Araştırma Makalesi
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FLACTUATING RELATIONS BETWEEN IRAN AND THE IRAQI KURDISTAN REGIONAL GOVERNMENT SINCE 1958

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 27, 304 - 319, 31.07.2021

Öz

Bu makale, İran ve Irak Kürdistan Bölgesel Hükümeti (IKBY) arasındaki inişli çıkışlı ilişkileri incelemektedir. İranlı siyasetçiler ve Iraklı Kürtler, uzun yıllar Bağdat üzerinden inşa edilen pragmatik ilişkilere sahipti. Bununla birlikte, General Abdulkerim Kasım darbesine kadar ayrılıkçı Kürt hareketleri hem İran hem de Irak tarafından ortak tehdit olarak algılandı. 1958 Irak darbesinden sonra Kürtler her iki devlet tarafından birbirlerini zayıflatmak amacıyla sürekli kullanıldı. İran ve Iraklı Kürtler arasındaki ilişkiler 1991 yılındaki I. Körfez Savaşı'ndan günümüze dramatik bir şekilde değişti. 2003 yılında ABD'nin Irak'ı işgal etmesinden sonrası İran'ın etkisi sadece Bağdat'ta değil aynı zamanda da Erbil'de de arttı. Bununla beraber, IKBY'nin bağımsızlık referandumuna gitme kararından sonra İran, IKBY'ye baskı yaparak Erbil'i Türkiye, Irak ve Suriye ile birlikte izole etmeye çalıştı. Tahran, kendi sınırlarındaki İran Kürdistan Demokrat Partisi ve PJAK gibi Kürt bölücü gruplardan algıladığı tehdit nedeniyle bağımsız bir Kürt devleti görmek istememektedir. Bu çalışma, İran ve Irak Kürtleri arasında çatışma ve işbirliği nedenlerini analiz etmekle birlikte, 1979 İran Devrimi, DAEŞ terörünün bölgede güçlenmesi ve 2017 bağımsızlık referandumunun ilişkileri nasıl etkilediğini irdelemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmedi, I. (2018). The Stateless and Why Some Gain and Others not: The Caase of Iranian Kurdistan, in Comparative Kurdish Politics in the Middle East. Tugdar, E.E. and Al, S. (Ed.). (pp:221-226). New York: The Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Ali, O. (2017). Threats To The Oil From KRG to Turkey. Orsam https://orsam.org.tr/en/threats-to-the-oilflow-from-krg-to-turkey/?amp=evet (20.04.2019)
  • Ali, O. (2017). Iran and Barzani: Worsening Relations and The Risk of An Inevitable Clash. Orsam Review Of Regional Affairs. No.58
  • Ali, S. (2018). Barzani: Kurdistan Will Expand Economic Ties With Iran, Vreate Free Trade Zone, Kurdistan24. https://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/77f3f932-fd38-47ea-bde1-21ed17361421 (02.05.2020)
  • Angrist, M. P. (2013). The Making of Middle East Politics, in Politics & Society. in the Contemporary Middle East. Angrist, M. P. (Ed.). (pp:1-32). Colarodo: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Arosoaie, A. (2015). Iraq, Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses. Vol. 7, No. 1. 62-66.
  • Beeman, W.Q. (2007). Iran and Kurdistan: A Studied Ambiguity, in The Evolution of Kurdish Nationalism. Mohammed, M.A. and Gunter, M.M. (Ed.). (pp: 276-286). CA: Mazda Publishers.
  • Berman, L. (2016). Iranian Penetration of Iraqi Kurdistan. Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs. http://jcpa.org/article/the-iranian-penetration-of-iraqi-kurdistan/ (21.11.2020)
  • Boulby, M.(2013). Extra-Regional Interests, Authoritarian Elites, and Dependent State Formation in the Arab World. in State Formation and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa. Christie, K. and Masad, M. (Ed.). (pp:37-589. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Press.
  • Bolukbasi, S. (2011). Azerbaijan A Political History, New York: I.B Tauris.
  • Cengiz, S. (2014). The Case for Kurdish Independence Amid ISIS Gains. Al Arabiya. (28.12.2020)
  • Duman, B. (19.10.2015). Cards Reshuffled in KRG. Orsam. https://www.orsam.org.tr/en/cards-are-reshuffled-in-krg/ (11.11.2020)
  • Entessar, N. (2010). Kurdish Politics in the Middle East. Maryland: Lexington Books.
  • Entessar, N. (2018). Uneasy Neighbours: Iran and The Kurdish Regional Government. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. Vol.41, No. 2. 73-84.
