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ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

Yıl 2020, Cilt: 12 Sayı: 1, 17 - 32, 30.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.34111/ijebeg.202012102

Öz

A public private partnership (PPP) is an agreement between a public and a private party to achieve a strategic objective. The PPP model is based on three principles: risk allocation and transfer, affordability, and value for money. Traditionally, PPPs have been leveraged for hard service development such as infrastructure development. The advancement of technology within the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) has created new opportunities and risks for PPPs as important mechanisms for the promotion of development. The 4IR has implications for government service delivery, which have brought about an increased demand for service delivery innovation and the development of information and communications technology (ICT). Although PPPs have traditionally focused on hard services, it is important to consider PPPs for soft service delivery. It is therefore necessary to rethink the role of the PPP model as an alternative service delivery mechanism. The aim of this article is to discuss risk allocation in ICT PPPs. The research approach is qualitative in nature. The research method is based on a desktop analysis of literature and secondary data utilising unobtrusive research techniques such as conceptual and documentary analyses. The article identified various risks and opportunities for PPPs for service delivery innovation. These partnerships are often faced with high levels of uncertainty in terms of funding, level of stakeholder commitment, and complex relationships. Other risks include vendor financing, market risk, intellectual property (IP) risk, data governance, and regulatory risk. The deployment of ICT can reinforce and expand PPPs beyond all previous limitations and boundaries. This research makes proposals for good practices for risk allocation in ICT PPPs.

Kaynakça

  • Albertus, R.W. (2016). Public Private Partnership Contract Management Failure in Information Technology Service Delivery: A Qualitative Inquiry into the South African Department of Labour ERP Implementation Project. Doctoral Dissertation. Cape Town: University of Cape Town.
  • Alharby, M. & Van Moorsel, A. (2017). Blockchain-Based Smart Contracts: A Systematic Mapping Study. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Blockchain-based-Smart-Contracts%3A-A-Systematic-Alharby-Moorsel/5a0e7eebceec4268 6d39b42de17820f0781a61aa. Accessed 2019/05/12.
  • Allen, B., Juillet, L., Paquet, G. & Roy, J. (2005). E-government and public private partnerships: Regional challenges and strategic direction. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.) Practicing E-Government: A Global Perspective (pp. 364-382). London: Idea Group Publishing.
  • Allessie, D., Sobolewski, M. & Vaccari, L. (2019). Blockchain for Digital Government: An Assessment of Pioneering Implementations in Public Service. https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/document/2019-04/JRC115049%20 blockchain%20for%20digital%20government.pdf. Accessed 2019/07/10.
  • Auriacombe, C. (2016). Towards the construction of unobtrusive research techniques: critical considerations when conducting a literature analysis. African Journal of Public Affairs. 9(4), 1-19.
  • Babatunde, S.O., Perera, S. & Zhou, L. (2015). Methodology for developing a capability maturity levels for PPP stakeholder organisations using critical success factors. Construction Innovation, 16(1), 81-110.
  • Balkaran, S. (2010). The Fourth Industrial Revolution - Its Impact on the South African Public Sector. https://www.academia.edu/22826511/THE_FOURTH_ INDUSTRIAL_REVOLUTION_-ITS_IMPACT_ON_THE_SOUTH_AFRICAN _PUBLIC_SECTOR. Accessed 2019/02/02.
  • Berryhill, J., Bourgery, T. & Hanson, A. (2018). Blockchains Unchained: Blockchain Technology and Its Use in the Public Sector. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/blockchains-unchained_3c32c429-en. Accessed 2019/03/02.
  • Bwanali, S. & Rwelamila, P.D. (2016). The Role of Public Private Partnerships in the Provision of Infrastructure Projects. http://openbooks.uct.ac.za/cidb/index. php/cidb/catalog/download/3/1/121-4. Accessed 2019/07/02.
  • Cong, L.W. & He, Z. (2019). Blockchain Disruption and Smart Contracts. http://www.zhiguohe.com/uploads/1/0/6/9/106923057/bdsc.pdf. Accessed 2019/05/03.
  • Delmon, J. (2009). Private Sector Investment in Infrastructure: Project Finance, PPP Projects and Risk. (2nd ed.) AH Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International.
  • Delmon, J. (2011). Public Private Partnership Projects in Infrastructure: An Essential Guide for Policy Makers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Global Infrastructure Hub (2016). Allocating Risks in Infrastructure Projects. https://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/sites/ppp.worldbank.org/ files/documents/GIHub_Allocating_Risks_PPP_Contracts_EN_2016.pdf. Accessed 2019/06/12.
