Yıl 2016, Cilt 1 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 22 - 46 2016-01-01

INTERPRETING EVOLUTION: DARWIN, NIETZSCHE, & TEILHARD DE CHARDIN

James BİRX [1]


Different explanations have been given to account for the origin and history of life forms on this planet. Concerning the factual theory of organic evolution, interpretations range in an arc from materialism, through vitalism and spiritualism, to mysticism. The scientist Charles Darwin, the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, and the theologian Pierre Teilhard de Chardin gave an account of life on earth in terms of biological evolution. Darwin and Nietzsche did not find it necessary to include religious beliefs or theological dogmas in their naturalist view of our own species within the evolutionary framework. Darwin deliberately ignored God in his scientific writings, while Nietzsche boldly claimed that "God is dead " in his philosophical worldview. Yet, in sharp contrast, the theist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin argued that a personal God is involved in an evolutionary view of this dynamic universe, the history of life on earth, and both the emergence and completion of humankind. As evolutionists, all three thinkers have paved the way for the conceptualization of transhumans and posthumans in modern scientific and philosophical thought
Transhumans, Worldview Evolution, God, Metaphysics, Posthumans, Science
  • Ansell-Pearson, K. (1997). Viroid Life: Perspectives on Nietzsche and the Transhuman
  • Condition. Routledge, New York. Aristotle & McKeon, R. (Ed.). (2001). The Basic Works of Aristotle. Random House/Modern Library, New York.
  • Bergson, H. (1999). An Introduction to Metaphysics. Hackett, Cambridge. (Original work published 1903)
  • Bergson, H. (1998). Creative Evolution. Dover, Mineola. (Original work published 1907)
  • Birx, H. J. (2015). Identity & Evolution: Prehumans, Humans, Transhumans, Posthumans. In
  • Humanism: Culture or Illusion. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philology, Belgrade, Vol. , 177-200. Birx, H. J. (2015). Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: Critical Reflections. In: Anthropologia Integra, (1), 7-22.
  • Birx, H. J. (2010). Evolution: As I See It. In: Anthropologia Integra, 1(2), 7-10.
  • Birx, H. J. (2010). Evolution: Science, Anthropology, and Philosophy. In: Birx, H. J. (Ed.): st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 2, 586-599.
  • Birx, H. J. (2010). Nietzsche, Darwin & Time: From Scientific Evolution to Metaphysical
  • Speculation. In: Nietzsche-Forum Munich, 5(2), 313-325. Birx, H. J. (2009). Darwin, Charles. In: Birx, H. J. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Time: Science
  • Philosophy, Theology, & Culture. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 1, 263-269. Birx, H. J. (2009). Nietzsche, Friedrich. In: Birx, H. J. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Time: Science
  • Philosophy, Theology, & Culture. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 2, 916-919. Birx, H. J. (2009). Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre. In: Birx, H. J. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Time
  • Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Vol. 2, 1223
  • Birx, H. J. (1991). Interpreting Evolution: Darwin & Teilhard de Chardin. Prometheus Books, Amherst.
  • Birx, H. J. (1989). Darwin & Teilhard: Some Final Thoughts. In: Proteus: A Journal of Ideas, Fall, 6(2), 38-46.
  • Birx, H. J. (1984). Theories of Evolution. Charles C Thomas, Springfield.
  • Birx, H. J. (l981-l982). Teilhard and Evolution: Critical Reflections. In: Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, Fall/Winter, 9(1), 151-167. Browne, J. (2003). Charles Darwin: A Biography, Vol. 2 - The Power of Place. Princeton
  • University Press, Princeton. Browne, J. (1996). Charles Darwin: A Biography, Vol. 1 - Voyaging. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Chambers, R. (1969). Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Humanities Press, New
  • York. (Original work published 1844)
  • Chu, T. (2013). Our Posthuman Future: Evolution, Transhumanism, and Human Purpose.
  • Origin Press, San Rafael. Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why Evolution is True. Viking, New York.
  • Cuenot, C. (1965). Teilhard de Chardin: A Biographical Study. Helicon Press, Baltimore.
  • Darwin, C. (2000). The Voyage of the Beagle. Prometheus Books, Amherst. Refer to the Introduction by H. James Birx, vii-xxii. (Original work published 1839)
  • Darwin, C. (1998). The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. Prometheus Books
