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Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach

Yıl 2021, Cilt 71, Sayı 1, 21 - 38, 16.07.2021

Öz

The tax revenues, which constitute the most important income item of the state, provide the necessary financing for sustainable economic growth in evolved countries, development efforts in developing economies, and form the basis of social welfare. Therefore, the relationship between economic growth and tax revenues is significant and numerous empirical studies have been carried out on this subject. However, there is no study testing the hidden cointegration. This paper aims to test the presence of hidden cointegration between economic growth and tax revenues and intends to develop further typologies. To test the relationship, data on the ratio of annual tax revenues/GDP between 1985-2018 in Turkey was used, and Hidden Cointegration Approach developed by Granger and Yoon (2002) and crouching error correction model were applied. The analysis results demonstrated that the tax revenues decreased across variables and that there was a cointegration relationship in periods when the GDP increased. This manuscript is a contribution to the literature since a different technique was performed to examine the relationship between growth and tax revenues, and the results obtained will be crucial for decision-makers.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmad, S., Sial, M. & Ahmad N. (2016). Taxes and economic growth: an empirical analysis of Pakistan. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 5(02), 16-29. google scholar
  • Akıncı, A. (2019). Türkiye’de vergi gelirlerinin ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki etkisi. Finans Ekonomi ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 4(1), 100-106. google scholar
  • Andrejovska, A. & Pulikova, V. (2018). Tax revenues in the context of economic determinants. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 133. Doi:10.14254/1800-5845/2018.14-1.10 google scholar
  • Basheer, M., Ahmad, A. & Hassan, S. (2019). Impact of economic and financial factors on tax revenue: evidence from the Middle East countries. Accounting, 5(2), 53-60. google scholar
  • Boğa, S. (2020). Türkiye’de vergi gelirleri ve ekonomik büyüme arasındaki asimetrik ilişki: NARDL eşbütünleşme yaklaşımı. Üçüncü Sektör Sosyal Ekonomi Dergisi, 55(1), 487-507. Doi: 10.15659/3. sektor-sosyal-ekonomi.20.03.1311 google scholar
  • Chigbu, E.E. & Njoku, C.O. (2015). Taxation and the Nigerian economy: (1994-2012). Management Studies and Economic Systems, 2(2), 111-128. google scholar
  • Çağlayan, E. & Saçaklı, İ. (2006). Satın alma gücü paritesinin geçerliliğinin sıfır frekansta spektrum tahmincisine dayanan birim kök testleri ile incelenmesi. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 20(1), 122-137. google scholar
  • Çiğdem, G., Altaylar, M., Köse, T. & Yılmaz, G.G. (2020). İktisadi krizler ve tüketim eğilimi üzerine ampirik sorgulama: Türkiye’den bir eşbütünleşme örneği. In G. Çiğdem (Ed.), Multidisipliner Yaklaşımla İktisadi Kriz Olgusu Cilt:III (pp.61-103). Ankara, Turkey: Gazi Kitabevi. google scholar
  • Dackehag, M. & Hansson, Â. (2012). Taxation of income and economic growth: an empirical analysis of 25 Rich OECD countries. Lund University Department of Economics Working Paper No 6. google scholar
  • Dam, M. & Ertekin, Ş. (2018). Türkiye’de vergi gelirlerinin ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki etkisinin analizi. Vergi Raporu Dergisi, 228, 19-32. google scholar
  • Dickey, D.A. & Fuller, W.A. (1979). Distribution of the estimators for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 74(366), 427-431. google scholar
  • Durkaya, M. & Ceylan, S. (2006). Vergi gelirleri ve ekonomik büyüme. Maliye Dergisi, 150, 79-89. google scholar
  • Easterly, W. & Rebelo, S. (1992). Marginal income tax rates and economic growth in developing countries. Policy Research Working Papers, No. 1050. Retrieved from http://documents. worldbank.org/curated/en/432391468766196026/pdf/multi-page.pdf google scholar