  • Gourlay, W. (2016). Mesopotamian Nexus: Iran, Turkey, and the Kurds, in Iran in the World President Rouhani’s Foreign Policy. Akbarzadeh, S. & Conduit, D. (Ed.). (pp:111-131). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hawramy, F. (2017). Iran Willing To Normalize Ties With KRG, But Not Without Change. Al-Monitor. (10.10.2020)
  • Hess, G.R. (1974). The Iranian Crisis of 1945-1946 and the Cold War. Political Science Quarterly, No.89, Vol. 1. 117-1546.
  • Hunter, S. T. (2010). Iran’s Foreign Policy in the Post Soviet Era. California: ABC Clio.
  • Izzeti, I.(2005). İran ve Bölge Jeopolitiği. İstanbul: Küre Yayınları.
  • Karataş, İ. (2021). Iran’s Use of Afghan Shiite Migrants as Proxies: The Case of Liwa Fatemiyoun. İran Çalışmaları Dergisi, Vol. 5, No. 1, 31-53. Doi: 10.33201/iranian.880171
  • Kechichian, J.A. (2014). The Case The Deny Kurdish Independence Despite Aspitarions. Al Arabiyah. (28.06.2014)
  • Koç, E. (2018).The Algiers Accord, in The Kurds An Encyclopedia of Life, Culture, and Society, Maisel, S. (Ed.). California: ABC Clio.
  • Laoutides, C.(2016). How Foreign Is The Kurdish Issue In Iran’s Foreign Policy. in Iran in the World President Rouhani’s Foreign Policy. Akbarzadeh, S. & Conduit, D. (Ed.). (pp: 93-109). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Mabon, S. (2013). Saudi Arabia and Iran: Soft Power and Rivaly in the Middle East. New York: I.B. Tauris.
  • Marashi, R. (2014). What’s Doing Iran in Iraq. Iranian Wire. https://iranwire.com/en/features/471, (03.08.2020)
  • Mcdowall, D.(2007). A Modern History of The Kurds. New York: I.B. Tauris
  • Middle East Eye (12.02.2015). Iran Provided Weapons To Iraq’s Kurds: Barzani. https://www.middleeasteye.net/fr/news/iran-provided-weapons-iraqs- kurds-barzani-259715491 (10.10.2020)
  • Middle East Eye (12.02.2015). Iran Provided Weapons To Iraq’s Kurds: Barzani, https://www.middleeasteye.net/fr/news/iran-provided-weapons-iraqs-kurds-barzani-259715491 (19.09.2020)
  • Mustafa, M.S. (2016). Iran’s Role in the Kurdistan Region. Aljazeera Center For Studies Report.
  • Nader, A. Hanauer, L. Allen, B. & Scotten, A.G.(2016). Regional Implication of an Independent Kurdistan, RAND Cooperation
  • Polk, W.R. (2006). Understanding Iraq. New York: I.B. Tauris.
  • Reisinezhad, A. (2018). The Shah of Iran, The Iraqi Kurds, And The Lebanese Shia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Richards, G. (2013). Across the Zagros: Iranian influence in Iraqi Kurdistan. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/21/iran-influence-iraqi-kurdistan (21.11. 2019)
  • Romano, D. (2015). Iraqi Kurdistan and Turkey: Temporary Marriage?. Middle East Policy. Vol. XXII, No. 1. 89-101.
  • Roosvelt, A.J. (1947). The Kurdish republic of Mahabad. Middle East Journal, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp: 247-269.
  • Saikal, A. (2016). Iran and Changing Regional Strategic Environment. in Iran in the World President Rouhani’s Foreign Policy. Akbarzadeh, S. & Conduit, D. (Ed.). (pp:17-31). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Salih, M. A. (2015). Iran Nuclear Talks Promt Concern Among Iraqi Kurds. Al Jazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/07/iran-nuclear-talks-prompt-concern-iraqi-kurds-150706080835082.html (09.07.2020)
  • Sinkaya, B. (2017) Iran’s Reaction to The ‘Kurdistan Independence Referendum. Orsam. https://orsam.org.tr/en/iran-s-reaction-to-the-kurdistan-independence-referendum/, (20.11.2020).
  • Slavin, B.(2007). Bitter Friends, Bosom Enemies. New York: Martin Press.
  • Vassiliev, A. (1998). The History of Saudi Arabia. London: Saqi Press.
  • Vatanka, A. (2014). Why Iran Fears An Independent Kurdistan. National Interest. (25.07.2020)
  • Ward, S.R. (2009). A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Washington: Georgetown Unıversıty Press.
  • Wilber, D.N. (1981). Iran, Past and Present From Monarchy to Islamic Repubic. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

