Araştırma Makalesi
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

Mezopotamya ve Yunanistan Arasında: İ.Ö. Geç 5. ve Erken 4. Yüzyıllar Arasında Kilikya Sikke İkonografisinde Kültürel Etkiler

Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı , 69 - 133, 15.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.977498

Öz

İ.Ö. geç 5. ve erken 4. yüzyıllar arasında Kilikia sikke basımı hakkındaki bilgilerimiz son yirmi yıl içerisinde dikkate değer bir şekilde artmıştır. Bu durum, ilgili tüm konuların güncellenmiş ve revize edilmiş bir envanterini kaçınılmaz bir gereklilik haline getirmiştir. Kilikia Trakheia ve Kilikia Pedias bölgelerindeki farklı darphanelere, yani Ura, Kelenderis, Holmoi, Nagidos, Ankhiale, Soloi, Tarsos, Mallos ve Issos kentlerine ait olup geniş çeşitlilik sunan aynı dönem serilerin karşılaştırmalı analizi bölgenin söz konusu dönemde Yunan meskûn alanından çok Eski Doğu’nun bir parçası olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu nedenle, Kilikia sikke ikonografisinin basitçe temel Yunan düzeni uygulayarak yorumlanması önerilmemektedir. Erken Kilikia sikkeleri üzerindeki betimlemelerin tam olarak anlaşılması çok daha kompleks bir yaklaşım gerektirmektedir: Bu yaklaşım, sembolik tasvirlerin bu çok yönlü ve ünik karışımını yaratmış olan çeşitli köklerin tümünü dikkate almalıdır. Böylesi bir kritik çalışma esasen, edebi geleneklerimizde yer almayan bölgesel olaylar hakkında bilgi sahibi olmamızı sağlayabilir.

Kaynakça

  • R. Ashton, Astragaloi on Greek coins of Asia minor, in: Archimède 6, 2019, 113-126.
  • R. H. Beal, The location of Cilician Ura, AS 42, 1992, 65-73.
  • J. Black – A. Green, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. An illustrated dictionary, Austin 1997.
  • H. Blum – B. Faist – P. Pfälzner – A. M. Wittke (ed.s), Brückenland Anatolien? Ursachen, Extensität und Modi des Kulturaustausches zwischen Anatolien und seinen Nachbarn, Tübingen 2002.
  • E. Blumenthal, Die altgriechische Siedlungskolonisation im Mittelmeerraum unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Südküste Kleinasiens, Tübingen 1963.
  • G. F. Hill, A catalogue of the Greek coins of Lycaonia, Isauria and Cilicia, London 1900.
  • G. F. Hill, Catalogue of the Greek coins of Cyprus, London 1904.
  • G. F. Hill, Catalogue of the Greek coins of Phoenicia, London 1910.
  • J. Boardman, Persia and the West, London 2000.
  • J. Bodzek, The satraps of Caria and the Lycians in the Achaemenid Period: Where is the numismatic evidence?, Zapiski Numismatyczne XIV, 2019, 15-37 + Pl. 1-2.
  • J. Brindley, Early coinages attributable to Issus, in: NC 1993, 1-10.
  • J. Brindley, A note on the Amazon coins of Soli in Cilicia, Numismatic Circular 102-6, 1994, 264-265.
  • M. Brosius, The Royal audience scene reconsidered, in: J. Curtis – St. J. Simpson (ed.s), The world of Achaemenid Persia, London-New York 2010, 141-152.
  • T. R. Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, New York 2005.
  • T. R. Bryce, The peoples and places of ancient Western Asia, Oxford 2011.
  • S. Budin, A reconsideration of the Aphrodite-Ashtart syncretism, Numen 51, 2004, 95-145.
  • W. Burkert, Sardanapal zwischen Mythos und Realität. Das Grab in Kilikien, in: U. Dill – C. Walde (ed.s), Antike Mythen: Medien, Transformationen und Konstruktionen, Berlin 2009, 502-515.
  • F. de Callatay, Les monnayages Ciliciens du premier quart du IV s. av. J.-C., in: Casabonne 2000, 93-127 + Pl. IX-XV.
  • I. Carradice, Coinage in the Persian Empire, in: I. Carradice (ed.), Coinage and administration in the Athenian and Persian Empires (BAR IS 343), Oxford 1987.
  • O. Casabonne, Le syennésis cilicien et Cyrus: l’apport des sources numismatiques, in: P. Briant (ed.), Dans les pas des Dix-Mille. Peuples et pays du Proche-Orient vus par un Grec (Pallas 43), Toulouse 1995, 147-172.
  • O. Casabonne, Présence et influences perses en Cilicie à l’époque achéménide. Iconographie et représentations, Anatolia Antiqua 4, 1996, 121-145.
  • O. Casabonne, Notes ciliciennes – 6. Du golfe de Taşucu à la plaine lycaonienne: recherches sur le pouvoir locaux et l’organisation du territoire en Cilicie Trachée, Anatolia Antiqua 7, 1999, 72-88.