  • Easterly, W. & Rebelo, S. (1993). Marginal income tax rates and economic growth in developing countries. European Economic Review, 37, 409-417. google scholar
  • Easterly, W. & Rebelo, S. (1993). Fiscal policy and economic growth: an empirical investigation. Journal of Monetary Economics, 32, pp. 417-58. google scholar
  • Enders, W. (2004). Applied Econometric Time Series (2.ed.). United States of America: John Wiley & Sons. google scholar
  • Engen, S. & Skinner, J. (1992). Fiscal policy and economic growth. NBER Working Paper, 4223, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass. google scholar
  • Engle, R. & Granger, C. (1987). Cointegration and error correction representation: estimation and testing. Econometrica, 55, 251-276. google scholar
  • Fenochietto, M.R. & Pessino, M.C. (2013). Understanding Countries’ Tax Effort. International Monetary Fund, No. 13-244. google scholar
  • Ferretti, M.M.G. & Roubini, N. (1995). Growth effects of income and consumption taxes: positive and normative analysis. NBER Working Paper Series, Working Paper 5317, 1-40. google scholar
  • Furceri, D. & Karras, G. (2008). Tax changes and economic growth: empirical evidence for a panel of OECD countries. OECD ECB Public Finance Workshop Frankfurt, 1-29. google scholar
  • Gonzalo, J. & Granger, C.W. (1995). Estimation of common long-memory components in cointegrated systems. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 13, 27-35. google scholar
  • Goode, R. (1980). Limits of Taxation. Finance Development, 17(I), 11-13. google scholar
  • Göçer, İ., Mercan, M., Bulut, Ş. & Dam, M.M. (2010). Ekonomik büyüme ile vergi gelirleri arasındaki ilişki: sınır testi yaklaşımı. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi SBE Dergisi, 28, 97-110. google scholar
  • Granger, C.W. & Yoon, G. (2002). Hidden cointegration. University of California, Department of Economics Working Paper, San Diego. google scholar
  • Greenidge, K. & Drakes, L. (2009). Tax policy and macroeconomic activity in Barbados. Retrieved from http://www.centralbank.org.bb Accessed 21 Nov. 2020 google scholar
  • Gujarati, D. (2015). Econometrics by example (2. ed.). London, United Kingdom: Macmillan International Higher Education. google scholar
  • Harberger, A.C. (1964). Taxation, resource allocation and welfare, in the role of direct and indirect taxes in the federal reserve system. Princeton University Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Brookings Institution, Princeton, New Jersey. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/268442018_Taxation_Resource_Allocation_and_Welfare Accessed 15 Dec. 2020 google scholar
  • Helhel, Y.& Demir, Y. (2012) The relationship between tax revenue and economic growth in Turkey: the period of 1975-2011. International Symposium on Sustainable Development, 1(1), 32-40. google scholar
  • Karabulut, R. & Şeker, K. (2018). Belirlenmiş değişkenlerin vergi gelirleri üzerindeki etkisi: çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizi. Süleymen Demirel Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 23(3), 1049-1070. google scholar
  • Karamelikli, H. (2018). Dolaylı ve dolaysız vergilerin ekonomik aktiviteler üzerindeki simetrik ve asimetrik etkileri. Maliye ve Finans Yazıları, 110, 95-110. google scholar
  • Karras, G. & Furceri, D. (2009). Taxes & growth in Europe. South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, 2, 181-204. google scholar
  • King, R.G. & Rebelo, S. (1990). Public policy and economic growth: developing neoclassical implications. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 126-150. google scholar
  • Knight, F.H. (1944). Diminishing returns from investment.J Polit Econ, 52(3), 26-47. google scholar
  • Koch, S.F., Schoeman, N.J. & Van Tonder, J.J. (2005). Economic growth and the structure of taxes in South Africa: 1960-2002. South African Journal of Economics, 73(2), 190-210. google scholar