  • Haenssgen, M. (2018). The struggle for digital inclusion: Phones, healthcare and marginalisation in rural India. World Development, 104, 358-374.
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) (2004). Public-Private Partnerships. http:// www.imf.org/external/np/fad/2004/pifp/eng/031204.htm. Accessed 2019/06/12.
  • Iossa, E., Spagnolo, G. & Vellez, M. (2007). Best Practices on Contract Design in PPPs. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/79764790/Best-Practices-on-Contract-Design-in-Public-Private-Partnerships. Accessed 2019/06/12.
  • Irani, Z., Weerakkody, V., Kamal, M., Hindi, N.M., Osman, I.H., Anouze, A.L., El-Haddadeh, R., Lee, H., Osmani, M. & Al-Ayoubi, B. (2012). An analysis of methodologies utilised in e-government research: A user satisfaction perspective. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 25(3), 298-313.
  • Kaliannan, M., Awang, H. & Raman, M. (2010). Public-private partnerships for E-government services: Lessons learned from Malaysia. International Journal of Institutions and Economics, 2(2), 207-220.
  • Karamitsos, I., Papadaki, M. & Al Barghuthi, N.B. (2018). Design of the blockchain smart contract: A use case for real estate. Journal of Information Science, 9, 177-190.
  • Kwofie, K.N., Afram, S. & Botchway, E. (2015). A critical success model for PPP public housing delivery in Ghana. Built Environment Project and Asset Management, 6(1), 58-73.
  • Latteman, C., Stieglitz, S. & Kupke, S. (2009). Impact of PPPs to broadband diffusion in Europe. Transforming Government, People, Process and Policy, 3(4), 355-375.
  • Magnier, V. & Barban, P. (2018). The Potential Impacts of Blockchains on Corporate Governance: A Survey on Shareholders’ Rights in the Digital Era. https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/312259. Accessed 2019/06/07.
  • Min, H. (2019). Blockchain technology for enhancing supply chain resilience. Business Horizons, 62, 35-45.
  • Mouraviev, N. & Kakabadse, N.K. (2012). Conceptualising public private partnerships: A critical appraisal of approaches to meaning and forms. Society and Business Review, 7(3), 260-276.
  • Mumbai, A.A.K. (2013). How Did Estonia Become a Leader in Technology? https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2013/07/30/how-did-estonia-become-a-leader-in-technology. Accessed 2019/05/02.
  • Narasimhan, R. & Dasa Aundhe, M. (2014). Explanation of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Outcomes in E-Government: A Social Capital Perspective. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b4c2/6e80479fbc54001a74aa7f911c3578f7ea91.pdf. Accessed 2019/04/02.
  • Nasim, S. & Sushil, S. (2010). Managing continuity and change: A new approach for strategizing in e-government. Transforming Government, People, Process and Policy, 4(4), 339-364.
  • Nel, D. (2014). Systematic Risk Management and Strategic Control in Public Private Partnerships. Doctoral Dissertation. Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg.
  • Norberg, H.C. (2019). Unblocking the Bottlenecks and Making the Global Supply Chain Transparent: How Blockchain Technology Can Update Global Trade. https://www.cgai.ca/unblocking_the_bottlenecks_and_making_the_global_supply_chain_transparent_how_blockchain_technology_can_update_global_trade. Accessed 2019/07/10.
  • Potnis, D.D. & Pardo, T.A. (2010). Mapping the evolution of e-Readiness assessments. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 5(4), 345-563.
  • Sadiku, M.N.O., Eze, K.G. & Musa, S.M. (2018). Smart contracts: A primer. Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 5, 538-541.
  • Saidel, J. (2017). Smart partnership in contracting: Thriving in a period of intense policy uncertainty. Nonprofit Professionals Forum, 8(2), 121-132.
  • Schulze, E. (2019). How a Tiny Country Bordering Russia Became One of the Most Tech-Savvy Societies in the world. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/02/08/how-estonia-became-a-digital-society.html. Accessed 2019/05/05.
  • Sharma, V. & Seth, P. (2011). Effective Public Private Partnership through E-Governance Facilitation. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/102d/68bd23dfeda3f4 bc4f86c77757c0ea42465b.pdf. Accessed 2019/04/12.