  • O. Casabonne (ed.), Mécanismes et innovations monétaires dans l’Anatolie achéménide (Actes de la Table Ronde International d’Istanbul, 22-23 mai 1997), Istanbul-Paris 2000.
  • O. Casabonne, Notes ciliciennes – 12. Quelques villes et capitales ciliciennes à l‘âge du Fer: Toponymie et géographie historique, Anatolia Antiqua 10, 2002, 185-195.
  • O. Casabonne, La Cilicie à l’epoque achéménide, Paris 2004.
  • O. Casabonne, Ura et Tarhuntassa, Colloquium Anatolicum IV, 2005, 67-81.
  • O. Casabonne – M. Forlanini – A. Lemaire, Ingira: Numismatique et géographie historique, Revue Belge de Numismatique CXLVII, 2001, 57-66.
  • J. K. Choksy, Gesture in Ancient Iran and Central Asia II: Proskynesis and the bent forefinger, Bulletin of the Asia Institute NS 4, 1990, 201-207.
  • P. Chuvin, Apollon au trident et les dieux de Tarse, Journal des savants 1981, 305-326.
  • B. J. Collins, Hero, Field-master, King: Animal mastery in Hittite Texts and iconography, in: Counts – Arnold 2010, 59-74.
  • D. Collon, First impressions. Cylinder Seals in the Ancient Near East, London 1993.
  • D. Conrad, Der Gott Reschef, ZAW 83, 1971, 157-183.
  • D. Counts – B. Arnold (ed.s), The master of animals in old world iconography, Budapest 2010.
  • A. P. Dahlen (ed.), Achaemenid Anatolia: Persian presence and impact in the western satrapies. Proceedings of an International Symposium at the Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, 7-8 September 2017, Upsala 2020.
  • S. Dalley, Sennacherib and Tarsus, AS 49, 1999, 73-80.
  • –A. Davesne – A. Lemaire – H. Lozachmeur, Le site archéologique de Meydancikkale (Turquie); du royaume de Pirindu à la garnison ptolémaique, Comptes rendus des sèances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres 131-2, 1987, 359-383.
  • I. Delemen et al. (ed.s), The Achaemenid impact on local populations and cultures in Anatolia. Papers presented at the International Workshop, Istanbul 20-21 May 2005, Istanbul 2007.
  • P. Desideri – A. M. Jasink, Cilicia. Dall’ età di Kizzuwatna alla conquista macedone, Torino 1990.
  • K. Ehling – D. Pohl – M. H. Sayar, Kulturbegegnung in einem Brückenland. Gottheiten und Kulte als Indikatoren von Akkulturationsprozessen im Ebenen Kilikien, Bonn 2004.
  • J. Elayi, An updated chronology of the reigns of Phoenician Kings during the Persian period, Transeuphratene 32, 2006, 11-43.
  • J. Elayi – A. G. Elayi, Phoenician coinages (Transeuphratene Suppl. 18), vol. 1-2, Paris 2014.
  • A. Erzen, Kilikien bis zum Ende der Perserherrschaft, Diss. Leipzig 1940.
  • M. Gander, Ahhiyawa – Hiyawa – Que: Gibt es Evidenz von Griechen in Kilikien am Übergang von der Bronze- zur Eisenzeit?, SMEA 54, 2012, 281-308.
  • M. Garrison – M. Root, Seals on the Persepolis fortification Tablets, Vol. I: Images of heroic encounter, Part 1+2, Chicago 2001.
  • M. Garrison, The heroic encounter in the visual arts of ancient Iraq and Iran, in: Counts – Arnold 2010, 151-174.
  • G. Gestoso-Singer, Shaushka, the travelling goddess, Trabajos de Egiptología 7, 2016, 43-58.
  • G. Gilmour, The nature and function of astragalus bones from archaeological contexts in the Levant and Eastern Mediterranean, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 10, 1997, 167-175.
  • J. J. Glassner, Mesopotamian chronicles, Atlanta 2004.
  • T. Göktürk, Small coins from Cilicia and surroundings, in: Casabonne 2000, 143-151 + Pl. XVII-XXVI.
  • B. Groneberg, Die sumerisch-akkadische Inanna-Ishtar: Hermaphroditos?, Welt des Orients 17, 1986, 25-46.
  • B. Groneberg, Die Götter des Zweistromlandes, Düsseldorf-Zürich 2004.
  • E. Gubel, Phoenician furniture, a typology based on iron age representations with reference to the iconographical context, Studia Phoenicia 7, 1987, 37-75 + Pl. 1-11.
  • V. Haas, Hethitische Berggötter und hurritische Steindämonen: Riten, Kulte und Mythen, Mainz 1982.
  • V. Haas, Geschichte der hethitischen Religion, Leiden-Boston 1994.
  • V. Haas – H. Koch, Religionen des Alten Orients: Hethiter und Iran, Göttingen 2011.
  • V. Haas – G. Wilhelm, Hurritische und luwische Riten in Kizzuwatna, Kevelaer-Neukirchen-Vluyn 1974.
  • P. W. Haider, Der Himmel über Tarsos. Tradition und Metamorphose in der Vorstellung vom Götterhimmel in Tarsos vom Ende der Spätbronzezeit bis ins 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr., in Hutter – Hutter-Braunsar 2006, 41-54.
