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Some Foodborne and Waterborne Protozoa

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 2, 107 - 112, 31.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.30704/http-www-jivs-net.948361

Öz

Pathogenic parasites including helminths and protozoa are responsible for foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Reports of foodborne and waterborne protozoan infections are very rare. Food and waterborne zoonotic protozoa and their transmission stages are listed in this review and it is aimed to give brief information about the food-borne zoonotic protozoa.

Kaynakça

  • Ali, V., Nozaki, T. (2007). Current therapeutics, their problems, and sulfur-containingamino-acid metabolism as a novel target against infections by “amitochondriate” protozoan parasites. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 2007, 20:164-87.
  • Almeria, S., Robertson, L., Santin, M. (2021). Why foodborne and waterborne parasites are important for veterinarians. Research in Veterinary Science, Volume 136, May 2021, Pages 198-199, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.02.020
  • Anon[ymous]. (2003a). ¬e Parasite: Balantidium coli. ¬e Disease: Balantidiasis. Introduction. Web site prepared by A. Ramachandran. Last updated 2003-05-23; accessed 2013-06-18. Online at http://www.stanford.edu/group/parasites/ParaSites2003/Balantidium/Balantidium_coli_ParaSite.htm.
  • Anon. (2003b). ¬e Parasite: Balantidium coli. ¬e Disease: Balantidiasis. Morphology. Web site prepared by A. Ramachandran. Last updated 2003-05-23; accessed 2013- 06-18. Online at http://www.stanford.edu/group/parasites/ParaSites2003/Balantidium/Morphology.htm
  • Amoah, P., Drechsel, P., Henseler, M., Abaidoo, R.C. (2007). Irrigated urban vegetable production in Ghana: microbiological contamination in farms and markets and associated consumer risk groups. Journal of Water and Health 5, 455–466. https://doi.org/ 10.2166/wh.2007.041.
  • Bern, C., Kjos, S., Yabsley, M.J., Montgomery, S.P. (2011). Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas’ Disease in the United States. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 24(4): 655–681.
  • Beyhan, Y. E., Yılmaz, H. (2020). Dışkı Örneklerinde Cryptosporidium spp. Antijen Varlığının ELISA Yöntemi ile Araştırılması: Dokuz Yıllık Değerlendirme. Turkiye Parazitol Dergisi, 44(2), 68-71.
  • Bilgic, B., Bayrakal, A., Dokuzeylul B, Dodurka T, Or ME (2020). Zoonotic Importance of Giardia spp. Infections in Asymptomatic Dogs. Van Veterinary Journal. 31 (3), 158-160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36483/vanvetj.813479
  • Bilman, B.F., Yetik, M. (2019). Bağırsak Parazitlerinin Epidemiyolojisi: Beş Yıllık Değerlendirme, İstanbul Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Tıp Dergisi, Cilt: 11Sayı: 3ISSN: 2148-273XSayfa Aralığı: 184 – 189.
  • Caradonna, T., Marangi, M., Del Chierico, F., Ferrari, N., Reddel, S., Bracaglia, G., Normanno, G., Putignani, L., Giangaspero, A. (2017). Detection and prevalence of protozoan parasites in ready-to-eat packaged salads on sale in Italy. Food Microbiolgy. 67, 67–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2017.06.006.
  • Caeiro, J.P., Mathewson, J.J., Smith, M.A., Jiang, Z.D., Kaplan, M.A., Dupont, H.L. (1999). Etiology of outpatient pediatric nondysenteric diarrhea: a multicenter study in the United States. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 18(2): 94–97
  • Cantey, P.T., Roy, S., Lee, B., Cronquist, A., Smith, K., Liang, J., Beach, M.J. (2011). Study of nonoutbreak giardiasis: novel findings and implications for research. American Medical Journal, 124(12): 1175.e1-8. Online. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.06.012.
  • CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention). (2020). Parasites and Health: Balantidiasis [Balantidium coli]. Online. See: http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/ Balantidiasis.htm Accessed 2013-06-18.
  • Chalmers, R. M., Davies, A.P. (2010). Minireview: clinical cryptosporidiosis. Experimental Parasitology, 124: 138–146.
