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ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 40, 1 - 54, 13.01.2023

Öz

Ruanda soykırımı faillerinin yargılanmasında olağan mahkemeler yanında işlerlik kazandırılan Gacaca yargısı, özellikle halkın katılımına dayanan işleyişiyle Batılı liberal yargı modelinden farklı bir sistem olarak adil yargılamanın uluslararası biçimsel standartları temelinde eleştirilere tabi tutulmuştur. Bu eleştirilerde, hükümeti olağan mahkeme sistemini destekleyecek arayışlara sürüklemiş olan mevcut koşulların göz ardı edildiği görülmektedir. Bu koşullar hem devletin maddi imkânsızlıklarını hem de soykırım vahşetiyle parçalanmış sosyal dokunun yeniden inşası ihtiyacını içermekteydi. Bu eleştiriler aynı zamanda da Gacaca yargısının dayandığı değer, amaç ve mantığı temelinde sanıklara sunduğu güvenceleri ihmal etmekteydi. Gacaca geçiş süreci adaletinin sihirli bir değneği olmasa da, göz ardı edilen bu hususlar, pratiğinde ortaya çıkan sorunların Gacaca’nın Batılı liberal yargı modeline dönüştürülerek çözülmesinin hem koşullar itibariyle olanaklı olmadığını hem de Ruanda’nın soykırım sonrası ihtiyaçlarına karşılık veremeyeceğini göstermektedir. Bu durumda Gacaca pratiğinde ortaya çıkan sorunların kaynaklarının belirlenmesi ve bu şekilde gelecekteki geçiş süreci adaleti uygulamalarına yol gösterilmesi isteniyorsa, Gacaca analizinin Gacaca’nın temellerini oluşturan koşullar, amaçlar ve yapısal özellikleri arasındaki bağlantılar ile içerisinde işlediği siyasal durum esas alınarak yapılması gerekmektedir.

Kaynakça

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  • 1 Ekim 1990 ve 31 Aralık 1994 Arasında İşlenen Soykırım ve İnsanlığa Karşı Suçların Faillerinin Kovuşturulması ve Yargılanması ile Yetkilendirilen Gacaca Mahkemelerinin Örgütlenmesi, Yetkisi ve İşleyişini Düzenleyen 16/2004 Sayılı Organik Yasa, <https://www.refworld.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rwmain/opendocpdf.pdf?reldoc=y&docid=52f22c704>, Erişim Tarihi: 12.5.2022.
  • 1 Ekim 1990 ve 31 Aralık 1994 Arasında İşlenen Soykırım veya İnsanlığa Karşı Suç Teşkil Eden Fiillerin Kovuşturulmalarını Düzenleyen ve Gacaca Yargısını Kuran 26.01.2001 Tarih ve 40/2000 Sayılı Organik Yasa, <https://www.legal-tools.org/doc/0bdf0f/pdf>, Erişim Tarihi: 12.5.2022.
  • 13/2008 Sayılı 19/05/2008 Tarihli Organik Yasa, <https://gazettes.africa/gazettes/rw-government-gazette-dated-2008-06-01-no-11>, Erişim Tarihi: 10.6.2022.
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  • Braithwaite, John: Crime, Shame and Reintegration, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1989.
  • Brehm, Hollie Nyseth/Uggen, Christopher/Gasanabo, Jean-Damascène: “Genocide, Justice, and Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts”, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, C. 30, S. 3, 2014, s.333-352.
  • Chakravarty, Anurdha: “Gacaca Courts in Rwanda: Explaining Divisions within the Human Rights Community”, Yale Journal of International Affairs, C. 1, S. 2, 2006, s.132-145.
  • Chakravarty, Anurdha: Investing in Authoritarian Rule – Punishment and Patronage in Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts for Genocide Crimes, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2016.
  • Clark, Phil: “The Gacaca Courts and Abbreviated Criminal Procedure for Genocide Crimes in Rwanda”, Morten Bergsmo (Ed.), Abbreviated Criminal Procedures for Core International Crimes, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, 2017, s.189-208.
  • Clark, Phil: The Gacaca Courts, Post-genocide Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda – Justice without Lawyers, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010.
  • Cobban, Helena: “The Legacies of Collective Violence: The Rwandan Genocide and the Limits of the Law”, Boston Review, C. 27, 1.4.2002, <https://bostonreview.net/articles/helena-cobban-legacies-collective-violence/>, Erişim Tarihi: 8.5.2022.
  • Daly, Erin: “Between Punitive and Reconstructive Justice: The Gacaca Courts in Rwanda”, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, C. 34, S. 2, 2002, s.355-396.
  • Dauge-Roth, Alexandre: “Testimonial Encounter-Esther Mujawayo’s Dialogic Art of Witnessing”, French Cultural Studies, C. 20, S.2, 2009, s.165-180.
  • Des Forges, Alison/Longman, Timothy: “Legal Responses to Genocide in Rwanda”, Eric Stover, Harvey M. Weinstein (Ed.), My Neighbor, My Enemy – Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004, s.49-68.
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  • Fletcher, Laurel E./Weinstein Harvey M.: “Violence and Social Repair: Rethinking the Contribution of Justice to Reconciliation”, Human Rights Quarterly, C. 24, S. 3, 2002, s.573-639.
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  • Halpern, Jodi/Weinstein, Harvey M.: “Empathy and Rehumanization after Mass Violence”, Eric Stover, Harvey M. Weinstein (Ed.), My Neighbor, My Enemy – Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004, s.303-322.
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THE PROBLEM OF THE ADEQUACY OF INTERNATIONAL FORMAL STANDARDS OF FAIR TRIAL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE GACACA COURTS

