic Period and the Early Classical Period have been found (see figure 38-40 here), to date no tombstones of this type have been found dating from the (High) Classical Period. From this point of view, this find is unique and the work is important in this respect. An embossed burial stele of this style from the Mysia region and of such an early date was not known. It may be wondered why an Athenian, who died in the city of Miletupolis, had a tombstone made with such a motif. First, the style of the stele and the reliefs on it is definitely in the Attic style. There must have been stonemasons who produced Attic style tombstones for the city of Miletupolis at that time. In fact, the “man and dog” motif was abandoned many years earlier in Greece and in surrounding areas and even in Asia Minor (Ionia). This reworking of an old depiction is surprising. Hypermenes, a citizen of Athens living in Miletupolis, obviously wanted to continue an old tradition of the country he lived in. The “man and dog” motif used on tombstones has been studied in many aspects in terms of archaeology. According to C. Schneider, who was the last to evaluate such steles, the theme of these steles depicts the public lifestyle of a grown respected aristocratic man, who is a part of the daily life of the society. According to him, these steles with dogs represent the happiness of the deceased enjoyed throughout his life. Some concepts such as being of good age or arete/virtue are also emphasized in the description. Such steles show the status, prestige, wealth and maturity of the deceased in society. With such a symbol on the tombstone the fact that a life was lived to the fullest is emphasized. For this reason, these steles, which were carefully prepared and placed in the most prestigious places, are understood as being the tomb monuments of wealthy families. It would be correct to understand the tomb owner Hypermenes in this context. As a result of the stylistic features of the work and comparison with similar works, it can be said that it belongs to the end of the 5th century B.C., that is to say, it can be dated to ca. 410/400.
In addition to the archaeological features mentioned and importance of this tombstone, it has also a most considerable importance in terms of the history of the place where the stele was found. In this article, known documents and finds from this period, and both earlier and later evidence concerning Miletupolis are brought together. It is understood that the city of Miletupolis had a close relationship with Athens in that period. It is accepted by many scholars that the city was an Athenian colony. However, although there are many indications of the strong relations between the two cities, definitive evidence that the city was founded by the Athenians is still lacking. This tombstone provides new evidence of Miletopolis’ close relationship with Athens in the 5th and 4th century B.C.