  • R. Harris, Inanna-Ishtar as paradox and a coincidence of opposites, History of religions 30, 1991, 261-278.
  • W. Heimpel, A catalogue of Near-Eastern Venus-deities, Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 4-3, 1982, 9-22.
  • A. Houghton – K. Lorber – O. Hoover, Seleucid coins - A comprehensive catalogue II, Lancaster 2008.
  • G. MacDonald, Catalogue of the Greek coins in the Hunterian Collection, University of Glasgow, vol. III, Further Asia, Northern Africa, Western Europe, Glasgow 1905.
  • S. Hurter, Der Tissaphernes-Fund, in: O. Mørkholm – N. Waggoner (eds.), Greek Numismatics and Archaeology – Essays presented to Margaret Thompson, Wetteren 1979, 97-108.
  • M. Hutter, Der luwische Wettergott pihaššašši und der griechische Pegasos, in: M. Oftisch – C. Zinko (ed.s), Studia Onomastica et Indogermanica – Festschrift für Fritz Lochner v. Hüttenbach zum 65. Geburtstag, Graz 1995, 79-97.
  • M. Hutter, Aspects of Luwian religion, in: Melchert 2003, 211-280.
  • M. Hutter – S. Hutter-Braunsar (eds.), Pluralismus und Wandel in den Religionen im vorhellenistischen Anatolien, Münster 2006.
  • A. Ivantchik, Les Cimmeriens au Proche-Orient, Fribourg-Göttingen 1993.
  • K. Jakubiak – A. Sołsyniak, Mesopotamian influences on Persian skywatching and calendars II: Ishtar and Anahita, Archaeologia Baltica 10, 2008, 44-51.
  • A. M. Jasink, Hittite and Assyrian routes to Cilicia, Anatolia Antiqua 1, 1991, 253-259.
  • A. M. Jasink – M. Marino, The West-Anatolian origins of the Que Kingdom dynasty, SMEA 49, 2007, 407-426.
  • J. Kagan, The Decadrachm-Hoard: Chronology and consequences, in: I. Carradice (ed.), Coinage and administration in the Athenian and Persian Empires (BAR IS 343), Oxford 1987, 21-28.
  • J. Kamlah, Der Tempel von Umm el-Amed und die Religionsgeschichte der Levante, in: Witte – Diehl 2008, 125-164.
  • K. Konuk, Elmalı Definesi (The Elmalı Hoard), in: H. Işkan – E. Dündar (ed.s), Lukka’dan Likya’ya (From Lukka to Lycia), Istanbul 2016, 566-569.
  • C. M. Kraay, The Celenderis Hoard, NC 1962, 1-15 + Pl. 1-11.
  • Ph. Lederer, Die Staterprägung der Stadt Nagidos, ZfN 41, 1931, 153-276 + Pl. IX-XVII.
  • A. Lemaire, Remarques à propos du monnayage cilicien d’époque Perse et de ses légendes araméennes, REA 91, 1986, 141-156.
  • A. Lemaire, Ougarit, Oura et la Cilicie vers la fin de XIII siecle, Ugarit-Forschungen 25, 1993, 227-236.
  • A. Lemaire, Aramaeans outside of Syria: Anatolia, in: Niehr 2014, 319-328.
  • A. Lemaire – H. Lozachmeur, La Cilicie à l’époque achéménide. Recherches sur les pouvoirs locaux et l’organsation du territoire, Transeuphratene 3, 1990, 143-155.
  • E. Lipinski, The Aramaeans: Their ancient history, culture, religion, Leuven 2000.
  • F. Lochner v. Hüttenbach, Soloi und Soloikismos. Ein Nachprüfen und Überdenken eines antiken Fachausdruckes, Rhein. Museum für Philologie NF 119-4, 1976, 336-345.
  • G. MacMahon, The Hittite state-cult of tutelary deities, Chicago 1991.
  • H. C. Melchert (ed.), The Luwians, Leiden-Boston 2003.
  • Y. Meshorer – Sh. Qedar, The coinage of Samaria in the fourth Century BCE, Jersualem 1991.
  • Y. Meshorer – Sh. Qedar, Samarian coinage, Jerusalem 1999.
  • M. Metzger, Königsthron und Gottesthron, (AOAT 15), Bd. 1+2, Kevelaer-Neukirchen-Vluyn 1985, 259-279 + Pl. 113-118.
  • D. Metzler, Der Seher Mopsos auf den Münzen der Stadt Mallos, Kernos 3, 1990, 235-250.
  • M. Meyer, Divinities and their images. Phenomena of Acculturation in Smooth Cilicia, Olba VII, 2003, 189-204 + Pl. 31-34.
  • L. Mildenberg, Nergal in Tarsos. Ein numismatischer Beitrag, Antike Kunst 9, 1973, 78-80.
  • L. Mildenberg, Baana. Preliminary studies of the local coinage in the fifth Persian satrapy, Eretz Israel 19, 1987, 28-35.