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 40, 1 - 54, 13.01.2023

Öz

The Gacaca judiciary which was functionalized along with ordinary courts in the trials of the perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide as a system differing particularly with its operation based on the participation of the people from the Western liberal judiciary model, was subjected to criticism based on international formal standards of fair trial. It is observed in these criticisms that the existing conditions, which led the government to pursuits aiming to reinforce the regular court system, are ignored. These criticisms were, at the same time, neglecting the guarantees that the defendants were provided with before the Gacaca courts on the basis of the values, purpose and logic on which they were based. Even though the Gacaca might not be the magic wand of transitional justice, these neglected points demonstrate that solving the problems that have arisen during its practice by transforming Gacaca into a Western liberal judiciary system was not possible considering the circumstances, and it could not respond to Rwanda’s post-genocide needs. In this case, if one wishes the sources of the problems that emerged within the practice of Gacaca to be determined and in this way transitional justice practices in the future to be guided, the analysis of Gacaca needs to be carried out by grounding it on the connections between the conditions, purposes and structural properties that constitute its base, and the political context within which it has functioned.

Kaynakça

  • “Rwanda: ICTR Preparing to Indict First Tutsis”, 12.4.2002, <https://allafrica.com/stories/200204120457.html>, Erişim Tarihi: 10.3.2022.
  • <https://achpr.au.int/en/charter/african-charter-human-and-peoples-rights>, Erişim Tarihi: 25.10.2022.
  • <https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?CountryID=145&Lang=EN>, Erişim Tarihi: 25.10.2022.
  • 1 Ekim 1990 ve 31 Aralık 1994 Arasında İşlenen Soykırım ve İnsanlığa Karşı Suçların Faillerinin Kovuşturulması ve Yargılanması ile Yetkilendirilen Gacaca Mahkemelerinin Örgütlenmesi, Yetkisi ve İşleyişini Düzenleyen 16/2004 Sayılı Organik Yasa, <https://www.refworld.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rwmain/opendocpdf.pdf?reldoc=y&docid=52f22c704>, Erişim Tarihi: 12.5.2022.
  • 1 Ekim 1990 ve 31 Aralık 1994 Arasında İşlenen Soykırım veya İnsanlığa Karşı Suç Teşkil Eden Fiillerin Kovuşturulmalarını Düzenleyen ve Gacaca Yargısını Kuran 26.01.2001 Tarih ve 40/2000 Sayılı Organik Yasa, <https://www.legal-tools.org/doc/0bdf0f/pdf>, Erişim Tarihi: 12.5.2022.
  • 13/2008 Sayılı 19/05/2008 Tarihli Organik Yasa, <https://gazettes.africa/gazettes/rw-government-gazette-dated-2008-06-01-no-11>, Erişim Tarihi: 10.6.2022.
  • Ball, Howard: Prosecuting War Crimes and Genocide: The Twentieth Century Experience, University Press of Kansas, 1999.
  • Bauman, Zygmunt: Modernite ve Holocaust, çev. Süha Sertabiboğlu, Versus Kitap, İstanbul, 2007.
  • Bensaïd, Daniel: “Daimi Skandal”, Eric Hazan (Ed.), Demokrasi Ne Alemde?, çev. Savaş Kılıç, Metis Yayınları, İstanbul, 2010, s.24-50.
  • Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Sekreteri: Letter Dated 9 December 1994 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, 9.12.1994, <https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/198146#record-files-collapse-header>, Erişim Tarihi: 24.10.2022.
  • Birleşmiş Milletler İnsan Hakları Komitesi: “Concluding observations of the Human Rights Commitee: Rwanda”, CCPR/C/RWA/CO/3, 7.5.2009, <https://www.refworld.org/docid/4a891ec50.html>, Erişim Tarihi: 24.10.2022.
  • Braithwaite, John: “Restorative Justice: Assessing Optimistic and Pessimistic Accounts”, Crime and Justice, C. 25, 1999, s.1-127.
  • Braithwaite, John: Crime, Shame and Reintegration, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1989.
  • Brehm, Hollie Nyseth/Uggen, Christopher/Gasanabo, Jean-Damascène: “Genocide, Justice, and Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts”, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, C. 30, S. 3, 2014, s.333-352.
  • Chakravarty, Anurdha: “Gacaca Courts in Rwanda: Explaining Divisions within the Human Rights Community”, Yale Journal of International Affairs, C. 1, S. 2, 2006, s.132-145.