  • Çeliksöz, A., Çelik, S. (2003). Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Hastanesi’nde gastroenteritli ve malnütrisyonlu hastalarda Cryptosporidium spp. Araştırması. Türkiye Parazitolji Dergisi. 27: 85-88.
  • Çulha, G., Gülkan, B. (2011). 2006-2010 yıllarında Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Parazitoloji Laboratuvarı’na başvuran hastalarda bağırsak parazitlerinin dağılımı. Türk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi, ; 68(4): 165 – 174.
  • Demir, E., Dinç, H. Ö., Özbey, D., Akkuş, S., Ergin, S., Kocazeybek, B. S. (2020). İÜ-C Cerrahpaşa Tıp Fakültesi Hastanesi’ne Başvuran Hastalarda, 2013-2018 Yılları Arasında Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella ve Sitomegalovirus Seropozitifliği ile Avidite Test Sonuçlarının Retrospektif Olarak Değerlendirilmesi. Türk Mikrobiyoloji Cemiyeti Dergisi, 50(1), 35-43
  • Dias, J.C., Amato Neto V., Luna, E.J. (2011). Alternative transmission mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil and proposals for their prevention Article in Portuguese, Revista da Sociedad Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 44(3): 375–379.
  • Dixon, B.R. (2015). Transmission dynamics of foodborne parasites on fresh produce (chapter 13). In: Gajadhar, A.A. (Ed.), Foodborne Parasites in the Food Supply Web. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Woodhead Publishing, pp. 317–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-332-4.00013-8. FAO/WHO, 2014.
  • Dubey, J.P. (2010). Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans. 2 nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  • Egyed, Z., Sréter, T., Széll, Z., Vargab, I. (2003). Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp.—recent developments and future needs. Veterinary Parasitology. 13:103-114.
  • Ekici, A., Ünlü, A.H., Yılmaz, H., Tas, C.Z., Beyhan Y.E. (2021). Investigation of Cyclospora cayetanensis by modified acid-fast staining and nested PCR in some patient groups. Parasitologists United Journal, doi: 10.21608/PUJ.2021.55459.1101
  • Eroglu, S., Asgin, N. (2020). Awareness, knowledge and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, DOI: 10.1080/01443615.2020.1789954
  • Erturk, E. Y., Karaman, U., Colak, C., Direkel, S., Arici, Y. K. (2021). Prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium spp. children according to some variables. Medicine, 10(2), 338-45.
  • Fayer, R. (2004). Sarcosystis spp. in human infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 17: 894-902.
  • Fayer, R., Santin, M., Trout, J.M. (2008). Cryptosporidium ryanae n. sp. (Apicomplexa:Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus). Veterinary Parasitology. 156, 191-198.
  • Flegr, J. (2013). How and why Toxoplasma makes us crazy. Trends in Parasitology, 29(4): 156–163.
  • Guy, E., Dubey, J.P., Hill, D.E. (2012). Toxoplasma gondii. pp. 167–188 (Ch. 6), in: L.J. Robertson and H.V. Smith (editors). Food-borne Protozoan Parasites. Nova Biomedical.
  • Haque, R., Huston, C.D., Hughes, M., Houpt, E., Petri, W.A. Jr. (2003). Amebiasis. New England Journal of Medicine. 348: 1565–1573.
  • Henriquez,, S.A., Brett, R., Alexander, J., Pratt, J., Roberts, C.W. (2009). Neuropsychiatric disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection. Neuroimmunomodulation, 16: 122– 133.
  • Hill, D.E., Chirukandoth, S., Dubey, J.P. (2005) Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals, Animal Health Research Reviews. Volume 6 , Issue 1 June, pp. 41-61, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/AHR2005100
  • IASR (Infectious Agents Surveillance Reports). (2007). Amoebiasis 2003–2006. Infectious Agent Surveillance Reports, 28: 103–104.
  • Kijlstra, A., Jongert, E. (2008). Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat. International Journal for Parasitology. 38: 1359–1370.
  • Lindsay, D.S., Blagburn, B.L., Braund, K.G. (1995). Sarcocystis spp. and sarcocystosis. Basic Applied Myology. 5: 249-254.
  • McKerr, C., Adak, G.K., Nichols, G., Gorton, R., Chalmers, R.M., Kafatos, G., Cosford, P., Charlett, A., Reacher, M., Pollock, K.G., Alexander, C.L., Morton, S. (2015). An outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum across England and Scotland associated with consumption of fresh pre-cut salad leaves, May 2012. PLoS One 10, e0125955. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125955.