  • W. Müseler, Tarsos und die Anabasis des jüngeren Kyros. Persische Militärprägungen in Kilikien und der Levante zwischen dem späten 5. und dem frühen 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr., JNG 65, 2015, 9-30.
  • W. Müseler, Ddenewele. Der vergessene Dynast vom Xanthos-Tal und das Nereiden-Monument, JNG 67, 2017, 13-30.
  • W. Müseler, Das Geld der Strategen. Pharnabazos und die Finanzen der persischen Kriegsflotte, JNG 68, 2018, 47-129.
  • W. Müseler, Nergal and the Amazon: A tale of three cities, Schweizer Münzblätter 69, 2019, 63-78.
  • W. Müseler, Vom Symbol zum Ebenbild. Die Entstehung des Münzporträts in der griechisch-persischen Tradition, Gephyra 19, 2020, 69-99.
  • H. Niehr (ed.), The Aramaeans in Ancient Syria, Leiden-Boston 2014.
  • M. Novák, Akkulturation von Aramäern und Luwiern und der Austausch von ikonographischen Konzepten in der spät-Hethitischen Kunst, in: Blum et al. 2002, 147-171.
  • M. Novák, Kizzuwatna, Hiyawa, Quwe. Ein Abriss der Kultur-Geschichte des Ebenen Kilikien, in: J. Becker – R. Hempelmann – E. Rehm (ed.s), Kulturlandschaft Syrien. Zentrum und Peripherie. Festschrift für J.-W. Meyer, Münster 2010, 397-425.
  • I. Rutherford, Sandas in translation, in: A. Mouton (ed.), Hittitology today, Studies in Hittite and Neo-Hittite Anatolia in Honor of Emanuel Laroche’s 100th birthday, Istanbul 2017, 81-100.
  • S. Ruzicka, Trouble in the West. Egypt and the Persian Empire 525-332 BC, Oxford 2012.
  • T. S. Scheer, Mythische Vorväter. Zur Bedeutung griechischer Heroenmythen im Selbstverständnis kleinasiatischer Städte, München 1997.
  • N. Serwint, Aphrodite and her Near-Eastern sisters: Spheres of influence, in: D. Bolger – N. Serwint (eds.), Engendering Aphrodite (ASOR AR 7), Boston 2002, 325-350.
  • J. Shannahan, The Baal-Figure in the winged disc staters of Tiribazus, NC 2018, 15-32 + Pl. 2-5.
  • M. Smith, God in translation: deities in cross-cultural discourse in the biblical world, Tübingen 2008.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. [Great Britain]. Vol. V: Ashmolean Museum (Oxford), Part XI: Asia Minor, Caria to Commagene (except Cyprus), publ. by R. Ashton – S. Ireland, Oxford 2013.
  • Syllloge Nummorum Graecorum. [Germany]. Sammlung v. Aulock, Heft 13, Kilikien, publ. by H. v. Aulock, Berlin 1966.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. [France]. Vol. II: Cabinet des Medaillles (Bibliothèque Nationale), Cilicie, publ. by E. Levante, Paris-Zürich 1993.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. [Danmark]. The Royal Collection of coins and medals in the Danish National Museum, vol. 33: Lycaonia - Cilicia, publ. by O. Mørkholm, København 1956.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, [Great Britain], Vol. IV: Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge) - The Leake and General Collections, Part VII: Asia minor - Lycia to Cappadocia, publ. by M. J. Price, London 1967.
  • Sylloge Nummorm Graecorum [Great Britain], Vol. XII: The Hunterian Museum - University of Glasgow, Part VII, Cimmerian Bosporus to Cappadocia, publ. by R. Ashton, Oxford 2020.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum., [Switzerland]. Vol. I: Levante - Cilicia, publ. by E. Levante – I. Vecchi, Bern 1986.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. [Switzerland]. Vol. I: Levante - Cilicia, Supplement 1, publ. by E. Levante – I. Vecchi, Zürich 1993.
  • P. Talloen, Rolling the dice: Public gameboards from Sagalassos, Herom 7, 2018, 97-132.
  • P. Taracha, Religions of second millennium Anatolia, Wiesbaden 2009.
  • M. L. Vollenweider, Catalogue raisonné des Sceaux-cylindres et Intailles I, Musée d’Art et d’Histoire de Genève, Genève 1967.
  • I. Wegener, Gestalt und Kult der Ištar-Šawuška in Kleinasien, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1981.
  • J. Wiesehöfer, Syennesis, Der neue Pauly 11, Stuttgart 2001, 1126.
  • M. Witte – J. F. Diehl (ed.s), Israeliten und Phönizier, Fribourg-Göttingen 2008.

Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC

Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı , 69 - 133, 15.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.977498

Öz

Our knowledge regarding Cilician coinage between the late 5th and the early 4th century BC has increased considerably in the course of the last two decades. This has made an updated and revised inventory of all the respective issues an indispensable requirement. A comparative analysis of the huge variety of contemporary series from different mints in Kilikia Tracheia and Kilikia Pedias, namely from Ura, Kelenderis, Holmoi, Nagidos, Aŋchiale, Soloi, Tarsos, Mallos and Issos, shows that the region had rather been a part of the Ancient Orient than of the Greek oikumene during the period in question. It is, therefore, not advisable to interpret Cilician coin-iconography by the simple application of a principally Greek canon. A complete understanding of the imagery on early Cilician coins requires a far more complex approach: This must take into account all the various roots, which have created this multifaceted and unique blend of symbolic representations. Such a critical endeavour may actually yield information about regional events, which are not reported by our literary tradition.