Kaynakça

  • A. Abmeier, Zur Geschichte von Apollonia am Rhyndakos, in: E. Schwertheim (Hrsg.), Mysische Studien (Asia Minor Studien 1), Bonn 1990, 1-16.
  • A. Akat, 1975 Miletopolis Hafriyat Raporu, TAD 24/1, 1977, 5-11.
  • N. E. Akyürek Şahin, Bursa Müzesi’nde Klasik Dönem’e Ait Bir Epigram, in: C. Aşkit – S. Kalaycıoğulları – R. Kayapınar – C. Üstünel Keyinci – R. Öztürk (Hrsgg.), In memoriam Filiz Öktem, Ankara 2014, 279-283.
  • N. E. Akyürek Şahin – H. Uzunoğlu, New Inscriptions from the Museum of Bursa, Gephyra 17, 2019, 239-285.
  • N. E. Akyürek Şahin – M. E. Yıldız, Neue Weihungen aus dem Museum von Bursa, Gephyra 20, 2020, 153-170.
  • A. Avram, The Propontic Coast of Asia Minor, in: M. H. Hansen – T. H. Nielsen (Hrsg.), An inventory of archaic and classical poleis, Oxford 2004.
  • S. Aybek- M. Tuna – M. Atıcı, İzmir Tarih ve Sanat Müzesi Heykel Kataloğu. Orijinaller, Roma Kopyaları, Portreler ve Kabartmalar, Ankara 2009.
  • B. B. Aykanat, Sinop’tan Bir Köpekli Mezar Steli, in: N. Türker – G. Köroğlu – Ö. Deniz (Hrsgg.), 1. Uluslararası Karadeniz Kültür Kongresi/1st International Conference on the Black Sea Regional Culture, 6-9 Ekim 2011/October 2011 Sinop/Türkiye, Bildiri Kitabı/Proceedings Book, Karabük 2013, 99-104.
  • R. Behrwald (Hrsg.), Hellenika von Oxyrhynchos (= Texte zur Forschung 86), Darmstadt 2005.
  • K. Belke, Bithynien und Hellespont (TIB 13), Wien 2020.
  • J. Bergemann, Die bürgerliche Identität der Athener im Spiegel der attischen Grabreliefs, in: E. Pöhlmann – W. Gauer (Hrsgg.), Griechische Klassik. Vorträge bei der interdiziplinären Tagung des Deutschen Archäologenverbandes und der Mommsengesellschaft vom 24.-27. 10 1991 in Blaubeuren, Nürnberg 1994, 283-293.
  • J. Bergemann, Demos und Thanatos. Untersuchungen zum Wertsystem der Polis im Spiegel der attischen Grabreliefs des 4. Jhs. v. Chr. und zur Funktion der gleichzeitigen Grabbauten, München 1997.
  • E. Berger, Das Basler Arztrelief. Studien zum griechischen Grab- und Votivreliefs um 500 v. Chr. und zur vorhippokratischen Medizin, Mainz 1970.
  • F. Bilabel, Die ionische Kolonisation. Untersuchungen über die Gründungen der Ionier, deren staatliche und kultische Organisation und Beziehungen zu den Mutterstädten (Philologus suppl. 14.1), Leipzig 1920.
  • J. Bousquet, Deux Inscriptions Attiques, BCH 91/1, 1967, 90-95.
  • P. Charneux, Liste argienne de théarodoques, BCH 90/1, 1966, 156-239.
  • Ch. W. Clairmont, Gravestone and Epigram. Greek Memorials from the Archaic and Classical Period, Mains 1970.
  • Th. Corsten, Prosopographische und onomastische Notizen II, Epigr Anat 39, 2006, 121-132.
  • J. A. Cramer, A Geographical and Historical Description of Asia Minor I, Oxford 1832.
  • M. Cremer, Hellenistisch-römische Grabstelen im nordwestlichen Kleinasien 1. Mysien (Asia Minor Studien 4,1), Bonn 1991.
  • P. Debord, L’Asie Mineure au IVe siècle (412-323 a.C.). Pouvoirs et jeux politiques, Paris-Bordeaux 1999.
  • J. Dedeoğlu, Miletopolis Kazısı 1975. A Sondaj Çukuru Hafriyat Raporu, TAD 24/1, 1977, 13-27.
  • H. Diepolder, Die attischen Grabreliefs des 5. und 4. Jhs. v. Chr., Berlin 1931 (unveränderter Nachdruck Darmstadt 1965).
  • E. M. Doksanaltı – R. Özgan, Kilikya’dan Arkaik Devre Ait İki Kabartma Üzerine Düşünceler, Anadolu/Anatolia 32, 2007, 1-20.
  • E. M. Doksanaltı – R. Özgan, Düzeltme/Erratum, Anadolu/Anatolia 33, 2007, 165.
  • D. Duneka, Darstellungen älterer und jüngerer Männer auf klassischen Grabreliefs: Eine ikonographische Untersuchung zur Funktion eines Grabrelief-Typos im Totenkult (elektronische Hochschulschrift/Dissertation), Münster 1995.
  • S. Durugönül, Grabstele der Nana aus Sinope, in: Studien zum antiken Kleinasien II (Asia Minor Studien 8), 1992, 97-107.
  • N. Ehrhardt, Milet und seine Kolonien. Vergleichende Untersuchung der kultischen und politischen Einrichtungen, Frankfurt am Main-Bern-New York 1983.
  • H. Erpehlivan, Propontis’in Güneydoğusunda M.Ö. 1. Binyıl Yerleşmeleri ve Mezar Tipleri (M.Ö. 8-4. yüzyıllar) (unpublizierte Dissertation), İstanbul 2018.
  • H. Erpehlivan, Propontis’in Güneyindeki Üç Kent İçin Lokalizasyon Önerileri, International Journal of Social Inquiry 11/2, 2018, 115-134.
  • H. Erpehlivan, Settlements to the South-East of the Propontis between the 8th and 4th Centuries BCE, in: V. Keleş (Hrg.), Propontis ve Çevre Kültürleri – Propontis and Surrounding Cultures (Parion Studies III), İstanbul 2020, 353-362.
  • C. Foss, Map 52 Byzantium, in: R. J. A. Talbert (Hrsg.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton 2000, 785-795.
  • K. Friis Johansen, The Attic Grave-Reliefs of the Classical Period. An essay in interpretation, Copenhagen 1951.
  • S. Gündüz – O. Dumankaya, Liman Kenti Miletoupolis, in: S. Sevim – M. Eren – M. Çubukçu – H. Ersöz (Hrsgg.), Uluslararası III. Mustafakemalpaşa Sempozyumu, 1. Cilt, 13-14-15 Mayıs 2016, Mustafakemalpaşa-Bursa, Bursa 2016, 101-116.
  • A. Güzelsoy, Yazıtlar ve Sikkeler Işığında Miletopolis Kenti (unpublizerte Magisterarbeit), Çanakkale 2014.
  • Chr. Habicht, Zu griechischen Inschriften aus Kleinasien, Epigr Anat 31, 1999, 19-29.
  • G. M. A. Hanfmann – N. H. Ramage, Sculpture from Sardis: The Finds through 1975, Cambridge (Mass.) 1978.
  • F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished Inscriptions from the Cyzicus Neighbourhood, JHS 24, 1904, 20-40.
  • F. W. Hasluck, Cyzicus: Being some Account of the History and Antiquities of that City, and of the District Adjacent to it, with the Towns of Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, Miletupolis, Hadrianutherae, Priapus, Zeleia, etc., Cambridge 1910.
  • B. V. Head, Historia Numorum. A Manual of Greek Numismatics, Oxford 1911.
  • H. Hiller, Ionische Grabreliefs der ersten Hälfte des 5. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (IstMitt Beiheft 12), Tübingen 1975.
  • N. Himmelmann, Attische Grabreliefs (Nordrhein-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Geisteswissenschaften Vorträge G 357), Opladen-Wiesbaden 1999.
  • H. Kalkan, New Inscriptions from Bithynia and Mysia in the İstanbul Museum, Epigr Anat 20, 1992, 101-104.
  • N. Kaltsas, Sculpture in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Los Angeles 2002.
  • O. Kozaman, Miletopolis – Hamam Kazısı 1975 Raporu, TAD 24/1, 1977, 29-39.
  • G. C. Malatya, Miletopolis Tarihi ve Sikkeleri (İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi), İstanbul 2015.
  • G. Manganaro, Stranieri a Kyme eolica, Epigr Anat 28, 1997, 1-4.
  • A. Matthaei, Münzbild und Polisbild. Untersuchung zur Selbstdarstellung kleinasiatischer Poleis im Hellenismus (Münchner Studien zur Alten Welt, Bd. 3.), München 2013.
  • R. Meiggs, The Athenian Empire, Oxford 1972.
  • B. D. Meritt, Greek Inscriptions, Hesperia 5/3, 1936, 355-430.
  • İ. H. Mert, Kirmasti Bölgesinin Arkeolojik Önemi, in: S. Sevim (Hrsg.), Mustafakemalpaşa (Kirmasti) Sempozyumu (7-9 Ekim 2011) Bildirileri, Bursa 2011, 207-224.
  • M. Moltesen, Greece in the classical period: catalogue, Ny Carlberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen 1995.
  • R. Özgan, Untersuchungen zur archaischen Plastik Ioniens, Bonn 1978.
  • R. Özgan, Zwei Grabreliefs im Museum von Çanakkale, in: H. Kyrieleis (Hrsg.), Archaische und klassische griechische Plastik. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums von 22.-25. April 1985 in Athen, Mainz 1986, 27-33.
  • R. Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens, Oxford-New York 2005.
  • P. Perlman, City and Sanctuary in Ancient Greece. The Theorodokia in the Peloponnese, Göttingen 2000.
  • E. Pogiatzi, Die Grabreliefs auf Zypern von der archaischen bis zur römischen Zeit, Mannheim-Möhnesee 2003.
  • F. Poulsen, Catalogue of Ancient Sculpture in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen 1951.
  • S. Ridgway, The Man and Dog Stelai, JdI 86, 1971, 60-79.
  • M. Şahin, Figürliche Grabstelen und Weihreliefs aus Miletupolis, IstMitt 47, 1997, 179-197.
  • M. Şahin, Miletopolis Kökenli Figürlü Mezar Stelleri ve Adak Levhaları, Ankara 2000.
  • V. Schild-Xenidou, Corpus der Boiotischen Grab- und Weihreliefs des 6. bis 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (AM, 20. Beiheft), Mainz 2008.
  • B. Schmaltz, Griechische Grabreliefs, Darmstadt 1983.
  • C. Schneider, Herr und Hund auf archaischen Grabstelen, JdI 115, 2000, 1-36.
  • E. Schwertheim, Neue Inschriften aus Miletupolis, Epigr Anat 5, 1985, 77-88.
  • E. Schwertheim, Miletupolis-Miletopolis, DNP 8, 2000, 181.
  • E. Schwertheim, Die Muttergöttin und ihre Hunde, in: E. Dündar – Ş. Aktaş – M. Koçak – S. Erkoç (Hrsgg.), Lykiarkhissa. Havva İşkan’a Armağan/Festschrift für Havva İşkan, İstanbul 2016, 717-721.
  • E. Schwertheim – N. Güllü Schwertheim, Epigraphica der Sammlung Yavuz Tatış. Lydien, Mysien, Türkei, İzmir 2018.
  • R. Stupperich, Staatsbegräbnis und Privatgrabmal im klassischen Athen, Münster 1977.
  • R. Stupperich, Eine Bronzestatuette aus Miletupolis. Zu archaisierenden Kleinbronzen der Kaiserzeit, in: E. Schwertheim (Hrsg.), Mysische Studien (Asia Minor Studien 1), Bonn 1990, 111-116.
  • H. Taeuber, Ein mysischer Athletiktrainer in Klosterneuburg, ZPE 99, 1993, 203-206.
  • A. Taliano Grasso, Stele funeraria con motivo Man and Dog da Kyme eolica, in: F. Serra (Hrsg.), Orizzonti. Rassegna di Archeologia, XIII, Pisa-Roma 2012, 21-28.
  • J. Teichmann, Das Territorium der Stadt Kyzikos zu Beginn der römischen Kaiserzeit, in: Studien zum antiken Kleinasien (Asia Minor Studien 3) Bonn 1991, 139-151.
  • Chr. C. Tsagalis, Inscribing Sorrow. Fourth-Century Attic Funerary Epigrams, Berlin 2008.
  • H. Tsophopoulou-Gkine, Archaiologike Ephemeris, 1980 (1982), 85-96.
  • M. E. Uyar, Mustafakemalpaşa İlçesi Arkeolojik Kültür Envanteri, (unpublizierte Magisterarbeit) İzmir 2019.
  • E. Walter-Karydi, Die Athener und ihre Gräber (1000-300 v. Chr.), Berlin 2015.
  • Th. Wiegand, Reisen in Mysien, AM 29, 1904, 254-339.
  • B. Yalman, Miletopolis Hafriyatı 1975, TAD 24/1, 1977, 23-27.
  • M. E. Yıldız, Epigramm auf die verstorbene Moschion. Eine neue Grabstele aus dem Territorium von Miletupolis in Mysien, in: M. Nollé – P. M. Rothenhöfer – G. Schmied-Kowarzik – H. Schwarz – H.-Chr. von Mosch (eds.), Panegyrikoi Logoi. Festschrift für Johannes Nollé zum 65. Geburtstag, Bonn 2019, 583-590.
  • Y. Yılmaz, Anadolu’nun Gözyaşları. Yurtdışına Götürülmüş Tarihi Eserlerimiz, İstanbul 20213.
  • T. H. Zeyrek, Mustafa Kemal Paşa’dan (Miletopolis) Bronz Bir Büst: Apollon, Anadolu Araştırmaları 17/1, 2010, 93-115.
  • M. Zlotogorska, Darstellungen von Hunden auf griechischen Grabreliefs. Von der Archaik bis in die römische Kaiserzeit, Hamburg 1997.

Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen

Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı , 219 - 252, 15.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.1003719

Öz

In 2017, a large burial stele, which was found as a result of illegal excavation in a parcel in the Melde locality belonging to the district of Mustafakemalpaşa/Bursa (on the land of the General Directorate of Agricultural Enterprises - TİGEM), was brought to the Bursa Museum. In antiquity Melde, where the stele was found, was the location of the city of Miletupolis. This tombstone would have stood in one of the necropolises of this city. In the article, this stele is examined and is interpreted through its epigraphic, historical and archaeological aspects.
A one-day salvage excavation was carried out by the Bursa Museum at the site of the stele. The tomb was formed as a cist from large blocks that were cut neatly, and a skeleton was found inside. The stele was found lying on the tomb. As can be seen in the photographs of the find spot, it is understood that the stele did not lie deep under the ground (Fig. 1-4). The stele was found broken in two pieces underground. On the upper part, there is an Ancient Greek funerary inscription of 3 lines, which is reminiscent of the stoichedon style and reads: (The tomb of) Hypermenes from Athens, son of Hagnodemos. The inscription does not tell us why this Athenian lived in Miletupolis.
On the main body of the stele, a standing grown man facing to the right and a dog siting at his feet and pointing its head upwards towards its owner are depicted in high relief. This main motif depicted on the stele is well known in the archaeological world and these steles are known as the tombstones with a “man and dog” theme. The stylistic features of the stele and its reliefs and the lettering of the inscription indicate that the work was made during the Classical Period. Although a number of tombstones produced in this style between the Late Archaic Period and the Early Classical Period have been found (see figure 38-40 here), to date no tombstones of this type have been found dating from the (High) Classical Period. From this point of view, this find is unique and the work is important in this respect. An embossed burial stele of this style from the Mysia region and of such an early date was not known. It may be wondered why an Athenian, who died in the city of Miletupolis, had a tombstone made with such a motif. First, the style of the stele and the reliefs on it is definitely in the Attic style. There must have been stonemasons who produced Attic style tombstones for the city of Miletupolis at that time. In fact, the “man and dog” motif was abandoned many years earlier in Greece and in surrounding areas and even in Asia Minor (Ionia). This reworking of an old depiction is surprising. Hypermenes, a citizen of Athens living in Miletupolis, obviously wanted to continue an old tradition of the country he lived in. The “man and dog” motif used on tombstones has been studied in many aspects in terms of archaeology. According to C. Schneider, who was the last to evaluate such steles, the theme of these steles depicts the public lifestyle of a grown respected aristocratic man, who is a part of the daily life of the society. According to him, these steles with dogs represent the happiness of the deceased enjoyed throughout his life. Some concepts such as being of good age or arete/virtue are also emphasized in the description. Such steles show the status, prestige, wealth and maturity of the deceased in society. With such a symbol on the tombstone the fact that a life was lived to the fullest is emphasized. For this reason, these steles, which were carefully prepared and placed in the most prestigious places, are understood as being the tomb monuments of wealthy families. It would be correct to understand the tomb owner Hypermenes in this context. As a result of the stylistic features of the work and comparison with similar works, it can be said that it belongs to the end of the 5th century B.C., that is to say, it can be dated to ca. 410/400.
In addition to the archaeological features mentioned and importance of this tombstone, it has also a most considerable importance in terms of the history of the place where the stele was found. In this article, known documents and finds from this period, and both earlier and later evidence concerning Miletupolis are brought together. It is understood that the city of Miletupolis had a close relationship with Athens in that period. It is accepted by many scholars that the city was an Athenian colony. However, although there are many indications of the strong relations between the two cities, definitive evidence that the city was founded by the Athenians is still lacking. This tombstone provides new evidence of Miletopolis’ close relationship with Athens in the 5th and 4th century B.C.