  • Amherst. Refer to the Introduction by H. James Birx, ix-xxvii. (Original work published ) Darwin, C. (1993). The Autobiography of Charles Darwin. Darwin, F. (Ed.). Prometheus
  • Books, Amherst. Refer to the Introduction by H. James Birx, vii-xxii. (Original work published 1887, unexpurgated version edited by Nora Barlow published 1958)
  • Darwin, C. (1991). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection: Or, the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle of Life. Prometheus Books, Amherst. (Original
  • Dawkins, R. (2009). The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution. Free Press, New York.
  • Dawkins, R. (2008). The God Delusion. Mariner/Houghton Mifflin, New York. de Waal, F. (2013). The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism Among the Primates. W. W. Norton, New York.
  • Dennett, D. C. (1996). Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. Touchstone, New York.
  • Dewey, J. (1965). The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy, and Other Essays in
  • Contemporary Thought. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, esp. 1-19. (Original essay written 1909, published 1910)
  • Eldredge, N. (2000). The Triumph of Evolution and the Failure of Creationism. Nevraumont, New York.
  • Engels, F. (1953). The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man. Russian
  • Foreign Languages, Moscow. (Original work published 1876)
  • Farber, M. (1968). Basic Issues in Philosophy: Experience, Reality, and Human Values.
  • Harper Torchbooks, New York, esp. 213-235. Farber, M. (1968). Naturalism and Subjectivism. State University of New York Press
  • Albany. (Original work published 1959)
  • Fortey, R. (1998). Life: A Natural History of the First Four Billion Years of Life on Earth.
  • Alfred A. Knopf, New York. Gosse, P. H. (1998). Omphalos: An Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot. Ox Box Press
  • Woodbridge. (Original work published 1857)
  • Gould, S. J. (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Thought. Belknap Press/Harvard
  • University Press, Cambridge. Haeckel, E. (1992). The Riddle of the Universe at the Close of the Nineteenth Century.
  • Prometheus Books, Amherst. Refer to the Introduction by H. James Birx, ix-xiv. (Original work published 1899)
  • Harris, J. (2007). Enhancing Evolution: The Ethical Case for Making Better People. Princeton
  • University Press, Princeton. Hayman, R. (1980). Nietzsche: A Critical Life. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Hitchens, C. (2007). God is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. Twelve/Warner Books, Maryknoll.
  • Huxley, J. S. (1992). Evolutionary Humanism. Prometheus Books, Amherst. Refer to the Introduction by H. James Birx, vii-xii and Teilhard de Chardin by Sir Julian S. Huxley, 202
  • (Original work published 1964)
  • Huxley, J. S. (1957). New Bottles for New Wine. Chatto & Windus, London. Refer to
  • Transhumanism, 13-17 and Evolutionary Humanism, 279-312. Huxley, J. S. (1979). Religion without Revelation. Greenwood Press, Westport. (Original work published 1957)
  • Huxley, T. H. (1959). Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature. University of Michigan Press
  • Ann Arbor. (Original work published 1863)
  • Hollingdale, R. J. (2001). Nietzsche: The Man and his Philosophy. rev. ed. Cambridge
  • University Press, Cambridge. Kaku, M. (2015). The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind. Anchor/Random House, New York.
  • Kaufmann, W. (1974). Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist. 4th ed. Princeton
  • University Press, Princeton. Keynes, R. (2003). Fossils, Finches, and Fuegians: Darwin's Adventures and Discoveries on the Beagle. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Klossowski, P. (1997). Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Kohler, J. (2002). Nietzsche's Secret: The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche. Yale
  • University Press, New Haven. Kubrick, S. (1968). 2001: A Space Odyssey. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, UK/USA. (Turner
  • Entertainment/Warner Home Video/Blue-ray Disc 2008)
  • Kurzweil, R. (2005). The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Penguin Books, New York.
  • Lamarck, J.-B. de (1984). Zoological Philosophy: An Exposition with Regard to the Natural
  • History of Animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. (Original work published 1809)
  • Leakey, R. E. F. (1994). The Origin of Humankind. HarperCollins/Basic Books, New York.
  • Lowith, K. (1997). Nietzsche's Philosophy of the Eternal Recurrence of the Same. University of Chicago Press, Berkeley.
  • Martin, M. (1990). Atheism: A Philosophical Justification. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.