Kaynakça

  • R. Ashton, Astragaloi on Greek coins of Asia minor, in: Archimède 6, 2019, 113-126.
  • R. H. Beal, The location of Cilician Ura, AS 42, 1992, 65-73.
  • J. Black – A. Green, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. An illustrated dictionary, Austin 1997.
  • H. Blum – B. Faist – P. Pfälzner – A. M. Wittke (ed.s), Brückenland Anatolien? Ursachen, Extensität und Modi des Kulturaustausches zwischen Anatolien und seinen Nachbarn, Tübingen 2002.
  • E. Blumenthal, Die altgriechische Siedlungskolonisation im Mittelmeerraum unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Südküste Kleinasiens, Tübingen 1963.
  • G. F. Hill, A catalogue of the Greek coins of Lycaonia, Isauria and Cilicia, London 1900.
  • G. F. Hill, Catalogue of the Greek coins of Cyprus, London 1904.
  • G. F. Hill, Catalogue of the Greek coins of Phoenicia, London 1910.
  • J. Boardman, Persia and the West, London 2000.
  • J. Bodzek, The satraps of Caria and the Lycians in the Achaemenid Period: Where is the numismatic evidence?, Zapiski Numismatyczne XIV, 2019, 15-37 + Pl. 1-2.
  • J. Brindley, Early coinages attributable to Issus, in: NC 1993, 1-10.
  • J. Brindley, A note on the Amazon coins of Soli in Cilicia, Numismatic Circular 102-6, 1994, 264-265.
  • M. Brosius, The Royal audience scene reconsidered, in: J. Curtis – St. J. Simpson (ed.s), The world of Achaemenid Persia, London-New York 2010, 141-152.
  • T. R. Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, New York 2005.
  • T. R. Bryce, The peoples and places of ancient Western Asia, Oxford 2011.
  • S. Budin, A reconsideration of the Aphrodite-Ashtart syncretism, Numen 51, 2004, 95-145.
  • W. Burkert, Sardanapal zwischen Mythos und Realität. Das Grab in Kilikien, in: U. Dill – C. Walde (ed.s), Antike Mythen: Medien, Transformationen und Konstruktionen, Berlin 2009, 502-515.
  • F. de Callatay, Les monnayages Ciliciens du premier quart du IV s. av. J.-C., in: Casabonne 2000, 93-127 + Pl. IX-XV.
  • I. Carradice, Coinage in the Persian Empire, in: I. Carradice (ed.), Coinage and administration in the Athenian and Persian Empires (BAR IS 343), Oxford 1987.
  • O. Casabonne, Le syennésis cilicien et Cyrus: l’apport des sources numismatiques, in: P. Briant (ed.), Dans les pas des Dix-Mille. Peuples et pays du Proche-Orient vus par un Grec (Pallas 43), Toulouse 1995, 147-172.
  • O. Casabonne, Présence et influences perses en Cilicie à l’époque achéménide. Iconographie et représentations, Anatolia Antiqua 4, 1996, 121-145.
  • O. Casabonne, Notes ciliciennes – 6. Du golfe de Taşucu à la plaine lycaonienne: recherches sur le pouvoir locaux et l’organisation du territoire en Cilicie Trachée, Anatolia Antiqua 7, 1999, 72-88.
  • O. Casabonne (ed.), Mécanismes et innovations monétaires dans l’Anatolie achéménide (Actes de la Table Ronde International d’Istanbul, 22-23 mai 1997), Istanbul-Paris 2000.
  • O. Casabonne, Notes ciliciennes – 12. Quelques villes et capitales ciliciennes à l‘âge du Fer: Toponymie et géographie historique, Anatolia Antiqua 10, 2002, 185-195.
  • O. Casabonne, La Cilicie à l’epoque achéménide, Paris 2004.
  • O. Casabonne, Ura et Tarhuntassa, Colloquium Anatolicum IV, 2005, 67-81.
  • O. Casabonne – M. Forlanini – A. Lemaire, Ingira: Numismatique et géographie historique, Revue Belge de Numismatique CXLVII, 2001, 57-66.
  • J. K. Choksy, Gesture in Ancient Iran and Central Asia II: Proskynesis and the bent forefinger, Bulletin of the Asia Institute NS 4, 1990, 201-207.
  • P. Chuvin, Apollon au trident et les dieux de Tarse, Journal des savants 1981, 305-326.
  • B. J. Collins, Hero, Field-master, King: Animal mastery in Hittite Texts and iconography, in: Counts – Arnold 2010, 59-74.
  • D. Collon, First impressions. Cylinder Seals in the Ancient Near East, London 1993.
  • D. Conrad, Der Gott Reschef, ZAW 83, 1971, 157-183.
  • D. Counts – B. Arnold (ed.s), The master of animals in old world iconography, Budapest 2010.