  • Koester, R.B. & Kormendi, R.C. (1989). Taxation, aggregate activity and economic growth: cross-country evidence on some supply side hypotheses. Economic Inquiry, 27, 367-387. Retrieved from https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/35806/b1410787.0001.001. pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y google scholar
  • Kong, S. & Hoek, M.P. (2008). Is the growth of Chinese annual tax revenues unnatural?. Journal of Public Budgeting Accounting & Financial Management, 20(4), 554-570. google scholar
  • Lucas, R.E. (1988). On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22, 3-42. google scholar
  • Malthus, T. R. (1798). An essay on the principle of population. History of Economic Thought Books, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, number malthus1798. google scholar
  • Mangır, F. & Ertuğrul, H.M. (2012). Vergi yükü ve ekonomik büyüme ilişkisi: 1988-2011 Türkiye örneği. Maliye Dergisi, 162, 256-265. google scholar
  • Mankiw, G., Weinzierl, M. & Yagan, D. (2009). Optimal taxation in theory and practice. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 23(4), 147-174. DOI:10.3386/w15071 google scholar
  • Marsden, K. (1983). Links between taxes and economic growth. World Bank Staff Working Papers, No. 605 google scholar
  • Mendoza, E., Milesi-Ferretti, G.M. & Asea, P. (1997). On the effectiveness of tax policy in altering long-run growth: Harberger’s superneutrality conjecture. Journal of Public Economics, 66, 99-126. google scholar
  • Musanga, B. (2007). Effects of taxation on economic growth (Uganda’s experience: 1987-2005). Unpublished Misc Qualitative Economics. University of Makerere. google scholar
  • Mutaşcu, M.I. & Dânule|iu, D.C. (2011). Taxes and economic growth in Romania. A VAR approach. Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Oeconomica, 13(1), 94-105. google scholar
  • Myles, G. (2000). Taxation and economic growth. Fiscal Studies, 21(1), 141-168. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-5890.2000.tb00583.x google scholar
  • Organ, İ. & Ergen, E. (2017). Türkiye’de vergi yükünün ekonomik büyümeye etkileri üzerine bir çalışma. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 27, 197-207. DOI: 10.5505/ pausbed.2017.75508 google scholar
  • Öztürk, Ö.F., Şaşmaz, M.Ü., Bayar, Y. & Odabaşı, H. (2019). Türkiye’de başlıca ekonomik değişkenlerin vergi gelirleri üzerindeki etkisi: çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizi. Journal of Turkish Court of Accounts / Sayistay Dergisi, 115, 37-53. google scholar
  • Padda, I.U.H. & Akram, N. (2009). The impact of tax policies on economic growth: evidence from South-Asian economies. The Pakistan Development Review, 48(4), 961-971. google scholar
  • Parasız, İ. (2008). Büyüme Teorileri (3.bs.). Bursa: Ezgi Kitabevi. google scholar
  • Phillips, P.C.B. & Perron, P. (1988). Testing for a unit root in time series regression. Biometrika, 75(2), 335-346. google scholar
  • Piana, V. (2003). Tax Revenue, Economics Web Institute. Retrieved from http://www. economicswebinstitute.org/glossary/taxrev.htm#determinants google scholar
  • Polat, M.A. (2019). Ekonomik büyüme ile vergi gelirleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi: Türkiye örneği. İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 8(3), 1991-2009. google scholar
  • Ramsey, F.P. (1928) A mathematical theory of saving. Economic Journal, 38, 543-559. http://dx.doi. org/10.2307/2224098 google scholar
  • Ricardo, D. (1817). On the principles of political economy and taxation ( John Murray, London). In: Sraffa, P., Ed., The Works and Correspondence of David Ricardo, Vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1951. google scholar
  • Romer, P.M. (1986). Increasing returns and long run growth. The Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002-1037. google scholar
  • Romer, P.M. (1990). Endogenous technological change. The Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 71-102. google scholar
