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Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education

Yıl 2019, Cilt: 5 Sayı: 1-2, 1 - 8, 01.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.17985/ijare.524225

Öz

This
study used a qualitative analysis approach to review and organize thematically
the findings of 29 studies related to sense of community in online learning.
The purpose of this paper was to identify what the main themes were in the
literature and to develop some practical applications as a result of the study
as well as suggest some areas for future research. The main themes identified
were the importance of early establishment of behaviours and activities that
facilitate community, the role that the instructor should play, the importance
of developing social presence and social cohesion amongst learners.

Kaynakça

  • Abedin, B., Daneshgar, F., & D’Ambra, J. (2010). Underlying Factors of Sense of Community in Asynchronous Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Environments. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(3), 585-596.
  • Akyol, Z., & Garrison, D. (2008). The Development of a Community of Inquiry over Time in an Online Course: Understanding the Progression and Integration of Social, Cognitive and Teaching Presence. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 12(3-4).
  • Correia, A., & Davis, N. (2008). Intersecting communities of practice in distance education: the program team and the online course community. Distance Education, 29(3), 289-306.
  • Baturay, M. H. (2011). Relationships among sense of classroom community, perceived cognitivelearning and satisfaction of students at an e-learning course. Interactive LearningEnvironments, 19(5), 563-575.
  • Boling, E., Krinsky, M., Saleem, H., & Stevens, M. (2012). Cutting the distance in distance education: Perspectives on what promotes positive, online learning experiences. Internet and Higher Education, 15, 118-126.
  • Bolliger, D. U., & Halupa, C. (2012). Student perceptions of satisfaction and anxiety in an onlinedoctoral program. Distance Education, 33(1), 81-98.
  • Boston, W., Díaz, S., Gibson, A., Ice, P., Richardson, J., & Swan, K. (2009). An Exploration of the Relationship Between Indicators of the Community of Inquiry Framework and Retention in Online Programs. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(3), 67-83.
  • Bottom, T. L., Ferrari, J. R., Matteo, E. & Todd N.R. (2013). Predicting school sense ofcommunity: Students’ perceptions at two Catholic universities. Journal of Prevention andIntervention in the Community, 41, 4-14.
  • Brindley, J., Blaschke, L. M., & Walti, C. (2009). Creating effective collaborative learning groups in an online environment. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10 (3), 1-18.
  • Byrd, J. (2016). Understanding the Online Doctoral Learning Experience: Factors that Contribute to Students’ Sense of Community. The Journal of Educators Online, 13(2), 102-135.
  • Cox, B., & Cox, B. (2008). Developing interpersonal and group dynamics through asynchronous threadeddiscussions: The use of discussion board in collaborative learning. Education, 128(4), 553-565.
  • Gallagher-Lepak, S., Reilly, J., & Killion, C. (2009). Nursing student perceptions of community in online learning. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 32(1), 133-146.
  • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.
  • Gray K, Tobin J. (2010) Introducing an online community into a clinical education setting: a pilot study of student and staff engagement and outcomes using blended learning. Biomed Cent Med Educ, 10(6):9.
  • Johnstone-Dodge, V., Bowen, D., Calley, K., & Peterson, T. (2014). A Faculty Development Course to Enhance Dental Hygiene Distance Education: A Pilot Study. Journal of Dental Education, 78(9), 1319-1330.
  • Ke, F. (2010). Examining online teaching, cognitive, and social presence for adult students. Computers & Education, 55, 808-20.
  • Kehrwald, B. (2008). Understanding social presence in text‐based online learning environments. Distance Education, 2(1), 89-106.
  • Lear, J., Isernhagen, J., LaCost, B., & King, J. (2009). Instructor Presence for Web-Based Classes. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 51(2), 86-98.
  • Lee, Y., & Choi, J. (2011). A review of online course dropout research: Implications for practice and future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 593–618.
  • McElrath, E., & McDowell, K. (2008). Pedagogical Strategies for Building Community in Graduate Level Distance Education Courses. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(1), 117-127.
  • McMillan, D., & Chavis, D. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology,14, 6-23.
  • Menchaca, M., & Bekele, T., (2008). Learner and instructor identified success factors in distance education, Distance Education, 29(3), 231-252
  • Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
  • Moore, R. (2014). Importance of Developing Community in Distance Education Courses. TechTrends, 58(2), 20-24.Pigliapoco, E., & Bogliolo, A. (2008). The effects of psychological sense of community in online and face-to-face academic courses. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 3, 60–69.
  • Rakes, G. C., & Dunn, K. E. (2010). The impact of online graduate students' motivation and self regulation on academic procrastination. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(1), 78-93.
  • Robinson, C. C., & Hullinger, H. (2008). New benchmarks in higher education: Student engagement in online learning, Journal of Education for Business, 2, 101-108.
  • Sadera, W., Robertson, J., Song, L., & Midon, M. (2009). The Role of Community in Online Learning Success. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching,5(2).
  • Shackelford, J., & Maxwell, M. (2012). Sense of Community in Graduate Online Education: Contribution of Learner to Learner Interaction. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(4), 228-249.
  • Shaw, R. (2013). The relationships among group size, participation, and performance of programming language learning supported with online forums. Computers and Education, 62(C), 196-207.
  • Sher, A. (2009). Assessing the relationship of student-instructor and student-student interaction to student learning and satisfaction in web-based online learning environment. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(2), 102-120.
  • Sun, A., & Chen, X. (2016). Online Education and Its Effective Practice: A Research Review. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 15, 157-190.
  • Wellesley. (2017, May 2). New Study: Over Six Million Students Now Enrolled in Distance Education. Retrieved from https://onlinelearningconsortium.org/news_item/new-study-six-million-students-now-enrolled-distance-education/
  • Wise, A., Saghafian, M., & Padmanabhan, P. (2012). Towards more precise design guidance: Specifying and testing the functions of assigned student roles in online discussions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 60, 55–82.
  • Yang, J., Yu, H., Chen, S., & Huang, R. (2014). Strategies for Smooth and Effective Cross-Cultural Online Collaborative Learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(3), 208-221.
  • Young, S., & Bruce, M. A. (2011). Classroom community and student engagement in online courses. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7(2), 219.
  • Yuan, J., & Kim, C. (2014). Guidelines for facilitating the development of learning communities in online courses. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30, 220-232.
Yıl 2019, Cilt: 5 Sayı: 1-2, 1 - 8, 01.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.17985/ijare.524225