Kaynakça

  • A. Abmeier, Zur Geschichte von Apollonia am Rhyndakos, in: E. Schwertheim (Hrsg.), Mysische Studien (Asia Minor Studien 1), Bonn 1990, 1-16.
  • A. Akat, 1975 Miletopolis Hafriyat Raporu, TAD 24/1, 1977, 5-11.
  • N. E. Akyürek Şahin, Bursa Müzesi’nde Klasik Dönem’e Ait Bir Epigram, in: C. Aşkit – S. Kalaycıoğulları – R. Kayapınar – C. Üstünel Keyinci – R. Öztürk (Hrsgg.), In memoriam Filiz Öktem, Ankara 2014, 279-283.
  • N. E. Akyürek Şahin – H. Uzunoğlu, New Inscriptions from the Museum of Bursa, Gephyra 17, 2019, 239-285.
  • N. E. Akyürek Şahin – M. E. Yıldız, Neue Weihungen aus dem Museum von Bursa, Gephyra 20, 2020, 153-170.
  • A. Avram, The Propontic Coast of Asia Minor, in: M. H. Hansen – T. H. Nielsen (Hrsg.), An inventory of archaic and classical poleis, Oxford 2004.
  • S. Aybek- M. Tuna – M. Atıcı, İzmir Tarih ve Sanat Müzesi Heykel Kataloğu. Orijinaller, Roma Kopyaları, Portreler ve Kabartmalar, Ankara 2009.
  • B. B. Aykanat, Sinop’tan Bir Köpekli Mezar Steli, in: N. Türker – G. Köroğlu – Ö. Deniz (Hrsgg.), 1. Uluslararası Karadeniz Kültür Kongresi/1st International Conference on the Black Sea Regional Culture, 6-9 Ekim 2011/October 2011 Sinop/Türkiye, Bildiri Kitabı/Proceedings Book, Karabük 2013, 99-104.
  • R. Behrwald (Hrsg.), Hellenika von Oxyrhynchos (= Texte zur Forschung 86), Darmstadt 2005.
  • K. Belke, Bithynien und Hellespont (TIB 13), Wien 2020.
  • J. Bergemann, Die bürgerliche Identität der Athener im Spiegel der attischen Grabreliefs, in: E. Pöhlmann – W. Gauer (Hrsgg.), Griechische Klassik. Vorträge bei der interdiziplinären Tagung des Deutschen Archäologenverbandes und der Mommsengesellschaft vom 24.-27. 10 1991 in Blaubeuren, Nürnberg 1994, 283-293.
  • J. Bergemann, Demos und Thanatos. Untersuchungen zum Wertsystem der Polis im Spiegel der attischen Grabreliefs des 4. Jhs. v. Chr. und zur Funktion der gleichzeitigen Grabbauten, München 1997.
  • E. Berger, Das Basler Arztrelief. Studien zum griechischen Grab- und Votivreliefs um 500 v. Chr. und zur vorhippokratischen Medizin, Mainz 1970.
  • F. Bilabel, Die ionische Kolonisation. Untersuchungen über die Gründungen der Ionier, deren staatliche und kultische Organisation und Beziehungen zu den Mutterstädten (Philologus suppl. 14.1), Leipzig 1920.
  • J. Bousquet, Deux Inscriptions Attiques, BCH 91/1, 1967, 90-95.
  • P. Charneux, Liste argienne de théarodoques, BCH 90/1, 1966, 156-239.
  • Ch. W. Clairmont, Gravestone and Epigram. Greek Memorials from the Archaic and Classical Period, Mains 1970.
  • Th. Corsten, Prosopographische und onomastische Notizen II, Epigr Anat 39, 2006, 121-132.
  • J. A. Cramer, A Geographical and Historical Description of Asia Minor I, Oxford 1832.
  • M. Cremer, Hellenistisch-römische Grabstelen im nordwestlichen Kleinasien 1. Mysien (Asia Minor Studien 4,1), Bonn 1991.
  • P. Debord, L’Asie Mineure au IVe siècle (412-323 a.C.). Pouvoirs et jeux politiques, Paris-Bordeaux 1999.
  • J. Dedeoğlu, Miletopolis Kazısı 1975. A Sondaj Çukuru Hafriyat Raporu, TAD 24/1, 1977, 13-27.
  • H. Diepolder, Die attischen Grabreliefs des 5. und 4. Jhs. v. Chr., Berlin 1931 (unveränderter Nachdruck Darmstadt 1965).
  • E. M. Doksanaltı – R. Özgan, Kilikya’dan Arkaik Devre Ait İki Kabartma Üzerine Düşünceler, Anadolu/Anatolia 32, 2007, 1-20.
  • E. M. Doksanaltı – R. Özgan, Düzeltme/Erratum, Anadolu/Anatolia 33, 2007, 165.
  • D. Duneka, Darstellungen älterer und jüngerer Männer auf klassischen Grabreliefs: Eine ikonographische Untersuchung zur Funktion eines Grabrelief-Typos im Totenkult (elektronische Hochschulschrift/Dissertation), Münster 1995.
  • S. Durugönül, Grabstele der Nana aus Sinope, in: Studien zum antiken Kleinasien II (Asia Minor Studien 8), 1992, 97-107.
  • N. Ehrhardt, Milet und seine Kolonien. Vergleichende Untersuchung der kultischen und politischen Einrichtungen, Frankfurt am Main-Bern-New York 1983.
  • H. Erpehlivan, Propontis’in Güneydoğusunda M.Ö. 1. Binyıl Yerleşmeleri ve Mezar Tipleri (M.Ö. 8-4. yüzyıllar) (unpublizierte Dissertation), İstanbul 2018.
  • H. Erpehlivan, Propontis’in Güneyindeki Üç Kent İçin Lokalizasyon Önerileri, International Journal of Social Inquiry 11/2, 2018, 115-134.
  • H. Erpehlivan, Settlements to the South-East of the Propontis between the 8th and 4th Centuries BCE, in: V. Keleş (Hrg.), Propontis ve Çevre Kültürleri – Propontis and Surrounding Cultures (Parion Studies III), İstanbul 2020, 353-362.
  • C. Foss, Map 52 Byzantium, in: R. J. A. Talbert (Hrsg.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton 2000, 785-795.
  • K. Friis Johansen, The Attic Grave-Reliefs of the Classical Period. An essay in interpretation, Copenhagen 1951.
  • S. Gündüz – O. Dumankaya, Liman Kenti Miletoupolis, in: S. Sevim – M. Eren – M. Çubukçu – H. Ersöz (Hrsgg.), Uluslararası III. Mustafakemalpaşa Sempozyumu, 1. Cilt, 13-14-15 Mayıs 2016, Mustafakemalpaşa-Bursa, Bursa 2016, 101-116.
  • A. Güzelsoy, Yazıtlar ve Sikkeler Işığında Miletopolis Kenti (unpublizerte Magisterarbeit), Çanakkale 2014.
  • Chr. Habicht, Zu griechischen Inschriften aus Kleinasien, Epigr Anat 31, 1999, 19-29.
  • G. M. A. Hanfmann – N. H. Ramage, Sculpture from Sardis: The Finds through 1975, Cambridge (Mass.) 1978.
  • F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished Inscriptions from the Cyzicus Neighbourhood, JHS 24, 1904, 20-40.
  • F. W. Hasluck, Cyzicus: Being some Account of the History and Antiquities of that City, and of the District Adjacent to it, with the Towns of Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, Miletupolis, Hadrianutherae, Priapus, Zeleia, etc., Cambridge 1910.
  • B. V. Head, Historia Numorum. A Manual of Greek Numismatics, Oxford 1911.
  • H. Hiller, Ionische Grabreliefs der ersten Hälfte des 5. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (IstMitt Beiheft 12), Tübingen 1975.
  • N. Himmelmann, Attische Grabreliefs (Nordrhein-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Geisteswissenschaften Vorträge G 357), Opladen-Wiesbaden 1999.
  • H. Kalkan, New Inscriptions from Bithynia and Mysia in the İstanbul Museum, Epigr Anat 20, 1992, 101-104.
  • N. Kaltsas, Sculpture in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Los Angeles 2002.
  • O. Kozaman, Miletopolis – Hamam Kazısı 1975 Raporu, TAD 24/1, 1977, 29-39.
  • G. C. Malatya, Miletopolis Tarihi ve Sikkeleri (İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi), İstanbul 2015.
  • G. Manganaro, Stranieri a Kyme eolica, Epigr Anat 28, 1997, 1-4.
  • A. Matthaei, Münzbild und Polisbild. Untersuchung zur Selbstdarstellung kleinasiatischer Poleis im Hellenismus (Münchner Studien zur Alten Welt, Bd. 3.), München 2013.
  • R. Meiggs, The Athenian Empire, Oxford 1972.
  • B. D. Meritt, Greek Inscriptions, Hesperia 5/3, 1936, 355-430.
  • İ. H. Mert, Kirmasti Bölgesinin Arkeolojik Önemi, in: S. Sevim (Hrsg.), Mustafakemalpaşa (Kirmasti) Sempozyumu (7-9 Ekim 2011) Bildirileri, Bursa 2011, 207-224.
  • M. Moltesen, Greece in the classical period: catalogue, Ny Carlberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen 1995.
  • R. Özgan, Untersuchungen zur archaischen Plastik Ioniens, Bonn 1978.
  • R. Özgan, Zwei Grabreliefs im Museum von Çanakkale, in: H. Kyrieleis (Hrsg.), Archaische und klassische griechische Plastik. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums von 22.-25. April 1985 in Athen, Mainz 1986, 27-33.
  • R. Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens, Oxford-New York 2005.
  • P. Perlman, City and Sanctuary in Ancient Greece. The Theorodokia in the Peloponnese, Göttingen 2000.
  • E. Pogiatzi, Die Grabreliefs auf Zypern von der archaischen bis zur römischen Zeit, Mannheim-Möhnesee 2003.
  • F. Poulsen, Catalogue of Ancient Sculpture in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen 1951.
  • S. Ridgway, The Man and Dog Stelai, JdI 86, 1971, 60-79.
  • M. Şahin, Figürliche Grabstelen und Weihreliefs aus Miletupolis, IstMitt 47, 1997, 179-197.
  • M. Şahin, Miletopolis Kökenli Figürlü Mezar Stelleri ve Adak Levhaları, Ankara 2000.
  • V. Schild-Xenidou, Corpus der Boiotischen Grab- und Weihreliefs des 6. bis 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (AM, 20. Beiheft), Mainz 2008.
  • B. Schmaltz, Griechische Grabreliefs, Darmstadt 1983.
  • C. Schneider, Herr und Hund auf archaischen Grabstelen, JdI 115, 2000, 1-36.
  • E. Schwertheim, Neue Inschriften aus Miletupolis, Epigr Anat 5, 1985, 77-88.
  • E. Schwertheim, Miletupolis-Miletopolis, DNP 8, 2000, 181.
  • E. Schwertheim, Die Muttergöttin und ihre Hunde, in: E. Dündar – Ş. Aktaş – M. Koçak – S. Erkoç (Hrsgg.), Lykiarkhissa. Havva İşkan’a Armağan/Festschrift für Havva İşkan, İstanbul 2016, 717-721.
  • E. Schwertheim – N. Güllü Schwertheim, Epigraphica der Sammlung Yavuz Tatış. Lydien, Mysien, Türkei, İzmir 2018.
  • R. Stupperich, Staatsbegräbnis und Privatgrabmal im klassischen Athen, Münster 1977.
  • R. Stupperich, Eine Bronzestatuette aus Miletupolis. Zu archaisierenden Kleinbronzen der Kaiserzeit, in: E. Schwertheim (Hrsg.), Mysische Studien (Asia Minor Studien 1), Bonn 1990, 111-116.
  • H. Taeuber, Ein mysischer Athletiktrainer in Klosterneuburg, ZPE 99, 1993, 203-206.
  • A. Taliano Grasso, Stele funeraria con motivo Man and Dog da Kyme eolica, in: F. Serra (Hrsg.), Orizzonti. Rassegna di Archeologia, XIII, Pisa-Roma 2012, 21-28.
  • J. Teichmann, Das Territorium der Stadt Kyzikos zu Beginn der römischen Kaiserzeit, in: Studien zum antiken Kleinasien (Asia Minor Studien 3) Bonn 1991, 139-151.
  • Chr. C. Tsagalis, Inscribing Sorrow. Fourth-Century Attic Funerary Epigrams, Berlin 2008.
  • H. Tsophopoulou-Gkine, Archaiologike Ephemeris, 1980 (1982), 85-96.
  • M. E. Uyar, Mustafakemalpaşa İlçesi Arkeolojik Kültür Envanteri, (unpublizierte Magisterarbeit) İzmir 2019.
  • E. Walter-Karydi, Die Athener und ihre Gräber (1000-300 v. Chr.), Berlin 2015.
  • Th. Wiegand, Reisen in Mysien, AM 29, 1904, 254-339.
  • B. Yalman, Miletopolis Hafriyatı 1975, TAD 24/1, 1977, 23-27.
  • M. E. Yıldız, Epigramm auf die verstorbene Moschion. Eine neue Grabstele aus dem Territorium von Miletupolis in Mysien, in: M. Nollé – P. M. Rothenhöfer – G. Schmied-Kowarzik – H. Schwarz – H.-Chr. von Mosch (eds.), Panegyrikoi Logoi. Festschrift für Johannes Nollé zum 65. Geburtstag, Bonn 2019, 583-590.
  • Y. Yılmaz, Anadolu’nun Gözyaşları. Yurtdışına Götürülmüş Tarihi Eserlerimiz, İstanbul 20213.
  • T. H. Zeyrek, Mustafa Kemal Paşa’dan (Miletopolis) Bronz Bir Büst: Apollon, Anadolu Araştırmaları 17/1, 2010, 93-115.
  • M. Zlotogorska, Darstellungen von Hunden auf griechischen Grabreliefs. Von der Archaik bis in die römische Kaiserzeit, Hamburg 1997.