FLACTUATING RELATIONS BETWEEN IRAN AND THE IRAQI KURDISTAN REGIONAL GOVERNMENT SINCE 1958

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 27, 304 - 319, 31.07.2021

Öz

This paper examines the up and down bilateral relations between Iran and the Iraqi Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG). The Iranian politicians and Iraqi Kurds have had pragmatical relationships independent from Baghdad for many years. However, separatist Kurdish movements were seen as a joint target by both Iran and Iraq until General Abdulkarim Qasim’s coup. Since the coup in Iraq in 1958, the Kurdish issue has been used against each other by two sides. The relationship between the Iranian and Iraqi Kurds has changed dramatically since the first Gulf War in 1991. However, since the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the USA, Iran’s influence has been growing, not only in Baghdad, but also in Erbil. Meanwhile, after the KRG’s decision to hold a referendum on independence, Iran put pressure on the KRG and tried to isolate Erbil, as Turkey, Iraq, and Syria did. Tehran is not willing to let an independent Kurdish state be established near its borders because of Iran’s local Kurdish secessionist groups, such as the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan and PJAK. This study analyzes the reasons for the conflict and cooperation between the Iranian regime and Iraqi Kurds and focuses on how the Iranian revolution in 1979, the ISIL terrorism and the independence referendum held in 2017, have effected their relations.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmedi, I. (2018). The Stateless and Why Some Gain and Others not: The Caase of Iranian Kurdistan, in Comparative Kurdish Politics in the Middle East. Tugdar, E.E. and Al, S. (Ed.). (pp:221-226). New York: The Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Ali, O. (2017). Threats To The Oil From KRG to Turkey. Orsam https://orsam.org.tr/en/threats-to-the-oilflow-from-krg-to-turkey/?amp=evet (20.04.2019)
  • Ali, O. (2017). Iran and Barzani: Worsening Relations and The Risk of An Inevitable Clash. Orsam Review Of Regional Affairs. No.58
  • Ali, S. (2018). Barzani: Kurdistan Will Expand Economic Ties With Iran, Vreate Free Trade Zone, Kurdistan24. https://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/77f3f932-fd38-47ea-bde1-21ed17361421 (02.05.2020)
  • Angrist, M. P. (2013). The Making of Middle East Politics, in Politics & Society. in the Contemporary Middle East. Angrist, M. P. (Ed.). (pp:1-32). Colarodo: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Arosoaie, A. (2015). Iraq, Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses. Vol. 7, No. 1. 62-66.
  • Beeman, W.Q. (2007). Iran and Kurdistan: A Studied Ambiguity, in The Evolution of Kurdish Nationalism. Mohammed, M.A. and Gunter, M.M. (Ed.). (pp: 276-286). CA: Mazda Publishers.
  • Berman, L. (2016). Iranian Penetration of Iraqi Kurdistan. Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs. http://jcpa.org/article/the-iranian-penetration-of-iraqi-kurdistan/ (21.11.2020)
  • Boulby, M.(2013). Extra-Regional Interests, Authoritarian Elites, and Dependent State Formation in the Arab World. in State Formation and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa. Christie, K. and Masad, M. (Ed.). (pp:37-589. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Press.
  • Bolukbasi, S. (2011). Azerbaijan A Political History, New York: I.B Tauris.
  • Cengiz, S. (2014). The Case for Kurdish Independence Amid ISIS Gains. Al Arabiya. (28.12.2020)
  • Duman, B. (19.10.2015). Cards Reshuffled in KRG. Orsam. https://www.orsam.org.tr/en/cards-are-reshuffled-in-krg/ (11.11.2020)
  • Entessar, N. (2010). Kurdish Politics in the Middle East. Maryland: Lexington Books.
  • Entessar, N. (2018). Uneasy Neighbours: Iran and The Kurdish Regional Government. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. Vol.41, No. 2. 73-84.
  • Gourlay, W. (2016). Mesopotamian Nexus: Iran, Turkey, and the Kurds, in Iran in the World President Rouhani’s Foreign Policy. Akbarzadeh, S. & Conduit, D. (Ed.). (pp:111-131). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hawramy, F. (2017). Iran Willing To Normalize Ties With KRG, But Not Without Change. Al-Monitor. (10.10.2020)