  • Sklaroff, J.M. (2017). Smart Contracts and the Cost of Inflexibility. https://papers. ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3008899. Accessed 2019/06/02.
  • Solarte-Vásquez, M.C. & Nyman-Metcalf, K. (2017). Smart contracting: A multidisciplinary and proactive approach for the EU digital single market. Baltic Journal of European Studies, 7(2), 208-246.
  • Solarte-Vásquez, M.C. & Rungi, M. (2018). Perceptions on collaborating affecting the viability of the SMART CONTRACTING approach. Journal of Management and Change, 36/37, 34-55.
  • Taher, M., Yang, Z. & Kankanhalli, A. (2012). Public Private Partnerships in E-Government: Insights From Singapore Case Studies. https://pdfs.semanticscholar. org/a394/cc2a75809196642bfd1121d02735c5c79df4.pdf. Accessed 2019/05/03.
  • Taubman, A. (2004). Public-Private Management of Intellectual Property for Public Health Outcomes in the Developing World: The Lessons of Access Conditions in Research and Development Agreements. https://www.researchgate. net/publication/323683199_Public-Private_Management_of_Intellectual_Property _for_Public_Health_Outcomes_in_the_Developing_World_The_Lessons_of_Access_Conditions_in_Research_and_Development_Agreements. Accessed 2019/05/12.
  • The Institute for Public Private Partnerships (2009). Public Private Partnerships in E-Government: Knowledge Map. http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.821. pdf. Accessed 2019/03/05.
  • Wermeille, A., Chanet, J.P., Berducat, M. & Didelot, D. (2015). Stakeholders’ involvement in establishing public-private partnerships through innovation in agricultural mechanisation: A case study. International Journal of Agricultural Management, 4(2), 68-71.
  • Williams, I. (2012). Infrastructure development: Public private partnership path for developing rural telecommunications in Africa. Journal of Technology Management Innovation, 7(2), 63-71.
  • Witters, L., Marom, R. & Steinert, K. (2012). The role of public private partnerships in driving innovation. The Global Innovation Index, 2012, 81-87.
Yıl 2020, Cilt: 12 Sayı: 1, 17 - 32, 30.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.34111/ijebeg.202012102

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Albertus, R.W. (2016). Public Private Partnership Contract Management Failure in Information Technology Service Delivery: A Qualitative Inquiry into the South African Department of Labour ERP Implementation Project. Doctoral Dissertation. Cape Town: University of Cape Town.
  • Alharby, M. & Van Moorsel, A. (2017). Blockchain-Based Smart Contracts: A Systematic Mapping Study. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Blockchain-based-Smart-Contracts%3A-A-Systematic-Alharby-Moorsel/5a0e7eebceec4268 6d39b42de17820f0781a61aa. Accessed 2019/05/12.
  • Allen, B., Juillet, L., Paquet, G. & Roy, J. (2005). E-government and public private partnerships: Regional challenges and strategic direction. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.) Practicing E-Government: A Global Perspective (pp. 364-382). London: Idea Group Publishing.
  • Allessie, D., Sobolewski, M. & Vaccari, L. (2019). Blockchain for Digital Government: An Assessment of Pioneering Implementations in Public Service. https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/document/2019-04/JRC115049%20 blockchain%20for%20digital%20government.pdf. Accessed 2019/07/10.
  • Auriacombe, C. (2016). Towards the construction of unobtrusive research techniques: critical considerations when conducting a literature analysis. African Journal of Public Affairs. 9(4), 1-19.
  • Babatunde, S.O., Perera, S. & Zhou, L. (2015). Methodology for developing a capability maturity levels for PPP stakeholder organisations using critical success factors. Construction Innovation, 16(1), 81-110.
  • Balkaran, S. (2010). The Fourth Industrial Revolution - Its Impact on the South African Public Sector. https://www.academia.edu/22826511/THE_FOURTH_ INDUSTRIAL_REVOLUTION_-ITS_IMPACT_ON_THE_SOUTH_AFRICAN _PUBLIC_SECTOR. Accessed 2019/02/02.
  • Berryhill, J., Bourgery, T. & Hanson, A. (2018). Blockchains Unchained: Blockchain Technology and Its Use in the Public Sector. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/blockchains-unchained_3c32c429-en. Accessed 2019/03/02.