Miletupolis’te Bir Atinalı. Hypermenes’in Klasik Dönem’e Ait Mezar Taşı – Miletupolis ve Atina Arasındaki İlişkiye Dair Önemli bir Belge

Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı , 219 - 252, 15.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.1003719

Öz

2017 yılında Bursa Müzesi’ne, Bursa’nın Mustafakemalpaşa İlçesi’nde yer alan Melde mevkiindeki bir arazide (Tarım İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü - TİGEM arazisinde) kaçak bir kazı sonucunda bulunmuş büyük bir mezar steli gelmiştir. Eserin buluntu yeri Melde’de antik dönemde Miletupolis kenti yer almakta idi. Bu mezar taşı da bu kente ait nekropollerden birisinde duruyor olmalıydı. Makalede bu stel incelenmekte ve eser epigrafik, tarihi ve arkeolojik yönlerden yorumlanmaktadır.
Buluntu yerinde Bursa Müzesi tarafından bir günlük bir kurtarma kazısı yapılmıştır. Mezarın düzgün kesilen büyük bloklardan sanduka tipinde oluşturulduğu ve içinde de bir iskelet olduğu görülmüştür. Stel bu sandukanın üzerini örter durumda bulunmuştur. Buluntu yeri fotoğraflarında da görüldüğü gibi stelin toprak altında fazla derinde durmadığı anlaşılmaktadır (Fig. 1-4). Eser toprak altından iki parça şeklinde kırık olarak ele geçmiştir. Üst parça üzerinde 3 satırlık ve tam stoikhedon olmasa da o tarzı anımsatan Eski Yunanca bir mezar yazıtı bulunmaktadır: Hagnodemos’un oğlu Atinalı Hypermenes(᾽in mezarı). Yazıttan eserin Atinalı Hypermenes isimli birisinin mezartaşı olduğunu anlıyoruz. Yazıt bize bu şahsın neden Miletupolis’te yaşamış olduğu hakkında bilgi vermemektedir.
Stelin ana gövdesi üzerinde yüksek kabartma olarak sağa yönelmiş ayakta duran olgun yaşta bir adam ve onun ayakları dibinde oturmuş ve başını sahibine doğru yukarı yöneltmiş bir köpek betimlenmiştir. Stelin üzerine betimlenmiş olan bu ana motif bilim dünyasında çok iyi bilinmekte ve bu steller “köpekli adam” konulu mezar taşları olarak tanınmaktadır. Stelin ve kabartmalarının stil özellikleri ve yazıtın harf karakterleri eserin Klasik Dönem’de yapılmış olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Geç Arkaik Dönem ile Erken Klasik Dönem arasından bu tarzda bir dizi mezar taşı bulunmuş olmasına rağmen (bkz. örn. Fig. 38-40) bugüne kadar Klasik Çağ’ın ilerleyen dönemlerinden bu tarzda betimlenmiş bir mezar taşı ele geçmemiştir. Bu açıdan bakıldığında bu buluntu ünik bir özellik sergilemektedir ve önemlidir. Mysia bölgesinden bu tarzda ve bu kadar erken bir tarihe ait bir kabartmalı mezar steli daha öncesinde bilinmemekteydi. Miletupolis kentinde ölmüş olan bir Atinalı’nın neden böyle bir motif taşıyan bir mezar taşı yaptırmış olduğu sorulabilir. Öncelikle, stelin ve üzerindeki kabartmaların stili kesinlikle Attika tarzındadır. Miletupolis kentine o dönemlerde Attika tarzında mezar taşları üreten taşçı ustaları var olmalıydı. Aslında bu köpekli adam motifi Yunanistan ile çevre bölgelerde ve hatta Küçük Asya’da (Ionia) uzun yıllar önce terkedilmişti. Eski bir motifin yeniden ele alınması şaşırtıcıdır. Miletupolis’te yaşayan Atina vatandaşı Hypermenes belli ki yaşadığı ülkenin eski bir geleneğini sürdürmek istemiştir. Mezar taşlarında kullanılan “adam ve köpek (man and dog/Herr und Hund)” motifi bilim dünyasında çok yönlü incelenmiştir. Bu tarz stelleri en son değerlendiren C. Schneider’e göre bu eserlerin konusu, günlük yaşamının bir parçası olan olgun yaştaki saygın bir aristokrat adamın kamusal yaşam tarzının tasvir edilmesidir. Ona göre bu köpekli steller, ölen kişinin yaşamı boyunca mutluluğunu temsil eder. Betimde iyi bir yaşta olmak veya erdem (arete) gibi bazı kavramlar da vurgulanmıştır. Bu tür steller, ölen şahısların toplumdaki statülerini, saygınlıklarını, zenginliklerini ve en olgun yaşta olduklarını göstermektedir. Mezar taşlarında dolu dolu bir hayatın yaşanmış olduğu bu tür bir simgeyle vurgulanmaktadır. Bu nedenle ona göre özenle hazırlanıp en prestijli yerlere yerleştirilen bu steller, varlıklı ailelerin mezar anıtları olarak anlaşılmaktadır. Mezar sahibi Hypermenes’i de bu bağlamda anlamak doğru olacaktır. Uslûp özellikleri ve benzer eserlerle karşılaştırılması sonucunda eserin İ. Ö. 5. yüzyılın sonlarına ait olduğu, yani yaklaşık olarak 410/400 yılları civarına tarihlenebileceği söylenebilir.
Bu mezar stelinin değinilen arkeolojik özellikleri ve öneminin yanı sıra eserin bulunduğu yerin tarihi bakımından da muazzam bir önemi vardır. Makalede stelin tarihlendiği zaman dilimi, öncesi ve sonrası ile ilgili Miletupolis hakkında bilinen belge ve bulgular bir araya getirilmiştir. Söz konusu dönemde Miletupolis kentinin Atina ile yakın bir ilişkisinin olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Öyle ki kentin bir Atina kolonisi olduğu birçok bilim insanı tarafından kabul görmektedir. Ancak her ne kadar iki kent arasındaki güçlü ilişkilere birçok gösterge olsa da kenti Atinalıların kurduğuna dair kesin kanıtlar henüz eksiktir. Bu mezar taşı Miletupolis’in İ. Ö. 5. ve 4. yüzyıllarda Atina ile olan sıkı bağına yeni bir kanıttır.