  • Miron, D., Kenes J., Dagan, R. (1991) Calves as a source of an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among young children in an agricultural closed community. Pediatr Infect Disorders Journey. 10:438–441
  • Naz, A., Nawaz, Z., Rasool, M.H., Zahoor, M.A. (2018) Cross-sectional epidemiological investigations of Giardia lamblia in children in Pakistan. Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 136: 449-53.
  • Nóbrega, A.A., Garcia, M.H., Tatto, E., Obara, M.T., Costa, E., Sobel, J., Araujo, W.N. (2009). Oral transmission of Chagas disease by consumption of açaí palm fruit, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(4): 653–655.
  • Nozaki, T. (2000). Current problems of amebiasis in Japan and recent advances in amebiasis research. Japan Journal of Infectious Disease. 53: 229–237.
  • Ortega, Y.R., Sanchez, R. (2010). Update on Cyclospora cayetanensis, a food-borne and waterborne parasite. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 23: 218–234.
  • PAHO/WHO (2012). Fact sheet. Estimación cuantitativa de la enfermedad de Chagas en las Américas, In Spanish Doc. OPS/HDM/CD/425.06. Available at http://new. paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5856&Itemid=41 96&lang=es Accessed 2013-06-23.
  • Toso M., A., Vial F., U., Galanti, N. (2011). Oral transmission of Chagas’ disease. Revista Medica de Chile, 139(2): 258–266.
  • Petersen, E., Kijlstra, A., Stanford, M. (2012). Epidemiology of ocular toxoplasmosis. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, 20(2): 68–75.
  • Rabold, J.G., Hoge, C.W., Shlim, D.R., Ke¬ord, C., Rajah, R., Echeverria, P. (1994). Cyclospora outbreak associated with chlorinated drinking water. Lancet, 344: 1360– 1361.
  • Saki, C.E., Değer, S., Özer, E. (2010). Sarcosporidiosis in Turkey. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 21: 129-134 (in Turkish with an English abstract).
  • Savioli, L., Smith, H., Thompson, A. (2006). Giardia and Cryptosporidium join the ‘Neglected Diseases Initiative’. Trends Parasitol. 22: 203-8.
  • Schuster, F.L., Ramirez-Avila, L. (2008). Current world status of Balantidium coli. Clinical Microbiology Review, 21(4): 626–638.
  • Shields, J.M., Olson, B.H. (2003). Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review of an emerging parasitic coccidian. International Journal of Parasitology, 33: 371–391.
  • Stanley, S.L. Jr. (2003). Amoebiasis. Lancet. 361(9362): 1025–1034.
  • Sulaiman, I.M., Cama, V. (2006) The biology of Giardia parasites. Foodborne parasites: Springer. p.15-32.
  • Thompson, R.C.A. (2004). The zoonotic significance and molecular epidemiology of Giardia and giardiasis. Veterinary Parasitology. 126, 15-35.
  • Torgerson, P.R., Devleesschauwer, B., Praet, N., Speybroeck, N., Willingham, A.L., Ryan U, Cacciò SM. (2013). Zoonotic potential of Giardia. International Journal for Parasitology. 43(12-13), 943-56.
  • Ülgen, Z., Balcıoğlu, İ.C. (2007). CRYPTOSPORİDİOSİS. Özcel’in Tııbi Parazit Hastalıkları. Tıbbi Parazitoloji Derneği, 363-376.
  • Weinke, T., Friedrich-Jaenicke, B., Hopp, P., Janitschke, K. (1990). Prevalence and clinical importance of Entamoeba histolytica in two high-risk groups: travellers returning from the tropics and male homosexuals. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 161: 1029–1031.
  • WHO. (2003). Control of Chagas disease: second report of the WHO Expert Committee. Prepared by WHO Expert Committee on the Control of Chagas Disease. OMS Serie de informes técnicos, no. 905. 117 p. Available at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42738/1/WHO_TRS_905_spa.pdf Accessed 2013-06-23.
  • WHO. (2014) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization] Multicriteria-based ranking for risk management of food-borne parasites. Rome. 302 pp.

Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 2, 107 - 112, 31.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.30704/http-www-jivs-net.948361

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Ali, V., Nozaki, T. (2007). Current therapeutics, their problems, and sulfur-containingamino-acid metabolism as a novel target against infections by “amitochondriate” protozoan parasites. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 2007, 20:164-87.
  • Almeria, S., Robertson, L., Santin, M. (2021). Why foodborne and waterborne parasites are important for veterinarians. Research in Veterinary Science, Volume 136, May 2021, Pages 198-199, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.02.020
  • Anon[ymous]. (2003a). ¬e Parasite: Balantidium coli. ¬e Disease: Balantidiasis. Introduction. Web site prepared by A. Ramachandran. Last updated 2003-05-23; accessed 2013-06-18. Online at http://www.stanford.edu/group/parasites/ParaSites2003/Balantidium/Balantidium_coli_ParaSite.htm.
  • Anon. (2003b). ¬e Parasite: Balantidium coli. ¬e Disease: Balantidiasis. Morphology. Web site prepared by A. Ramachandran. Last updated 2003-05-23; accessed 2013- 06-18. Online at http://www.stanford.edu/group/parasites/ParaSites2003/Balantidium/Morphology.htm
  • Amoah, P., Drechsel, P., Henseler, M., Abaidoo, R.C. (2007). Irrigated urban vegetable production in Ghana: microbiological contamination in farms and markets and associated consumer risk groups. Journal of Water and Health 5, 455–466. https://doi.org/ 10.2166/wh.2007.041.
  • Bern, C., Kjos, S., Yabsley, M.J., Montgomery, S.P. (2011). Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas’ Disease in the United States. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 24(4): 655–681.
  • Beyhan, Y. E., Yılmaz, H. (2020). Dışkı Örneklerinde Cryptosporidium spp. Antijen Varlığının ELISA Yöntemi ile Araştırılması: Dokuz Yıllık Değerlendirme. Turkiye Parazitol Dergisi, 44(2), 68-71.
  • Bilgic, B., Bayrakal, A., Dokuzeylul B, Dodurka T, Or ME (2020). Zoonotic Importance of Giardia spp. Infections in Asymptomatic Dogs. Van Veterinary Journal. 31 (3), 158-160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36483/vanvetj.813479
  • Bilman, B.F., Yetik, M. (2019). Bağırsak Parazitlerinin Epidemiyolojisi: Beş Yıllık Değerlendirme, İstanbul Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Tıp Dergisi, Cilt: 11Sayı: 3ISSN: 2148-273XSayfa Aralığı: 184 – 189.
  • Caradonna, T., Marangi, M., Del Chierico, F., Ferrari, N., Reddel, S., Bracaglia, G., Normanno, G., Putignani, L., Giangaspero, A. (2017). Detection and prevalence of protozoan parasites in ready-to-eat packaged salads on sale in Italy. Food Microbiolgy. 67, 67–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2017.06.006.
  • Caeiro, J.P., Mathewson, J.J., Smith, M.A., Jiang, Z.D., Kaplan, M.A., Dupont, H.L. (1999). Etiology of outpatient pediatric nondysenteric diarrhea: a multicenter study in the United States. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 18(2): 94–97
  • Cantey, P.T., Roy, S., Lee, B., Cronquist, A., Smith, K., Liang, J., Beach, M.J. (2011). Study of nonoutbreak giardiasis: novel findings and implications for research. American Medical Journal, 124(12): 1175.e1-8. Online. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.06.012.
  • CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention). (2020). Parasites and Health: Balantidiasis [Balantidium coli]. Online. See: http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/ Balantidiasis.htm Accessed 2013-06-18.
  • Chalmers, R. M., Davies, A.P. (2010). Minireview: clinical cryptosporidiosis. Experimental Parasitology, 124: 138–146.
  • Çeliksöz, A., Çelik, S. (2003). Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Hastanesi’nde gastroenteritli ve malnütrisyonlu hastalarda Cryptosporidium spp. Araştırması. Türkiye Parazitolji Dergisi. 27: 85-88.
  • Çulha, G., Gülkan, B. (2011). 2006-2010 yıllarında Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Parazitoloji Laboratuvarı’na başvuran hastalarda bağırsak parazitlerinin dağılımı. Türk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi, ; 68(4): 165 – 174.