  • A. P. Dahlen (ed.), Achaemenid Anatolia: Persian presence and impact in the western satrapies. Proceedings of an International Symposium at the Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, 7-8 September 2017, Upsala 2020.
  • S. Dalley, Sennacherib and Tarsus, AS 49, 1999, 73-80.
  • –A. Davesne – A. Lemaire – H. Lozachmeur, Le site archéologique de Meydancikkale (Turquie); du royaume de Pirindu à la garnison ptolémaique, Comptes rendus des sèances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres 131-2, 1987, 359-383.
  • I. Delemen et al. (ed.s), The Achaemenid impact on local populations and cultures in Anatolia. Papers presented at the International Workshop, Istanbul 20-21 May 2005, Istanbul 2007.
  • P. Desideri – A. M. Jasink, Cilicia. Dall’ età di Kizzuwatna alla conquista macedone, Torino 1990.
  • K. Ehling – D. Pohl – M. H. Sayar, Kulturbegegnung in einem Brückenland. Gottheiten und Kulte als Indikatoren von Akkulturationsprozessen im Ebenen Kilikien, Bonn 2004.
  • J. Elayi, An updated chronology of the reigns of Phoenician Kings during the Persian period, Transeuphratene 32, 2006, 11-43.
  • J. Elayi – A. G. Elayi, Phoenician coinages (Transeuphratene Suppl. 18), vol. 1-2, Paris 2014.
  • A. Erzen, Kilikien bis zum Ende der Perserherrschaft, Diss. Leipzig 1940.
  • M. Gander, Ahhiyawa – Hiyawa – Que: Gibt es Evidenz von Griechen in Kilikien am Übergang von der Bronze- zur Eisenzeit?, SMEA 54, 2012, 281-308.
  • M. Garrison – M. Root, Seals on the Persepolis fortification Tablets, Vol. I: Images of heroic encounter, Part 1+2, Chicago 2001.
  • M. Garrison, The heroic encounter in the visual arts of ancient Iraq and Iran, in: Counts – Arnold 2010, 151-174.
  • G. Gestoso-Singer, Shaushka, the travelling goddess, Trabajos de Egiptología 7, 2016, 43-58.
  • G. Gilmour, The nature and function of astragalus bones from archaeological contexts in the Levant and Eastern Mediterranean, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 10, 1997, 167-175.
  • J. J. Glassner, Mesopotamian chronicles, Atlanta 2004.
  • T. Göktürk, Small coins from Cilicia and surroundings, in: Casabonne 2000, 143-151 + Pl. XVII-XXVI.
  • B. Groneberg, Die sumerisch-akkadische Inanna-Ishtar: Hermaphroditos?, Welt des Orients 17, 1986, 25-46.
  • B. Groneberg, Die Götter des Zweistromlandes, Düsseldorf-Zürich 2004.
  • E. Gubel, Phoenician furniture, a typology based on iron age representations with reference to the iconographical context, Studia Phoenicia 7, 1987, 37-75 + Pl. 1-11.
  • V. Haas, Hethitische Berggötter und hurritische Steindämonen: Riten, Kulte und Mythen, Mainz 1982.
  • V. Haas, Geschichte der hethitischen Religion, Leiden-Boston 1994.
  • V. Haas – H. Koch, Religionen des Alten Orients: Hethiter und Iran, Göttingen 2011.
  • V. Haas – G. Wilhelm, Hurritische und luwische Riten in Kizzuwatna, Kevelaer-Neukirchen-Vluyn 1974.
  • P. W. Haider, Der Himmel über Tarsos. Tradition und Metamorphose in der Vorstellung vom Götterhimmel in Tarsos vom Ende der Spätbronzezeit bis ins 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr., in Hutter – Hutter-Braunsar 2006, 41-54.
  • R. Harris, Inanna-Ishtar as paradox and a coincidence of opposites, History of religions 30, 1991, 261-278.
  • W. Heimpel, A catalogue of Near-Eastern Venus-deities, Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 4-3, 1982, 9-22.
  • A. Houghton – K. Lorber – O. Hoover, Seleucid coins - A comprehensive catalogue II, Lancaster 2008.
  • G. MacDonald, Catalogue of the Greek coins in the Hunterian Collection, University of Glasgow, vol. III, Further Asia, Northern Africa, Western Europe, Glasgow 1905.
  • S. Hurter, Der Tissaphernes-Fund, in: O. Mørkholm – N. Waggoner (eds.), Greek Numismatics and Archaeology – Essays presented to Margaret Thompson, Wetteren 1979, 97-108.
  • M. Hutter, Der luwische Wettergott pihaššašši und der griechische Pegasos, in: M. Oftisch – C. Zinko (ed.s), Studia Onomastica et Indogermanica – Festschrift für Fritz Lochner v. Hüttenbach zum 65. Geburtstag, Graz 1995, 79-97.
  • M. Hutter, Aspects of Luwian religion, in: Melchert 2003, 211-280.
  • M. Hutter – S. Hutter-Braunsar (eds.), Pluralismus und Wandel in den Religionen im vorhellenistischen Anatolien, Münster 2006.