  • Bwanali, S. & Rwelamila, P.D. (2016). The Role of Public Private Partnerships in the Provision of Infrastructure Projects. http://openbooks.uct.ac.za/cidb/index. php/cidb/catalog/download/3/1/121-4. Accessed 2019/07/02.
  • Cong, L.W. & He, Z. (2019). Blockchain Disruption and Smart Contracts. http://www.zhiguohe.com/uploads/1/0/6/9/106923057/bdsc.pdf. Accessed 2019/05/03.
  • Delmon, J. (2009). Private Sector Investment in Infrastructure: Project Finance, PPP Projects and Risk. (2nd ed.) AH Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International.
  • Delmon, J. (2011). Public Private Partnership Projects in Infrastructure: An Essential Guide for Policy Makers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Global Infrastructure Hub (2016). Allocating Risks in Infrastructure Projects. https://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/sites/ppp.worldbank.org/ files/documents/GIHub_Allocating_Risks_PPP_Contracts_EN_2016.pdf. Accessed 2019/06/12.
  • Haenssgen, M. (2018). The struggle for digital inclusion: Phones, healthcare and marginalisation in rural India. World Development, 104, 358-374.
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) (2004). Public-Private Partnerships. http:// www.imf.org/external/np/fad/2004/pifp/eng/031204.htm. Accessed 2019/06/12.
  • Iossa, E., Spagnolo, G. & Vellez, M. (2007). Best Practices on Contract Design in PPPs. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/79764790/Best-Practices-on-Contract-Design-in-Public-Private-Partnerships. Accessed 2019/06/12.
  • Irani, Z., Weerakkody, V., Kamal, M., Hindi, N.M., Osman, I.H., Anouze, A.L., El-Haddadeh, R., Lee, H., Osmani, M. & Al-Ayoubi, B. (2012). An analysis of methodologies utilised in e-government research: A user satisfaction perspective. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 25(3), 298-313.
  • Kaliannan, M., Awang, H. & Raman, M. (2010). Public-private partnerships for E-government services: Lessons learned from Malaysia. International Journal of Institutions and Economics, 2(2), 207-220.
  • Karamitsos, I., Papadaki, M. & Al Barghuthi, N.B. (2018). Design of the blockchain smart contract: A use case for real estate. Journal of Information Science, 9, 177-190.
  • Kwofie, K.N., Afram, S. & Botchway, E. (2015). A critical success model for PPP public housing delivery in Ghana. Built Environment Project and Asset Management, 6(1), 58-73.
  • Latteman, C., Stieglitz, S. & Kupke, S. (2009). Impact of PPPs to broadband diffusion in Europe. Transforming Government, People, Process and Policy, 3(4), 355-375.
  • Magnier, V. & Barban, P. (2018). The Potential Impacts of Blockchains on Corporate Governance: A Survey on Shareholders’ Rights in the Digital Era. https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/312259. Accessed 2019/06/07.
  • Min, H. (2019). Blockchain technology for enhancing supply chain resilience. Business Horizons, 62, 35-45.
  • Mouraviev, N. & Kakabadse, N.K. (2012). Conceptualising public private partnerships: A critical appraisal of approaches to meaning and forms. Society and Business Review, 7(3), 260-276.
  • Mumbai, A.A.K. (2013). How Did Estonia Become a Leader in Technology? https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2013/07/30/how-did-estonia-become-a-leader-in-technology. Accessed 2019/05/02.
  • Narasimhan, R. & Dasa Aundhe, M. (2014). Explanation of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Outcomes in E-Government: A Social Capital Perspective. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b4c2/6e80479fbc54001a74aa7f911c3578f7ea91.pdf. Accessed 2019/04/02.
  • Nasim, S. & Sushil, S. (2010). Managing continuity and change: A new approach for strategizing in e-government. Transforming Government, People, Process and Policy, 4(4), 339-364.
  • Nel, D. (2014). Systematic Risk Management and Strategic Control in Public Private Partnerships. Doctoral Dissertation. Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg.
  • Norberg, H.C. (2019). Unblocking the Bottlenecks and Making the Global Supply Chain Transparent: How Blockchain Technology Can Update Global Trade. https://www.cgai.ca/unblocking_the_bottlenecks_and_making_the_global_supply_chain_transparent_how_blockchain_technology_can_update_global_trade. Accessed 2019/07/10.
  • Potnis, D.D. & Pardo, T.A. (2010). Mapping the evolution of e-Readiness assessments. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 5(4), 345-563.