Kaynakça

  • A. Abmeier, Zur Geschichte von Apollonia am Rhyndakos, in: E. Schwertheim (Hrsg.), Mysische Studien (Asia Minor Studien 1), Bonn 1990, 1-16.
  • A. Akat, 1975 Miletopolis Hafriyat Raporu, TAD 24/1, 1977, 5-11.
  • N. E. Akyürek Şahin, Bursa Müzesi’nde Klasik Dönem’e Ait Bir Epigram, in: C. Aşkit – S. Kalaycıoğulları – R. Kayapınar – C. Üstünel Keyinci – R. Öztürk (Hrsgg.), In memoriam Filiz Öktem, Ankara 2014, 279-283.
  • N. E. Akyürek Şahin – H. Uzunoğlu, New Inscriptions from the Museum of Bursa, Gephyra 17, 2019, 239-285.
  • N. E. Akyürek Şahin – M. E. Yıldız, Neue Weihungen aus dem Museum von Bursa, Gephyra 20, 2020, 153-170.
  • A. Avram, The Propontic Coast of Asia Minor, in: M. H. Hansen – T. H. Nielsen (Hrsg.), An inventory of archaic and classical poleis, Oxford 2004.
  • S. Aybek- M. Tuna – M. Atıcı, İzmir Tarih ve Sanat Müzesi Heykel Kataloğu. Orijinaller, Roma Kopyaları, Portreler ve Kabartmalar, Ankara 2009.
  • B. B. Aykanat, Sinop’tan Bir Köpekli Mezar Steli, in: N. Türker – G. Köroğlu – Ö. Deniz (Hrsgg.), 1. Uluslararası Karadeniz Kültür Kongresi/1st International Conference on the Black Sea Regional Culture, 6-9 Ekim 2011/October 2011 Sinop/Türkiye, Bildiri Kitabı/Proceedings Book, Karabük 2013, 99-104.
  • R. Behrwald (Hrsg.), Hellenika von Oxyrhynchos (= Texte zur Forschung 86), Darmstadt 2005.
  • K. Belke, Bithynien und Hellespont (TIB 13), Wien 2020.
  • J. Bergemann, Die bürgerliche Identität der Athener im Spiegel der attischen Grabreliefs, in: E. Pöhlmann – W. Gauer (Hrsgg.), Griechische Klassik. Vorträge bei der interdiziplinären Tagung des Deutschen Archäologenverbandes und der Mommsengesellschaft vom 24.-27. 10 1991 in Blaubeuren, Nürnberg 1994, 283-293.
  • J. Bergemann, Demos und Thanatos. Untersuchungen zum Wertsystem der Polis im Spiegel der attischen Grabreliefs des 4. Jhs. v. Chr. und zur Funktion der gleichzeitigen Grabbauten, München 1997.
  • E. Berger, Das Basler Arztrelief. Studien zum griechischen Grab- und Votivreliefs um 500 v. Chr. und zur vorhippokratischen Medizin, Mainz 1970.
  • F. Bilabel, Die ionische Kolonisation. Untersuchungen über die Gründungen der Ionier, deren staatliche und kultische Organisation und Beziehungen zu den Mutterstädten (Philologus suppl. 14.1), Leipzig 1920.
  • J. Bousquet, Deux Inscriptions Attiques, BCH 91/1, 1967, 90-95.
  • P. Charneux, Liste argienne de théarodoques, BCH 90/1, 1966, 156-239.
  • Ch. W. Clairmont, Gravestone and Epigram. Greek Memorials from the Archaic and Classical Period, Mains 1970.
  • Th. Corsten, Prosopographische und onomastische Notizen II, Epigr Anat 39, 2006, 121-132.
  • J. A. Cramer, A Geographical and Historical Description of Asia Minor I, Oxford 1832.
  • M. Cremer, Hellenistisch-römische Grabstelen im nordwestlichen Kleinasien 1. Mysien (Asia Minor Studien 4,1), Bonn 1991.
  • P. Debord, L’Asie Mineure au IVe siècle (412-323 a.C.). Pouvoirs et jeux politiques, Paris-Bordeaux 1999.
  • J. Dedeoğlu, Miletopolis Kazısı 1975. A Sondaj Çukuru Hafriyat Raporu, TAD 24/1, 1977, 13-27.
  • H. Diepolder, Die attischen Grabreliefs des 5. und 4. Jhs. v. Chr., Berlin 1931 (unveränderter Nachdruck Darmstadt 1965).
  • E. M. Doksanaltı – R. Özgan, Kilikya’dan Arkaik Devre Ait İki Kabartma Üzerine Düşünceler, Anadolu/Anatolia 32, 2007, 1-20.
  • E. M. Doksanaltı – R. Özgan, Düzeltme/Erratum, Anadolu/Anatolia 33, 2007, 165.
  • D. Duneka, Darstellungen älterer und jüngerer Männer auf klassischen Grabreliefs: Eine ikonographische Untersuchung zur Funktion eines Grabrelief-Typos im Totenkult (elektronische Hochschulschrift/Dissertation), Münster 1995.
  • S. Durugönül, Grabstele der Nana aus Sinope, in: Studien zum antiken Kleinasien II (Asia Minor Studien 8), 1992, 97-107.
  • N. Ehrhardt, Milet und seine Kolonien. Vergleichende Untersuchung der kultischen und politischen Einrichtungen, Frankfurt am Main-Bern-New York 1983.
  • H. Erpehlivan, Propontis’in Güneydoğusunda M.Ö. 1. Binyıl Yerleşmeleri ve Mezar Tipleri (M.Ö. 8-4. yüzyıllar) (unpublizierte Dissertation), İstanbul 2018.
  • H. Erpehlivan, Propontis’in Güneyindeki Üç Kent İçin Lokalizasyon Önerileri, International Journal of Social Inquiry 11/2, 2018, 115-134.
  • H. Erpehlivan, Settlements to the South-East of the Propontis between the 8th and 4th Centuries BCE, in: V. Keleş (Hrg.), Propontis ve Çevre Kültürleri – Propontis and Surrounding Cultures (Parion Studies III), İstanbul 2020, 353-362.
  • C. Foss, Map 52 Byzantium, in: R. J. A. Talbert (Hrsg.), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton 2000, 785-795.
  • K. Friis Johansen, The Attic Grave-Reliefs of the Classical Period. An essay in interpretation, Copenhagen 1951.
  • S. Gündüz – O. Dumankaya, Liman Kenti Miletoupolis, in: S. Sevim – M. Eren – M. Çubukçu – H. Ersöz (Hrsgg.), Uluslararası III. Mustafakemalpaşa Sempozyumu, 1. Cilt, 13-14-15 Mayıs 2016, Mustafakemalpaşa-Bursa, Bursa 2016, 101-116.
  • A. Güzelsoy, Yazıtlar ve Sikkeler Işığında Miletopolis Kenti (unpublizerte Magisterarbeit), Çanakkale 2014.
  • Chr. Habicht, Zu griechischen Inschriften aus Kleinasien, Epigr Anat 31, 1999, 19-29.
  • G. M. A. Hanfmann – N. H. Ramage, Sculpture from Sardis: The Finds through 1975, Cambridge (Mass.) 1978.
  • F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished Inscriptions from the Cyzicus Neighbourhood, JHS 24, 1904, 20-40.