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Abedin, B., Daneshgar, F., & D’Ambra, J. (2010). Underlying Factors of Sense of Community in Asynchronous Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Environments. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(3), 585-596.
  • Akyol, Z., & Garrison, D. (2008). The Development of a Community of Inquiry over Time in an Online Course: Understanding the Progression and Integration of Social, Cognitive and Teaching Presence. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 12(3-4).
  • Correia, A., & Davis, N. (2008). Intersecting communities of practice in distance education: the program team and the online course community. Distance Education, 29(3), 289-306.
  • Baturay, M. H. (2011). Relationships among sense of classroom community, perceived cognitivelearning and satisfaction of students at an e-learning course. Interactive LearningEnvironments, 19(5), 563-575.
  • Boling, E., Krinsky, M., Saleem, H., & Stevens, M. (2012). Cutting the distance in distance education: Perspectives on what promotes positive, online learning experiences. Internet and Higher Education, 15, 118-126.
  • Bolliger, D. U., & Halupa, C. (2012). Student perceptions of satisfaction and anxiety in an onlinedoctoral program. Distance Education, 33(1), 81-98.
  • Boston, W., Díaz, S., Gibson, A., Ice, P., Richardson, J., & Swan, K. (2009). An Exploration of the Relationship Between Indicators of the Community of Inquiry Framework and Retention in Online Programs. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(3), 67-83.
  • Bottom, T. L., Ferrari, J. R., Matteo, E. & Todd N.R. (2013). Predicting school sense ofcommunity: Students’ perceptions at two Catholic universities. Journal of Prevention andIntervention in the Community, 41, 4-14.
  • Brindley, J., Blaschke, L. M., & Walti, C. (2009). Creating effective collaborative learning groups in an online environment. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10 (3), 1-18.
  • Byrd, J. (2016). Understanding the Online Doctoral Learning Experience: Factors that Contribute to Students’ Sense of Community. The Journal of Educators Online, 13(2), 102-135.
  • Cox, B., & Cox, B. (2008). Developing interpersonal and group dynamics through asynchronous threadeddiscussions: The use of discussion board in collaborative learning. Education, 128(4), 553-565.
  • Gallagher-Lepak, S., Reilly, J., & Killion, C. (2009). Nursing student perceptions of community in online learning. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 32(1), 133-146.
  • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.
  • Gray K, Tobin J. (2010) Introducing an online community into a clinical education setting: a pilot study of student and staff engagement and outcomes using blended learning. Biomed Cent Med Educ, 10(6):9.
  • Johnstone-Dodge, V., Bowen, D., Calley, K., & Peterson, T. (2014). A Faculty Development Course to Enhance Dental Hygiene Distance Education: A Pilot Study. Journal of Dental Education, 78(9), 1319-1330.
  • Ke, F. (2010). Examining online teaching, cognitive, and social presence for adult students. Computers & Education, 55, 808-20.
  • Kehrwald, B. (2008). Understanding social presence in text‐based online learning environments. Distance Education, 2(1), 89-106.
  • Lear, J., Isernhagen, J., LaCost, B., & King, J. (2009). Instructor Presence for Web-Based Classes. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 51(2), 86-98.
  • Lee, Y., & Choi, J. (2011). A review of online course dropout research: Implications for practice and future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 593–618.
  • McElrath, E., & McDowell, K. (2008). Pedagogical Strategies for Building Community in Graduate Level Distance Education Courses. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(1), 117-127.
  • McMillan, D., & Chavis, D. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology,14, 6-23.
  • Menchaca, M., & Bekele, T., (2008). Learner and instructor identified success factors in distance education, Distance Education, 29(3), 231-252
  • Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
  • Moore, R. (2014). Importance of Developing Community in Distance Education Courses. TechTrends, 58(2), 20-24.Pigliapoco, E., & Bogliolo, A. (2008). The effects of psychological sense of community in online and face-to-face academic courses. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 3, 60–69.
  • Rakes, G. C., & Dunn, K. E. (2010). The impact of online graduate students' motivation and self regulation on academic procrastination. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(1), 78-93.
  • Robinson, C. C., & Hullinger, H. (2008). New benchmarks in higher education: Student engagement in online learning, Journal of Education for Business, 2, 101-108.
  • Sadera, W., Robertson, J., Song, L., & Midon, M. (2009). The Role of Community in Online Learning Success. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching,5(2).
  • Shackelford, J., & Maxwell, M. (2012). Sense of Community in Graduate Online Education: Contribution of Learner to Learner Interaction. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(4), 228-249.
  • Shaw, R. (2013). The relationships among group size, participation, and performance of programming language learning supported with online forums. Computers and Education, 62(C), 196-207.
  • Sher, A. (2009). Assessing the relationship of student-instructor and student-student interaction to student learning and satisfaction in web-based online learning environment. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(2), 102-120.
  • Sun, A., & Chen, X. (2016). Online Education and Its Effective Practice: A Research Review. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 15, 157-190.
  • Wellesley. (2017, May 2). New Study: Over Six Million Students Now Enrolled in Distance Education. Retrieved from https://onlinelearningconsortium.org/news_item/new-study-six-million-students-now-enrolled-distance-education/
  • Wise, A., Saghafian, M., & Padmanabhan, P. (2012). Towards more precise design guidance: Specifying and testing the functions of assigned student roles in online discussions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 60, 55–82.
  • Yang, J., Yu, H., Chen, S., & Huang, R. (2014). Strategies for Smooth and Effective Cross-Cultural Online Collaborative Learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(3), 208-221.
  • Young, S., & Bruce, M. A. (2011). Classroom community and student engagement in online courses. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7(2), 219.
  • Yuan, J., & Kim, C. (2014). Guidelines for facilitating the development of learning communities in online courses. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30, 220-232.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Simon STEPHENSON 0000-0002-9257-2916