  • Sadiku, M.N.O., Eze, K.G. & Musa, S.M. (2018). Smart contracts: A primer. Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 5, 538-541.
  • Saidel, J. (2017). Smart partnership in contracting: Thriving in a period of intense policy uncertainty. Nonprofit Professionals Forum, 8(2), 121-132.
  • Schulze, E. (2019). How a Tiny Country Bordering Russia Became One of the Most Tech-Savvy Societies in the world. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/02/08/how-estonia-became-a-digital-society.html. Accessed 2019/05/05.
  • Sharma, V. & Seth, P. (2011). Effective Public Private Partnership through E-Governance Facilitation. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/102d/68bd23dfeda3f4 bc4f86c77757c0ea42465b.pdf. Accessed 2019/04/12.
  • Sklaroff, J.M. (2017). Smart Contracts and the Cost of Inflexibility. https://papers. ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3008899. Accessed 2019/06/02.
  • Solarte-Vásquez, M.C. & Nyman-Metcalf, K. (2017). Smart contracting: A multidisciplinary and proactive approach for the EU digital single market. Baltic Journal of European Studies, 7(2), 208-246.
  • Solarte-Vásquez, M.C. & Rungi, M. (2018). Perceptions on collaborating affecting the viability of the SMART CONTRACTING approach. Journal of Management and Change, 36/37, 34-55.
  • Taher, M., Yang, Z. & Kankanhalli, A. (2012). Public Private Partnerships in E-Government: Insights From Singapore Case Studies. https://pdfs.semanticscholar. org/a394/cc2a75809196642bfd1121d02735c5c79df4.pdf. Accessed 2019/05/03.
  • Taubman, A. (2004). Public-Private Management of Intellectual Property for Public Health Outcomes in the Developing World: The Lessons of Access Conditions in Research and Development Agreements. https://www.researchgate. net/publication/323683199_Public-Private_Management_of_Intellectual_Property _for_Public_Health_Outcomes_in_the_Developing_World_The_Lessons_of_Access_Conditions_in_Research_and_Development_Agreements. Accessed 2019/05/12.
  • The Institute for Public Private Partnerships (2009). Public Private Partnerships in E-Government: Knowledge Map. http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.821. pdf. Accessed 2019/03/05.
  • Wermeille, A., Chanet, J.P., Berducat, M. & Didelot, D. (2015). Stakeholders’ involvement in establishing public-private partnerships through innovation in agricultural mechanisation: A case study. International Journal of Agricultural Management, 4(2), 68-71.
  • Williams, I. (2012). Infrastructure development: Public private partnership path for developing rural telecommunications in Africa. Journal of Technology Management Innovation, 7(2), 63-71.
  • Witters, L., Marom, R. & Steinert, K. (2012). The role of public private partnerships in driving innovation. The Global Innovation Index, 2012, 81-87.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Yazılım Mühendisliği (Diğer)
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Danielle NEL Bu kişi benim 0000-0001-9896-3566

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2020
Gönderilme Tarihi 26 Eylül 2019
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020 Cilt: 12 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA NEL, D. (2020). ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY. International Journal of EBusiness and EGovernment Studies, 12(1), 17-32. https://doi.org/10.34111/ijebeg.202012102
AMA NEL D. ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY. IJEBEG. Haziran 2020;12(1):17-32. doi:10.34111/ijebeg.202012102
Chicago NEL, Danielle. “ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY”. International Journal of EBusiness and EGovernment Studies 12, sy. 1 (Haziran 2020): 17-32. https://doi.org/10.34111/ijebeg.202012102.
EndNote NEL D (01 Haziran 2020) ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY. International Journal of eBusiness and eGovernment Studies 12 1 17–32.
IEEE D. NEL, “ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY”, IJEBEG, c. 12, sy. 1, ss. 17–32, 2020, doi: 10.34111/ijebeg.202012102.
ISNAD NEL, Danielle. “ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY”. International Journal of eBusiness and eGovernment Studies 12/1 (Haziran 2020), 17-32. https://doi.org/10.34111/ijebeg.202012102.
JAMA NEL D. ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY. IJEBEG. 2020;12:17–32.
MLA NEL, Danielle. “ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY”. International Journal of EBusiness and EGovernment Studies, c. 12, sy. 1, 2020, ss. 17-32, doi:10.34111/ijebeg.202012102.
Vancouver NEL D. ALLOCATION OF RISK IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY. IJEBEG. 2020;12(1):17-32.