  • A. Ivantchik, Les Cimmeriens au Proche-Orient, Fribourg-Göttingen 1993.
  • K. Jakubiak – A. Sołsyniak, Mesopotamian influences on Persian skywatching and calendars II: Ishtar and Anahita, Archaeologia Baltica 10, 2008, 44-51.
  • A. M. Jasink, Hittite and Assyrian routes to Cilicia, Anatolia Antiqua 1, 1991, 253-259.
  • A. M. Jasink – M. Marino, The West-Anatolian origins of the Que Kingdom dynasty, SMEA 49, 2007, 407-426.
  • J. Kagan, The Decadrachm-Hoard: Chronology and consequences, in: I. Carradice (ed.), Coinage and administration in the Athenian and Persian Empires (BAR IS 343), Oxford 1987, 21-28.
  • J. Kamlah, Der Tempel von Umm el-Amed und die Religionsgeschichte der Levante, in: Witte – Diehl 2008, 125-164.
  • K. Konuk, Elmalı Definesi (The Elmalı Hoard), in: H. Işkan – E. Dündar (ed.s), Lukka’dan Likya’ya (From Lukka to Lycia), Istanbul 2016, 566-569.
  • C. M. Kraay, The Celenderis Hoard, NC 1962, 1-15 + Pl. 1-11.
  • Ph. Lederer, Die Staterprägung der Stadt Nagidos, ZfN 41, 1931, 153-276 + Pl. IX-XVII.
  • A. Lemaire, Remarques à propos du monnayage cilicien d’époque Perse et de ses légendes araméennes, REA 91, 1986, 141-156.
  • A. Lemaire, Ougarit, Oura et la Cilicie vers la fin de XIII siecle, Ugarit-Forschungen 25, 1993, 227-236.
  • A. Lemaire, Aramaeans outside of Syria: Anatolia, in: Niehr 2014, 319-328.
  • A. Lemaire – H. Lozachmeur, La Cilicie à l’époque achéménide. Recherches sur les pouvoirs locaux et l’organsation du territoire, Transeuphratene 3, 1990, 143-155.
  • E. Lipinski, The Aramaeans: Their ancient history, culture, religion, Leuven 2000.
  • F. Lochner v. Hüttenbach, Soloi und Soloikismos. Ein Nachprüfen und Überdenken eines antiken Fachausdruckes, Rhein. Museum für Philologie NF 119-4, 1976, 336-345.
  • G. MacMahon, The Hittite state-cult of tutelary deities, Chicago 1991.
  • H. C. Melchert (ed.), The Luwians, Leiden-Boston 2003.
  • Y. Meshorer – Sh. Qedar, The coinage of Samaria in the fourth Century BCE, Jersualem 1991.
  • Y. Meshorer – Sh. Qedar, Samarian coinage, Jerusalem 1999.
  • M. Metzger, Königsthron und Gottesthron, (AOAT 15), Bd. 1+2, Kevelaer-Neukirchen-Vluyn 1985, 259-279 + Pl. 113-118.
  • D. Metzler, Der Seher Mopsos auf den Münzen der Stadt Mallos, Kernos 3, 1990, 235-250.
  • M. Meyer, Divinities and their images. Phenomena of Acculturation in Smooth Cilicia, Olba VII, 2003, 189-204 + Pl. 31-34.
  • L. Mildenberg, Nergal in Tarsos. Ein numismatischer Beitrag, Antike Kunst 9, 1973, 78-80.
  • L. Mildenberg, Baana. Preliminary studies of the local coinage in the fifth Persian satrapy, Eretz Israel 19, 1987, 28-35.
  • W. Müseler, Tarsos und die Anabasis des jüngeren Kyros. Persische Militärprägungen in Kilikien und der Levante zwischen dem späten 5. und dem frühen 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr., JNG 65, 2015, 9-30.
  • W. Müseler, Ddenewele. Der vergessene Dynast vom Xanthos-Tal und das Nereiden-Monument, JNG 67, 2017, 13-30.
  • W. Müseler, Das Geld der Strategen. Pharnabazos und die Finanzen der persischen Kriegsflotte, JNG 68, 2018, 47-129.
  • W. Müseler, Nergal and the Amazon: A tale of three cities, Schweizer Münzblätter 69, 2019, 63-78.
  • W. Müseler, Vom Symbol zum Ebenbild. Die Entstehung des Münzporträts in der griechisch-persischen Tradition, Gephyra 19, 2020, 69-99.
  • H. Niehr (ed.), The Aramaeans in Ancient Syria, Leiden-Boston 2014.
  • M. Novák, Akkulturation von Aramäern und Luwiern und der Austausch von ikonographischen Konzepten in der spät-Hethitischen Kunst, in: Blum et al. 2002, 147-171.
  • M. Novák, Kizzuwatna, Hiyawa, Quwe. Ein Abriss der Kultur-Geschichte des Ebenen Kilikien, in: J. Becker – R. Hempelmann – E. Rehm (ed.s), Kulturlandschaft Syrien. Zentrum und Peripherie. Festschrift für J.-W. Meyer, Münster 2010, 397-425.