  • Hess, G.R. (1974). The Iranian Crisis of 1945-1946 and the Cold War. Political Science Quarterly, No.89, Vol. 1. 117-1546.
  • Hunter, S. T. (2010). Iran’s Foreign Policy in the Post Soviet Era. California: ABC Clio.
  • Izzeti, I.(2005). İran ve Bölge Jeopolitiği. İstanbul: Küre Yayınları.
  • Karataş, İ. (2021). Iran’s Use of Afghan Shiite Migrants as Proxies: The Case of Liwa Fatemiyoun. İran Çalışmaları Dergisi, Vol. 5, No. 1, 31-53. Doi: 10.33201/iranian.880171
  • Kechichian, J.A. (2014). The Case The Deny Kurdish Independence Despite Aspitarions. Al Arabiyah. (28.06.2014)
  • Koç, E. (2018).The Algiers Accord, in The Kurds An Encyclopedia of Life, Culture, and Society, Maisel, S. (Ed.). California: ABC Clio.
  • Laoutides, C.(2016). How Foreign Is The Kurdish Issue In Iran’s Foreign Policy. in Iran in the World President Rouhani’s Foreign Policy. Akbarzadeh, S. & Conduit, D. (Ed.). (pp: 93-109). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Mabon, S. (2013). Saudi Arabia and Iran: Soft Power and Rivaly in the Middle East. New York: I.B. Tauris.
  • Marashi, R. (2014). What’s Doing Iran in Iraq. Iranian Wire. https://iranwire.com/en/features/471, (03.08.2020)
  • Mcdowall, D.(2007). A Modern History of The Kurds. New York: I.B. Tauris
  • Middle East Eye (12.02.2015). Iran Provided Weapons To Iraq’s Kurds: Barzani. https://www.middleeasteye.net/fr/news/iran-provided-weapons-iraqs- kurds-barzani-259715491 (10.10.2020)
  • Middle East Eye (12.02.2015). Iran Provided Weapons To Iraq’s Kurds: Barzani, https://www.middleeasteye.net/fr/news/iran-provided-weapons-iraqs-kurds-barzani-259715491 (19.09.2020)
  • Mustafa, M.S. (2016). Iran’s Role in the Kurdistan Region. Aljazeera Center For Studies Report.
  • Nader, A. Hanauer, L. Allen, B. & Scotten, A.G.(2016). Regional Implication of an Independent Kurdistan, RAND Cooperation
  • Polk, W.R. (2006). Understanding Iraq. New York: I.B. Tauris.
  • Reisinezhad, A. (2018). The Shah of Iran, The Iraqi Kurds, And The Lebanese Shia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Richards, G. (2013). Across the Zagros: Iranian influence in Iraqi Kurdistan. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/21/iran-influence-iraqi-kurdistan (21.11. 2019)
  • Romano, D. (2015). Iraqi Kurdistan and Turkey: Temporary Marriage?. Middle East Policy. Vol. XXII, No. 1. 89-101.
  • Roosvelt, A.J. (1947). The Kurdish republic of Mahabad. Middle East Journal, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp: 247-269.
  • Saikal, A. (2016). Iran and Changing Regional Strategic Environment. in Iran in the World President Rouhani’s Foreign Policy. Akbarzadeh, S. & Conduit, D. (Ed.). (pp:17-31). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Salih, M. A. (2015). Iran Nuclear Talks Promt Concern Among Iraqi Kurds. Al Jazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/07/iran-nuclear-talks-prompt-concern-iraqi-kurds-150706080835082.html (09.07.2020)
  • Sinkaya, B. (2017) Iran’s Reaction to The ‘Kurdistan Independence Referendum. Orsam. https://orsam.org.tr/en/iran-s-reaction-to-the-kurdistan-independence-referendum/, (20.11.2020).
  • Slavin, B.(2007). Bitter Friends, Bosom Enemies. New York: Martin Press.
  • Vassiliev, A. (1998). The History of Saudi Arabia. London: Saqi Press.
  • Vatanka, A. (2014). Why Iran Fears An Independent Kurdistan. National Interest. (25.07.2020)
  • Ward, S.R. (2009). A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Washington: Georgetown Unıversıty Press.
  • Wilber, D.N. (1981). Iran, Past and Present From Monarchy to Islamic Repubic. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Beşeri Bilimler, Ortak Disiplinler
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Engin KOÇ (Sorumlu Yazar)
BURSA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-3682-8718
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Temmuz 2021
Kabul Tarihi 7 Temmuz 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 27

Kaynak Göster

APA Koç, E. (2021). FLACTUATING RELATIONS BETWEEN IRAN AND THE IRAQI KURDISTAN REGIONAL GOVERNMENT SINCE 1958 . Iğdır Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , (27) , 304-319 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/igdirsosbilder/issue/64336/960000