  • F. W. Hasluck, Cyzicus: Being some Account of the History and Antiquities of that City, and of the District Adjacent to it, with the Towns of Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, Miletupolis, Hadrianutherae, Priapus, Zeleia, etc., Cambridge 1910.
  • B. V. Head, Historia Numorum. A Manual of Greek Numismatics, Oxford 1911.
  • H. Hiller, Ionische Grabreliefs der ersten Hälfte des 5. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (IstMitt Beiheft 12), Tübingen 1975.
  • N. Himmelmann, Attische Grabreliefs (Nordrhein-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Geisteswissenschaften Vorträge G 357), Opladen-Wiesbaden 1999.
  • H. Kalkan, New Inscriptions from Bithynia and Mysia in the İstanbul Museum, Epigr Anat 20, 1992, 101-104.
  • N. Kaltsas, Sculpture in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Los Angeles 2002.
  • O. Kozaman, Miletopolis – Hamam Kazısı 1975 Raporu, TAD 24/1, 1977, 29-39.
  • G. C. Malatya, Miletopolis Tarihi ve Sikkeleri (İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi), İstanbul 2015.
  • G. Manganaro, Stranieri a Kyme eolica, Epigr Anat 28, 1997, 1-4.
  • A. Matthaei, Münzbild und Polisbild. Untersuchung zur Selbstdarstellung kleinasiatischer Poleis im Hellenismus (Münchner Studien zur Alten Welt, Bd. 3.), München 2013.
  • R. Meiggs, The Athenian Empire, Oxford 1972.
  • B. D. Meritt, Greek Inscriptions, Hesperia 5/3, 1936, 355-430.
  • İ. H. Mert, Kirmasti Bölgesinin Arkeolojik Önemi, in: S. Sevim (Hrsg.), Mustafakemalpaşa (Kirmasti) Sempozyumu (7-9 Ekim 2011) Bildirileri, Bursa 2011, 207-224.
  • M. Moltesen, Greece in the classical period: catalogue, Ny Carlberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen 1995.
  • R. Özgan, Untersuchungen zur archaischen Plastik Ioniens, Bonn 1978.
  • R. Özgan, Zwei Grabreliefs im Museum von Çanakkale, in: H. Kyrieleis (Hrsg.), Archaische und klassische griechische Plastik. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums von 22.-25. April 1985 in Athen, Mainz 1986, 27-33.
  • R. Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens, Oxford-New York 2005.
  • P. Perlman, City and Sanctuary in Ancient Greece. The Theorodokia in the Peloponnese, Göttingen 2000.
  • E. Pogiatzi, Die Grabreliefs auf Zypern von der archaischen bis zur römischen Zeit, Mannheim-Möhnesee 2003.
  • F. Poulsen, Catalogue of Ancient Sculpture in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen 1951.
  • S. Ridgway, The Man and Dog Stelai, JdI 86, 1971, 60-79.
  • M. Şahin, Figürliche Grabstelen und Weihreliefs aus Miletupolis, IstMitt 47, 1997, 179-197.
  • M. Şahin, Miletopolis Kökenli Figürlü Mezar Stelleri ve Adak Levhaları, Ankara 2000.
  • V. Schild-Xenidou, Corpus der Boiotischen Grab- und Weihreliefs des 6. bis 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (AM, 20. Beiheft), Mainz 2008.
  • B. Schmaltz, Griechische Grabreliefs, Darmstadt 1983.
  • C. Schneider, Herr und Hund auf archaischen Grabstelen, JdI 115, 2000, 1-36.
  • E. Schwertheim, Neue Inschriften aus Miletupolis, Epigr Anat 5, 1985, 77-88.
  • E. Schwertheim, Miletupolis-Miletopolis, DNP 8, 2000, 181.
  • E. Schwertheim, Die Muttergöttin und ihre Hunde, in: E. Dündar – Ş. Aktaş – M. Koçak – S. Erkoç (Hrsgg.), Lykiarkhissa. Havva İşkan’a Armağan/Festschrift für Havva İşkan, İstanbul 2016, 717-721.
  • E. Schwertheim – N. Güllü Schwertheim, Epigraphica der Sammlung Yavuz Tatış. Lydien, Mysien, Türkei, İzmir 2018.
  • R. Stupperich, Staatsbegräbnis und Privatgrabmal im klassischen Athen, Münster 1977.
  • R. Stupperich, Eine Bronzestatuette aus Miletupolis. Zu archaisierenden Kleinbronzen der Kaiserzeit, in: E. Schwertheim (Hrsg.), Mysische Studien (Asia Minor Studien 1), Bonn 1990, 111-116.
  • H. Taeuber, Ein mysischer Athletiktrainer in Klosterneuburg, ZPE 99, 1993, 203-206.
  • A. Taliano Grasso, Stele funeraria con motivo Man and Dog da Kyme eolica, in: F. Serra (Hrsg.), Orizzonti. Rassegna di Archeologia, XIII, Pisa-Roma 2012, 21-28.
  • J. Teichmann, Das Territorium der Stadt Kyzikos zu Beginn der römischen Kaiserzeit, in: Studien zum antiken Kleinasien (Asia Minor Studien 3) Bonn 1991, 139-151.
  • Chr. C. Tsagalis, Inscribing Sorrow. Fourth-Century Attic Funerary Epigrams, Berlin 2008.
  • H. Tsophopoulou-Gkine, Archaiologike Ephemeris, 1980 (1982), 85-96.
  • M. E. Uyar, Mustafakemalpaşa İlçesi Arkeolojik Kültür Envanteri, (unpublizierte Magisterarbeit) İzmir 2019.
  • E. Walter-Karydi, Die Athener und ihre Gräber (1000-300 v. Chr.), Berlin 2015.
  • Th. Wiegand, Reisen in Mysien, AM 29, 1904, 254-339.
  • B. Yalman, Miletopolis Hafriyatı 1975, TAD 24/1, 1977, 23-27.
  • M. E. Yıldız, Epigramm auf die verstorbene Moschion. Eine neue Grabstele aus dem Territorium von Miletupolis in Mysien, in: M. Nollé – P. M. Rothenhöfer – G. Schmied-Kowarzik – H. Schwarz – H.-Chr. von Mosch (eds.), Panegyrikoi Logoi. Festschrift für Johannes Nollé zum 65. Geburtstag, Bonn 2019, 583-590.
  • Y. Yılmaz, Anadolu’nun Gözyaşları. Yurtdışına Götürülmüş Tarihi Eserlerimiz, İstanbul 20213.
  • T. H. Zeyrek, Mustafa Kemal Paşa’dan (Miletopolis) Bronz Bir Büst: Apollon, Anadolu Araştırmaları 17/1, 2010, 93-115.
  • M. Zlotogorska, Darstellungen von Hunden auf griechischen Grabreliefs. Von der Archaik bis in die römische Kaiserzeit, Hamburg 1997.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Almanca
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Nalan Eda AKYÜREK ŞAHİN (Sorumlu Yazar)
AKDENIZ UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-5993-0566
Türkiye