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Aralık 2019
Gönderilme Tarihi 8 Şubat 2019
Kabul Tarihi 14 Haziran 2019
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019 Cilt: 5 Sayı: 1-2

Kaynak Göster

APA STEPHENSON, S. (2019). Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education. International Journal of Academic Research in Education, 5(1-2), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.17985/ijare.524225
AMA STEPHENSON S. Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education. IJARE. Aralık 2019;5(1-2):1-8. doi:10.17985/ijare.524225
Chicago STEPHENSON, Simon. “Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education”. International Journal of Academic Research in Education 5, sy. 1-2 (Aralık 2019): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.17985/ijare.524225.
EndNote STEPHENSON S (01 Aralık 2019) Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education. International Journal of Academic Research in Education 5 1-2 1–8.
IEEE S. STEPHENSON, “Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education”, IJARE, c. 5, sy. 1-2, ss. 1–8, 2019, doi: 10.17985/ijare.524225.
ISNAD STEPHENSON, Simon. “Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education”. International Journal of Academic Research in Education 5/1-2 (Aralık 2019), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.17985/ijare.524225.
JAMA STEPHENSON S. Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education. IJARE. 2019;5:1–8.
MLA STEPHENSON, Simon. “Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education”. International Journal of Academic Research in Education, c. 5, sy. 1-2, 2019, ss. 1-8, doi:10.17985/ijare.524225.
Vancouver STEPHENSON S. Creating a Sense of Community in Distance Education. IJARE. 2019;5(1-2):1-8.
e-ISSN:2149-2913 © 2015 IJARE