  • Chakravarty, Anurdha: Investing in Authoritarian Rule – Punishment and Patronage in Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts for Genocide Crimes, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2016.
  • Clark, Phil: “The Gacaca Courts and Abbreviated Criminal Procedure for Genocide Crimes in Rwanda”, Morten Bergsmo (Ed.), Abbreviated Criminal Procedures for Core International Crimes, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, 2017, s.189-208.
  • Clark, Phil: The Gacaca Courts, Post-genocide Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda – Justice without Lawyers, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010.
  • Cobban, Helena: “The Legacies of Collective Violence: The Rwandan Genocide and the Limits of the Law”, Boston Review, C. 27, 1.4.2002, <https://bostonreview.net/articles/helena-cobban-legacies-collective-violence/>, Erişim Tarihi: 8.5.2022.
  • Daly, Erin: “Between Punitive and Reconstructive Justice: The Gacaca Courts in Rwanda”, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, C. 34, S. 2, 2002, s.355-396.
  • Dauge-Roth, Alexandre: “Testimonial Encounter-Esther Mujawayo’s Dialogic Art of Witnessing”, French Cultural Studies, C. 20, S.2, 2009, s.165-180.
  • Des Forges, Alison/Longman, Timothy: “Legal Responses to Genocide in Rwanda”, Eric Stover, Harvey M. Weinstein (Ed.), My Neighbor, My Enemy – Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004, s.49-68.
  • Doughty, Kristin: “Law and the Architecture of Social Repair: Gacaca Days in Post-genocide Rwanda”, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, C. 21, S. 2, 2015, s.419-437.
  • Drumbl, Mark A.: “Punishment, Postgenocide: From Guilt to Shame to Civis in Rwanda”, New York University Law Review, C. 75, S. 5, 2000, s.1221-1326.
  • Drumbl, Mark A.: “Rule of Law Amid Lawlessness: Counseling the Accused in Rwanda's Domestic Genocide Trials”, Columbia Human Rights Law Review, C. 29, S. 3, 1998, s.545-640.
  • Du Toit, Fanie: Reconciliation and Transitional Justice: The Case of Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts, Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, Cape Town, 2011.
  • Fierens, Jacques: ”Gacaca Courts: Between Fantasy and Reality”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, C. 3, S. 4, 2005, s.896-919.
  • Fletcher, Laurel E./Weinstein Harvey M.: “Violence and Social Repair: Rethinking the Contribution of Justice to Reconciliation”, Human Rights Quarterly, C. 24, S. 3, 2002, s.573-639.
  • Haile, Dadimos: “Rwanda’s Experiment in People’s Courts (gacaca) and the Tragedy of Unexamined Humanitarianism: A Normative/Ethical Perspective”, Discussion Paper, Institute of Development Policy and Management, Antwerpen, 2008.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Hukuk
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Omca ÖZDEMİR 0000-0002-0168-768X

Yayımlanma Tarihi 13 Ocak 2023
Gönderilme Tarihi 24 Kasım 2022
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022 Cilt: 40

Kaynak Göster

APA ÖZDEMİR, O. (2023). ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU. İnsan Hakları Yıllığı, 40, 1-54.
AMA ÖZDEMİR O. ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU. İnsan Hakları Yıllığı. Ocak 2023;40:1-54.
Chicago ÖZDEMİR, Omca. “ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU”. İnsan Hakları Yıllığı 40, Ocak (Ocak 2023): 1-54.
EndNote ÖZDEMİR O (01 Ocak 2023) ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU. İnsan Hakları Yıllığı 40 1–54.
IEEE O. ÖZDEMİR, “ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU”, İnsan Hakları Yıllığı, c. 40, ss. 1–54, 2023.
ISNAD ÖZDEMİR, Omca. “ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU”. İnsan Hakları Yıllığı 40 (Ocak 2023), 1-54.
JAMA ÖZDEMİR O. ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU. İnsan Hakları Yıllığı. 2023;40:1–54.
MLA ÖZDEMİR, Omca. “ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU”. İnsan Hakları Yıllığı, c. 40, 2023, ss. 1-54.
Vancouver ÖZDEMİR O. ADİL YARGILAMANIN ULUSLARARASI BİÇİMSEL STANDARTLARININ GACACA YARGISI ANALİZİ İÇİN YETERLİLİĞİ SORUNU. İnsan Hakları Yıllığı. 2023;40:1-54.