Teşekkür Prof. Dr. Serra Durugönül Dr. Öğretim Üyesi M. Ertan Yıldız
Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Kasım 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 2 Ekim 2021
Kabul Tarihi 17 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { gephyra1003719, journal = {Gephyra}, issn = {1309-3924}, eissn = {2651-5059}, address = {}, publisher = {Nalan Eda AKYÜREK ŞAHİN}, year = {2021}, volume = {22}, pages = {219 - 252}, doi = {10.37095/gephyra.1003719}, title = {Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen}, key = {cite}, author = {Akyürek Şahin, Nalan Eda} }
APA Akyürek Şahin, N. E. (2021). Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen . Gephyra , 22 , 219-252 . DOI: 10.37095/gephyra.1003719
MLA Akyürek Şahin, N. E. "Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen" . Gephyra 22 (2021 ): 219-252 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gephyra/issue/63202/1003719>
Chicago Akyürek Şahin, N. E. "Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen". Gephyra 22 (2021 ): 219-252
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen AU - Nalan Eda Akyürek Şahin Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.37095/gephyra.1003719 DO - 10.37095/gephyra.1003719 T2 - Gephyra JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 219 EP - 252 VL - 22 IS - SN - 1309-3924-2651-5059 M3 - doi: 10.37095/gephyra.1003719 UR - https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.1003719 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Gephyra Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen %A Nalan Eda Akyürek Şahin %T Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen %D 2021 %J Gephyra %P 1309-3924-2651-5059 %V 22 %N %R doi: 10.37095/gephyra.1003719 %U 10.37095/gephyra.1003719
ISNAD Akyürek Şahin, Nalan Eda . "Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen". Gephyra 22 / (Kasım 2021): 219-252 . https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.1003719
AMA Akyürek Şahin N. E. Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen. GEPHYRA. 2021; 22: 219-252.
Vancouver Akyürek Şahin N. E. Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen. Gephyra. 2021; 22: 219-252.
IEEE N. E. Akyürek Şahin , "Ein Athener in Miletupolis. Der Grabstein des Hypermenes aus der klassischen Zeit – ein wichtiges Zeugnis zu den Beziehungen von Miletupolis und Athen", Gephyra, c. 22, ss. 219-252, Kas. 2021, doi:10.37095/gephyra.1003719