  • I. Rutherford, Sandas in translation, in: A. Mouton (ed.), Hittitology today, Studies in Hittite and Neo-Hittite Anatolia in Honor of Emanuel Laroche’s 100th birthday, Istanbul 2017, 81-100.
  • S. Ruzicka, Trouble in the West. Egypt and the Persian Empire 525-332 BC, Oxford 2012.
  • T. S. Scheer, Mythische Vorväter. Zur Bedeutung griechischer Heroenmythen im Selbstverständnis kleinasiatischer Städte, München 1997.
  • N. Serwint, Aphrodite and her Near-Eastern sisters: Spheres of influence, in: D. Bolger – N. Serwint (eds.), Engendering Aphrodite (ASOR AR 7), Boston 2002, 325-350.
  • J. Shannahan, The Baal-Figure in the winged disc staters of Tiribazus, NC 2018, 15-32 + Pl. 2-5.
  • M. Smith, God in translation: deities in cross-cultural discourse in the biblical world, Tübingen 2008.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. [Great Britain]. Vol. V: Ashmolean Museum (Oxford), Part XI: Asia Minor, Caria to Commagene (except Cyprus), publ. by R. Ashton – S. Ireland, Oxford 2013.
  • Syllloge Nummorum Graecorum. [Germany]. Sammlung v. Aulock, Heft 13, Kilikien, publ. by H. v. Aulock, Berlin 1966.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. [France]. Vol. II: Cabinet des Medaillles (Bibliothèque Nationale), Cilicie, publ. by E. Levante, Paris-Zürich 1993.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. [Danmark]. The Royal Collection of coins and medals in the Danish National Museum, vol. 33: Lycaonia - Cilicia, publ. by O. Mørkholm, København 1956.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, [Great Britain], Vol. IV: Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge) - The Leake and General Collections, Part VII: Asia minor - Lycia to Cappadocia, publ. by M. J. Price, London 1967.
  • Sylloge Nummorm Graecorum [Great Britain], Vol. XII: The Hunterian Museum - University of Glasgow, Part VII, Cimmerian Bosporus to Cappadocia, publ. by R. Ashton, Oxford 2020.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum., [Switzerland]. Vol. I: Levante - Cilicia, publ. by E. Levante – I. Vecchi, Bern 1986.
  • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. [Switzerland]. Vol. I: Levante - Cilicia, Supplement 1, publ. by E. Levante – I. Vecchi, Zürich 1993.
  • P. Talloen, Rolling the dice: Public gameboards from Sagalassos, Herom 7, 2018, 97-132.
  • P. Taracha, Religions of second millennium Anatolia, Wiesbaden 2009.
  • M. L. Vollenweider, Catalogue raisonné des Sceaux-cylindres et Intailles I, Musée d’Art et d’Histoire de Genève, Genève 1967.
  • I. Wegener, Gestalt und Kult der Ištar-Šawuška in Kleinasien, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1981.
  • J. Wiesehöfer, Syennesis, Der neue Pauly 11, Stuttgart 2001, 1126.
  • M. Witte – J. F. Diehl (ed.s), Israeliten und Phönizier, Fribourg-Göttingen 2008.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Wilhelm MÜSELER
Germany

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Kasım 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 2 Ağustos 2021
Kabul Tarihi 7 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { gephyra977498, journal = {Gephyra}, issn = {1309-3924}, eissn = {2651-5059}, address = {}, publisher = {Nalan Eda AKYÜREK ŞAHİN}, year = {2021}, volume = {22}, pages = {69 - 133}, doi = {10.37095/gephyra.977498}, title = {Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC}, key = {cite}, author = {Müseler, Wilhelm} }
APA Müseler, W. (2021). Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC . Gephyra , 22 , 69-133 . DOI: 10.37095/gephyra.977498
MLA Müseler, W. "Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC" . Gephyra 22 (2021 ): 69-133 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gephyra/issue/63202/977498>
Chicago Müseler, W. "Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC". Gephyra 22 (2021 ): 69-133
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC AU - Wilhelm Müseler Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.37095/gephyra.977498 DO - 10.37095/gephyra.977498 T2 - Gephyra JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 69 EP - 133 VL - 22 IS - SN - 1309-3924-2651-5059 M3 - doi: 10.37095/gephyra.977498 UR - https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.977498 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Gephyra Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC %A Wilhelm Müseler %T Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC %D 2021 %J Gephyra %P 1309-3924-2651-5059 %V 22 %N %R doi: 10.37095/gephyra.977498 %U 10.37095/gephyra.977498
ISNAD Müseler, Wilhelm . "Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC". Gephyra 22 / (Kasım 2021): 69-133 . https://doi.org/10.37095/gephyra.977498
AMA Müseler W. Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC. GEPHYRA. 2021; 22: 69-133.
Vancouver Müseler W. Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC. Gephyra. 2021; 22: 69-133.
IEEE W. Müseler , "Between Mesopotamia and Greece: Cultural influences in Cilician Coin-iconography from the Late 5th to the Early 4th Century BC", Gephyra, c. 22, ss. 69-133, Kas. 2021, doi:10.37095/gephyra.977498