  • Demir, E., Dinç, H. Ö., Özbey, D., Akkuş, S., Ergin, S., Kocazeybek, B. S. (2020). İÜ-C Cerrahpaşa Tıp Fakültesi Hastanesi’ne Başvuran Hastalarda, 2013-2018 Yılları Arasında Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella ve Sitomegalovirus Seropozitifliği ile Avidite Test Sonuçlarının Retrospektif Olarak Değerlendirilmesi. Türk Mikrobiyoloji Cemiyeti Dergisi, 50(1), 35-43
  • Dias, J.C., Amato Neto V., Luna, E.J. (2011). Alternative transmission mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil and proposals for their prevention Article in Portuguese, Revista da Sociedad Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 44(3): 375–379.
  • Dixon, B.R. (2015). Transmission dynamics of foodborne parasites on fresh produce (chapter 13). In: Gajadhar, A.A. (Ed.), Foodborne Parasites in the Food Supply Web. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Woodhead Publishing, pp. 317–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-332-4.00013-8. FAO/WHO, 2014.
  • Dubey, J.P. (2010). Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans. 2 nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  • Egyed, Z., Sréter, T., Széll, Z., Vargab, I. (2003). Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp.—recent developments and future needs. Veterinary Parasitology. 13:103-114.
  • Ekici, A., Ünlü, A.H., Yılmaz, H., Tas, C.Z., Beyhan Y.E. (2021). Investigation of Cyclospora cayetanensis by modified acid-fast staining and nested PCR in some patient groups. Parasitologists United Journal, doi: 10.21608/PUJ.2021.55459.1101
  • Eroglu, S., Asgin, N. (2020). Awareness, knowledge and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, DOI: 10.1080/01443615.2020.1789954
  • Erturk, E. Y., Karaman, U., Colak, C., Direkel, S., Arici, Y. K. (2021). Prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium spp. children according to some variables. Medicine, 10(2), 338-45.
  • Fayer, R. (2004). Sarcosystis spp. in human infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 17: 894-902.
  • Fayer, R., Santin, M., Trout, J.M. (2008). Cryptosporidium ryanae n. sp. (Apicomplexa:Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus). Veterinary Parasitology. 156, 191-198.
  • Flegr, J. (2013). How and why Toxoplasma makes us crazy. Trends in Parasitology, 29(4): 156–163.
  • Guy, E., Dubey, J.P., Hill, D.E. (2012). Toxoplasma gondii. pp. 167–188 (Ch. 6), in: L.J. Robertson and H.V. Smith (editors). Food-borne Protozoan Parasites. Nova Biomedical.
  • Haque, R., Huston, C.D., Hughes, M., Houpt, E., Petri, W.A. Jr. (2003). Amebiasis. New England Journal of Medicine. 348: 1565–1573.
  • Henriquez,, S.A., Brett, R., Alexander, J., Pratt, J., Roberts, C.W. (2009). Neuropsychiatric disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection. Neuroimmunomodulation, 16: 122– 133.
  • Hill, D.E., Chirukandoth, S., Dubey, J.P. (2005) Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals, Animal Health Research Reviews. Volume 6 , Issue 1 June, pp. 41-61, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/AHR2005100
  • IASR (Infectious Agents Surveillance Reports). (2007). Amoebiasis 2003–2006. Infectious Agent Surveillance Reports, 28: 103–104.
  • Kijlstra, A., Jongert, E. (2008). Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat. International Journal for Parasitology. 38: 1359–1370.
  • Lindsay, D.S., Blagburn, B.L., Braund, K.G. (1995). Sarcocystis spp. and sarcocystosis. Basic Applied Myology. 5: 249-254.
  • McKerr, C., Adak, G.K., Nichols, G., Gorton, R., Chalmers, R.M., Kafatos, G., Cosford, P., Charlett, A., Reacher, M., Pollock, K.G., Alexander, C.L., Morton, S. (2015). An outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum across England and Scotland associated with consumption of fresh pre-cut salad leaves, May 2012. PLoS One 10, e0125955. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125955.