  • Mayr, E. (2001). What Evolution Is. Basic Books, New York.
  • Mayr, E. (l991). One Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Modern Evolutionary Thought. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. Milicevic, B. (2012). Humans in the Cosmos In: Birx, H. J. (Ed.): Nietzsche & 2001: A
  • Space Odyssey. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philology & University Library, Belgrade, 43. Nayar, P. K. (2013). Posthumanism. Polity, Cambridge.
  • Nietzsche, F. (1993). Thus Spake Zarathustra. Birx, H. J. (Ed.): Prometheus Books, Amherst.
  • Refer to the Introduction by H. James Birx, 13-27. (Original work written 1883-1885)
  • Ridley, M. (2004). Evolution. 3rd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Malden.
  • Safranski, R. (2003). Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography. W. W. Norton, New York.
  • Schmitz-Moormann, N. & K. Schmitz-Moormann. (1971). Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
  • Scientific Works (l905-l955). 11 vols. Walter Verlag, Olten und Frieburg im Breisgau. Smith, W. (2012). Theistic Evolution: The Teilhardian Heresey. Angelico Press, Tacoma.
  • Sovulescu, J. & Bostrom, N. (Eds). (2011). Human Enhancement. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Spencer, H. (2005). First Principles. Elibron/Adamant Media, Chestnut Hill. (Original work published 1862)
  • Stenger, V. (2012): God and the Folly of Faith: The Incompatibility of Science and Religion.
  • Prometheus Books, Amherst. Stenger, V. (2007). God: The Failed Hypothesis (How Science Shows That God Does Not
  • Exist). Prometheus Books, Amherst. Teilhard de Chardin, P. (2008). The Phenomenon of Man. rev. ed.
  • HarperPerennial/HarperCollins, New York. (Written 1938-1940, original work published in France 1955).
  • Teilhard de Chardin, P. (2004). The Future of Man. Image/Double Day/ Random House, New
  • York. (Original work published in France 1959)
  • Teilhard de Chardin, P. (2001). The Divine Milieu: An Essay on the Inner Life. rev. ed. Harper
  • Torchbooks/HarperCollins/Perennial Classics. New York. (Written November 1926-March )
  • Teilhard de Chardin, P. (1966). Man’s Place in Nature: The Human Zoological Group.
  • Harper & Row/HarperCollins/Perennial Classics, New York. (Written l949) Trubits, R. J. (2011). Chimpanzees, Bonobos, & Humans: A Contrast in Behavior &
  • Evolutionary Significance. In: Anthropologia Integra, 2(2), 7-17. Trubits, R. J. (2010). Primate Behavior Studies. In: Birx, H. J. (Ed.). 21st Century
  • Velikovsky, I. (1955). Earth in Upheaval. Doubleday, New York.
  • Vernadsky. V. I. (1998). The Biosphere. Copernicus/Springer Verlag, New York. (Original
  • Vitzthum, R. C. (1995). Materialism: An Affirmative History and Definition. Prometheus Books, Amherst.
  • Walsh, J. E. (1996). Unraveling Piltdown: The Science Fraud of the Century and Its Solution.
  • Random House, New York, esp. 128-148. Watson, J. D. (2012). The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix. rev. ed. Alexander, G., &
  • Witkowski, J. (Eds.) Simon & Schuster, New York. (Original work published 1968)
  • Watson, J. D. (2005). DNA: The Secret of Life. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
  • Weidenrich, F. (1947). Apes, Giants, and Men. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Wheelwright, P. (Ed.). (1966). The Presocratics, Random House/Pearson, New York.
  • White, L. A. (2007). The Evolution of Culture: The Development of Civilization to the Fall of
  • Rome. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek. Whitehead, A. N. (1978). Process and Reality: An Essay in Cosmology. rev. ed. Free Press
  • New York. (Original work published 1929)
  • Whitehead, A. N. (1967). Science and the Modern World. Free Press, New York. (Original work published 1925)
  • Whitehead, A. N. (1964). The Concept of Nature. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (Original work published 1920)
  • Wilson, E. O. (2013). The Social Conquest of Earth. W.W. Norton, New York.
  • Wilson, E. O. (2003). The Future of Life. Vintage, New York.
  • Wilson, E. O. (1992). The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
  • Young, J. (2010). Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Zimmer, C. (2006). Evolution: The Triumph of an Idea. Harper Perennial, New York.
Birincil Dil en
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Yazar: James BİRX
Kurum: Canisius College USA

Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 1 Ocak 2016

APA Birx, J . (2016). INTERPRETING EVOLUTION: DARWIN, NIETZSCHE, & TEILHARD DE CHARDIN . Uluslararası Medeniyet Çalışmaları Dergisi , 1 (1) , 22-46 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/inciss/issue/57396/813419