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Eleştirel Ekonomi Politik Perspektiften Devlet ve Medya İlişkisi

Yıl 2018, Cilt 5, Sayı 2, 134 - 152, 15.02.2019

Öz

Bu makalede, eleştirel ekonomi politik bir çerçeveden, medya ve devlet/ hükümet ilişkileri analiz edilmiştir. İletişim endüstrisindeki üretim, dağıtım ve tüketim ilişkileri hiçbir zaman sadece pazar mekanizması içerisinde gerçekleşmez. Devlet ve hükümetler bu alana doğrudan düzenleyici güçler  olarak müdahale ederler ve medya politikalarını belirlerler. Özellikle 1980’li yıllarda, neo-liberal ekonomi politikalarına geçişle birlikte, hükümetler medya politikalarını da kuralsızlaştırarak bu alanı büyük sermaye gruplarına açmıştır. Kamu mülkiyetine konu olan elektronik medya alanının sermayeye açılmasıyla birlikte medya sektörü daha önce görülmemiş şekilde büyümüştür. Politikacılar, sağlıklı bir kamusal alan yaratmak ve çoğulculuğu sağlamak söylemiyle meşrulaştırdıkları neoliberal politikalar çerçevesinde,  şirket çıkarlarını koruyan yasal düzenlemeleri yaparak iletişim  alanında sahiplik yapısının yoğunlaşmasına yol açmışlardır. Bu durum, iletişim sektörünün, birbirleriyle işbirliği yapan  ekonomik yapılar ve siyasi iktidarlar tarafından kamunun aleyhine olacak şekilde nasıl sınırlandırıldığını ortaya koymaktadır. Hükümetler tarafından, büyük sermayenin çıkarına olan siyasi düzenlemelerle oluşan  mülkiyet yoğunlaşması sonucunda, iletişimsel ürünlerin üretim, dağıtım ve tüketimi kısıtlanmakta, bu alandaki rekabet azalmakta, insanlara sunulan bilgi içeriği ve seçenekler azalırken eğlence ve tüketim odaklı bir yayıncılık anlayışı bu alana egemen olmaktadır. 