  • Miron, D., Kenes J., Dagan, R. (1991) Calves as a source of an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among young children in an agricultural closed community. Pediatr Infect Disorders Journey. 10:438–441
  • Naz, A., Nawaz, Z., Rasool, M.H., Zahoor, M.A. (2018) Cross-sectional epidemiological investigations of Giardia lamblia in children in Pakistan. Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 136: 449-53.
  • Nóbrega, A.A., Garcia, M.H., Tatto, E., Obara, M.T., Costa, E., Sobel, J., Araujo, W.N. (2009). Oral transmission of Chagas disease by consumption of açaí palm fruit, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(4): 653–655.
  • Nozaki, T. (2000). Current problems of amebiasis in Japan and recent advances in amebiasis research. Japan Journal of Infectious Disease. 53: 229–237.
  • Ortega, Y.R., Sanchez, R. (2010). Update on Cyclospora cayetanensis, a food-borne and waterborne parasite. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 23: 218–234.
  • PAHO/WHO (2012). Fact sheet. Estimación cuantitativa de la enfermedad de Chagas en las Américas, In Spanish Doc. OPS/HDM/CD/425.06. Available at http://new. paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5856&Itemid=41 96&lang=es Accessed 2013-06-23.
  • Toso M., A., Vial F., U., Galanti, N. (2011). Oral transmission of Chagas’ disease. Revista Medica de Chile, 139(2): 258–266.
  • Petersen, E., Kijlstra, A., Stanford, M. (2012). Epidemiology of ocular toxoplasmosis. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, 20(2): 68–75.
  • Rabold, J.G., Hoge, C.W., Shlim, D.R., Ke¬ord, C., Rajah, R., Echeverria, P. (1994). Cyclospora outbreak associated with chlorinated drinking water. Lancet, 344: 1360– 1361.
  • Saki, C.E., Değer, S., Özer, E. (2010). Sarcosporidiosis in Turkey. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 21: 129-134 (in Turkish with an English abstract).
  • Savioli, L., Smith, H., Thompson, A. (2006). Giardia and Cryptosporidium join the ‘Neglected Diseases Initiative’. Trends Parasitol. 22: 203-8.
  • Schuster, F.L., Ramirez-Avila, L. (2008). Current world status of Balantidium coli. Clinical Microbiology Review, 21(4): 626–638.
  • Shields, J.M., Olson, B.H. (2003). Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review of an emerging parasitic coccidian. International Journal of Parasitology, 33: 371–391.
  • Stanley, S.L. Jr. (2003). Amoebiasis. Lancet. 361(9362): 1025–1034.
  • Sulaiman, I.M., Cama, V. (2006) The biology of Giardia parasites. Foodborne parasites: Springer. p.15-32.
  • Thompson, R.C.A. (2004). The zoonotic significance and molecular epidemiology of Giardia and giardiasis. Veterinary Parasitology. 126, 15-35.
  • Torgerson, P.R., Devleesschauwer, B., Praet, N., Speybroeck, N., Willingham, A.L., Ryan U, Cacciò SM. (2013). Zoonotic potential of Giardia. International Journal for Parasitology. 43(12-13), 943-56.
  • Ülgen, Z., Balcıoğlu, İ.C. (2007). CRYPTOSPORİDİOSİS. Özcel’in Tııbi Parazit Hastalıkları. Tıbbi Parazitoloji Derneği, 363-376.
  • Weinke, T., Friedrich-Jaenicke, B., Hopp, P., Janitschke, K. (1990). Prevalence and clinical importance of Entamoeba histolytica in two high-risk groups: travellers returning from the tropics and male homosexuals. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 161: 1029–1031.
  • WHO. (2003). Control of Chagas disease: second report of the WHO Expert Committee. Prepared by WHO Expert Committee on the Control of Chagas Disease. OMS Serie de informes técnicos, no. 905. 117 p. Available at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42738/1/WHO_TRS_905_spa.pdf Accessed 2013-06-23.
  • WHO. (2014) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization] Multicriteria-based ranking for risk management of food-borne parasites. Rome. 302 pp.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm Derleme Makaleler
Yazarlar

Güneş DİNÇ (Sorumlu Yazar)
0000-0001-7564-516X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 5, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Dinç, G. (2021). Some Foodborne and Waterborne Protozoa . Journal of Istanbul Veterinary Sciences , 5 (2) , 107-112 . DOI: 10.30704/http-www-jivs-net.948361

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