Current on-road vehicles are generally outfitted with exhaust after-treatment (EAT) systems to meet the stringent emission regulations. At cold start and low-loaded operations, those systems need to be warmed up above a threshold temperature (generally 250oC) for effective performance. High exhaust temperatures and high exhaust flow rates are required to accelerate the EAT warm up which are mostly not available at low-loaded diesel vehicle operations. Therefore, the objective of this work is to improve EAT warm up at low loads through utilizing exhaust valve opening (EVO) modulation which allows both elevated exhaust temperatures and exhaust flow rates.
A 1-D engine simulation program is used to model the system which is set to operate at 1200 RPM engine speed and at 2.5 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) engine load. Exhaust temperature can be increased above 250oC via either early or late EVO timings. Reduced expansion work in advanced EVO timings and increased pumping loss in retarded EVO timings require higher fuel consumption (up to 15 % and 20 %, respectively) to keep engine load constant. Those high fuel penalties reduce engine air-to-fuel ratio and rise exhaust temperature more than 55oC. Exhaust mass flow rate is improved up to 9 % in the system as well. The method increases exhaust gas energy up to 40 % and rises heat transfer rate to the EAT system up to 140 % compared to nominal condition. The technique is highly effective at heating up EAT systems, however, it also causes high fuel inefficiency which needs to be considered.
Exhaust After-treatment Warm-up, Thermal Management, Exhaust Gas Temperature, Exhaust Flow Rate, Exhaust Valve Opening Modulation