Kaynakça

  • Albarran, Alan B. (2004) Media Economics. (in) The Sage Handbook of Media Studies. Eds.: J. D. H. Downings, D. McQuail, P. Schlesinger, E. Wartella (der.) Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications. 291-307. Althusser, Louis (1984) Essays on Ideology, London, Verso. Babe, Robert (1995) Communication and the Transformation of Economics, Colorado, Westview Press. Bagdikian, Ben (2004) The New Media Monopoly, Boston, Beacon Press. Baker, C. Edwin (2007) Media Concentration and Democracy: Why Ownership Matters, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Bettig, R.V. (1996) Copyrighting Culture: The Political Economy of Intellectual Property, Colorado, Westview Press. Caporaso, James A. and Levine, David P. (1992) Theories of Political Economy, New York, Cambridge University Press. Chomsky, Noam and Herman, Edward S. (1988) Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of Mass Media, New York, Pantheon Books. Cristopherson, Susan and Storper, Michael (1989) “The Effects of Flexible Specialization on Industrial Politics and Labour Market: The Motion Picture Industry”. Industrial and Labour Relations Review, C: 42, No:3, s. 331-347. Dawson, Michael and Foster, John Bellamy (1996) “Virtual Capitalism: The Political Economy of the Information Highway”, Monthly Review, C. 4, No: 3, s. 40-48. Dennis, Everette and Merrill, John C. (2002) Media Debates: Great Issues fort he Digital Age, Belmond-Wadsworth, Thomson Learning. Durand, Jean-Pierre (1995) Marx’ın Sosyolojisi, Ali Aktaş (çev.), İstanbul, Birikim. Erdoğan, İrfan (1994) “Uluslararası İletişim Düzeninde Beyinlerimiz Nasıl Sömürülüyor?”, Bilim ve Ütopya, Eylül. C.3, s. 4-6. Friedman, Milton (1962) Capitalism and Freedom, Charlottesville, Virginia University Press. Gandy Jr., Oscar (1992) “The Political Economy Approach: A Critical Challenge”, The Journal of Media Economics, Summer, s. 23-42. Guo, Z. S. (2001) “To Each According to Niche: Analyzing the Poltitical and Economic Origins for A Structural Segregation in Chinese Press”, Journal of Media Economics, C. 14, No:1, s.15-30. Hall, Stuart (1999) “Kültür, Medya ve İdeolojik Etki”, Medya, İktidar ve İdeoloji, Mehmet Küçük (der. ve çev.), Ankara: Ark, s. 199-243. Harvey, David (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Horwitz, Robert Britt (1989) The Irony of Regulatory Reform: The Deregulation of American Telecommunications, New York, Oxford University Press. Jessop, Bob (1990) State Theory: Putting the Capitalist State in its Place, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania University Press. Li, Zhenfang (2003) “A Review on the Study of Media Economics”, China-USA Business Review (Journal), C. 2, No: 1, s.26-32. McChesney, Robert W. (2000) “The Political Economy of Communication and the Future of the Field” Media Culture and Society, C. 22, No: 1, s.109-116. McChesney, Robert W. (2000) “Journalism, Democracy and Class Struggle”, Monthly Review, C.52, No: 6, s.11-28. Milliband, Ralph (1969) The State in Capitalist Society, New York, Basic Books. Mosco, Vincent (1996) The Political Economy of Communication, London, Sage Publications. Murdock, Graham (1980) “Class, Power and the Press: Problem of Conceptualisation and Evidence”, The Sociology of Journalism, and the Press, H. Christion (der.), London, GBJH Brookers (Printers) Ltd, s. 37-60. Murdock, Graham (1978) “Blindspots about Western Marxism: A Reply to Dallas Smythe”, Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, C. 2, No: 2, s.109-119. Neuman, W. Russel (1992) The Future of the Mass Audience, New York, Cambridge University Press. Poulantzas, Nicos (1969) “The Problem of Capitalist State”, New Left Review, C. 58, s. 69-78. Richeri, Giuseppe (2011) “The Media Amid Enterprises, the Public, and the State: New Challengers for Research”, The Handbook of Political Economy of Communications, Janet Wasko, Graham Murdock and Helena Sousa (der.), Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, s. 129-199. Schiller, Herbert I. (1991) Culture Inc.: The Corporate Takeover of Public Expression, New York, Oxford University Press. Smythe, Dallas W. (1960) “On the Political Economy of Communications”, Journalism Quarterly, C. 37, s. 563-572. Trumka, Richard L. (2011) “A Global New Deal: Making Globalization Work For Labor”, Harvard International Review, C. 33, No: 2, s.42-46. Van Dijk, Tuen A. (1999) “Söylemin Yapıları ve İktidarın Yapıları”, Medya, İktidar ve İdeoloji, Mehmet Küçük (der. ve çev.), Ankara, Ark, s. 331-395.

The Relationship Between State and Media within the Perspective of Critical Political Economy

Yıl 2018, Cilt 5, Sayı 2, 134 - 152, 15.02.2019

Öz

This article analyzes the media and state / government relations from a critical political economy perspective. The relations of production, distribution and consumption in the communication industry are never realized only in the market mechanism. States and governments intervene in this field as direct regulatory powers and define media policies. Especially in the 1980s, with the transition to neo-liberal economic policies, governments have deregulated the media policies and opened this area to large capital groups. The media sector, which was once the subject of public ownership, has grown in a private way that has never been seen before. Politicians, by creating a healthy public sphere and providing pluralism in the framework of the neoliberal policies legitimized by the discourse of protecting the interests of the company by making the legal structure of the ownership structure has led to intensification of communication structure. This reveals how the communication sector has been limited by the economic structures and political authorities that cooperate with each other. As a result of the concentration of property, the production, distribution and consumption of communicative products are limited, competition in this area decreases, while the information content and options offered to people are decreasing and a consumption and entertainment oriented broadcasting concept dominates this area.

Kaynakça

  • Albarran, Alan B. (2004) Media Economics. (in) The Sage Handbook of Media Studies. Eds.: J. D. H. Downings, D. McQuail, P. Schlesinger, E. Wartella (der.) Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications. 291-307. Althusser, Louis (1984) Essays on Ideology, London, Verso. Babe, Robert (1995) Communication and the Transformation of Economics, Colorado, Westview Press. Bagdikian, Ben (2004) The New Media Monopoly, Boston, Beacon Press. Baker, C. Edwin (2007) Media Concentration and Democracy: Why Ownership Matters, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Bettig, R.V. (1996) Copyrighting Culture: The Political Economy of Intellectual Property, Colorado, Westview Press. Caporaso, James A. and Levine, David P. (1992) Theories of Political Economy, New York, Cambridge University Press. Chomsky, Noam and Herman, Edward S. (1988) Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of Mass Media, New York, Pantheon Books. Cristopherson, Susan and Storper, Michael (1989) “The Effects of Flexible Specialization on Industrial Politics and Labour Market: The Motion Picture Industry”. Industrial and Labour Relations Review, C: 42, No:3, s. 331-347. Dawson, Michael and Foster, John Bellamy (1996) “Virtual Capitalism: The Political Economy of the Information Highway”, Monthly Review, C. 4, No: 3, s. 40-48. Dennis, Everette and Merrill, John C. (2002) Media Debates: Great Issues fort he Digital Age, Belmond-Wadsworth, Thomson Learning. Durand, Jean-Pierre (1995) Marx’ın Sosyolojisi, Ali Aktaş (çev.), İstanbul, Birikim. Erdoğan, İrfan (1994) “Uluslararası İletişim Düzeninde Beyinlerimiz Nasıl Sömürülüyor?”, Bilim ve Ütopya, Eylül. C.3, s. 4-6. Friedman, Milton (1962) Capitalism and Freedom, Charlottesville, Virginia University Press. Gandy Jr., Oscar (1992) “The Political Economy Approach: A Critical Challenge”, The Journal of Media Economics, Summer, s. 23-42. Guo, Z. S. (2001) “To Each According to Niche: Analyzing the Poltitical and Economic Origins for A Structural Segregation in Chinese Press”, Journal of Media Economics, C. 14, No:1, s.15-30. Hall, Stuart (1999) “Kültür, Medya ve İdeolojik Etki”, Medya, İktidar ve İdeoloji, Mehmet Küçük (der. ve çev.), Ankara: Ark, s. 199-243. Harvey, David (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Horwitz, Robert Britt (1989) The Irony of Regulatory Reform: The Deregulation of American Telecommunications, New York, Oxford University Press. Jessop, Bob (1990) State Theory: Putting the Capitalist State in its Place, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania University Press. Li, Zhenfang (2003) “A Review on the Study of Media Economics”, China-USA Business Review (Journal), C. 2, No: 1, s.26-32. McChesney, Robert W. (2000) “The Political Economy of Communication and the Future of the Field” Media Culture and Society, C. 22, No: 1, s.109-116. McChesney, Robert W. (2000) “Journalism, Democracy and Class Struggle”, Monthly Review, C.52, No: 6, s.11-28. Milliband, Ralph (1969) The State in Capitalist Society, New York, Basic Books. Mosco, Vincent (1996) The Political Economy of Communication, London, Sage Publications. Murdock, Graham (1980) “Class, Power and the Press: Problem of Conceptualisation and Evidence”, The Sociology of Journalism, and the Press, H. Christion (der.), London, GBJH Brookers (Printers) Ltd, s. 37-60. Murdock, Graham (1978) “Blindspots about Western Marxism: A Reply to Dallas Smythe”, Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, C. 2, No: 2, s.109-119. Neuman, W. Russel (1992) The Future of the Mass Audience, New York, Cambridge University Press. Poulantzas, Nicos (1969) “The Problem of Capitalist State”, New Left Review, C. 58, s. 69-78. Richeri, Giuseppe (2011) “The Media Amid Enterprises, the Public, and the State: New Challengers for Research”, The Handbook of Political Economy of Communications, Janet Wasko, Graham Murdock and Helena Sousa (der.), Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, s. 129-199. Schiller, Herbert I. (1991) Culture Inc.: The Corporate Takeover of Public Expression, New York, Oxford University Press. Smythe, Dallas W. (1960) “On the Political Economy of Communications”, Journalism Quarterly, C. 37, s. 563-572. Trumka, Richard L. (2011) “A Global New Deal: Making Globalization Work For Labor”, Harvard International Review, C. 33, No: 2, s.42-46. Van Dijk, Tuen A. (1999) “Söylemin Yapıları ve İktidarın Yapıları”, Medya, İktidar ve İdeoloji, Mehmet Küçük (der. ve çev.), Ankara, Ark, s. 331-395.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Levent YAYLAGÜL (Sorumlu Yazar)
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8249-204X

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Şubat 2019
Kabul Tarihi 2 Şubat 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 5, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Yaylagül, L. (2019). Eleştirel Ekonomi Politik Perspektiften Devlet ve Medya İlişkisi . Maltepe Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Dergisi , 5 (2) , 134-152 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iled/issue/43342/527409