  • Romer, C.D. & Romer, D.H. (2010). The macroeconomic effects of tax changes: estimates based on a new measure of fiscal shocks. American Economic Review American Economic Association, 100(3), 763-801. google scholar
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The theory of economic development: an inquiry into profits, capital, credits, interest, and the business cycle. Transaction Publishers, Piscataway. google scholar
  • Solow, R.M. (1956). A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70(1), 65-94. google scholar
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Türkiye’de Ekonomik Büyüme ile Vergi Geliri Arasındaki Doğrusal Olmayan İlişki: Gizli Eşbütünleşme Yaklaşımı

Yıl 2021, Cilt 71, Sayı 1, 21 - 38, 16.07.2021

Öz

The tax revenues, which constitute the most important income item of the state, provide the necessary financing for sustainable economic growth in evolved countries, development efforts in developing economies, and form the basis of social welfare. Therefore, the relationship between economic growth and tax revenues is significant and numerous empirical studies have been carried out on this subject. However, there is no study testing the hidden cointegration. This paper aims to test the presence of hidden cointegration between economic growth and tax revenues and intends to develop further typologies. To test the relationship, data on the ratio of annual tax revenues/GDP between 1985-2018 in Turkey was used, and Hidden Cointegration Approach developed by Granger and Yoon (2002) and crouching error correction model were applied. The analysis results demonstrated that the tax revenues decreased across variables and that there was a cointegration relationship in periods when the GDP increased. This manuscript is a contribution to the literature since a different technique was performed to examine the relationship between growth and tax revenues, and the results obtained will be crucial for decision-makers.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmad, S., Sial, M. & Ahmad N. (2016). Taxes and economic growth: an empirical analysis of Pakistan. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 5(02), 16-29. google scholar
  • Akıncı, A. (2019). Türkiye’de vergi gelirlerinin ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki etkisi. Finans Ekonomi ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 4(1), 100-106. google scholar
  • Andrejovska, A. & Pulikova, V. (2018). Tax revenues in the context of economic determinants. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 133. Doi:10.14254/1800-5845/2018.14-1.10 google scholar
  • Basheer, M., Ahmad, A. & Hassan, S. (2019). Impact of economic and financial factors on tax revenue: evidence from the Middle East countries. Accounting, 5(2), 53-60. google scholar
  • Boğa, S. (2020). Türkiye’de vergi gelirleri ve ekonomik büyüme arasındaki asimetrik ilişki: NARDL eşbütünleşme yaklaşımı. Üçüncü Sektör Sosyal Ekonomi Dergisi, 55(1), 487-507. Doi: 10.15659/3. sektor-sosyal-ekonomi.20.03.1311 google scholar
  • Chigbu, E.E. & Njoku, C.O. (2015). Taxation and the Nigerian economy: (1994-2012). Management Studies and Economic Systems, 2(2), 111-128. google scholar
  • Çağlayan, E. & Saçaklı, İ. (2006). Satın alma gücü paritesinin geçerliliğinin sıfır frekansta spektrum tahmincisine dayanan birim kök testleri ile incelenmesi. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 20(1), 122-137. google scholar
  • Çiğdem, G., Altaylar, M., Köse, T. & Yılmaz, G.G. (2020). İktisadi krizler ve tüketim eğilimi üzerine ampirik sorgulama: Türkiye’den bir eşbütünleşme örneği. In G. Çiğdem (Ed.), Multidisipliner Yaklaşımla İktisadi Kriz Olgusu Cilt:III (pp.61-103). Ankara, Turkey: Gazi Kitabevi. google scholar
  • Dackehag, M. & Hansson, Â. (2012). Taxation of income and economic growth: an empirical analysis of 25 Rich OECD countries. Lund University Department of Economics Working Paper No 6. google scholar
  • Dam, M. & Ertekin, Ş. (2018). Türkiye’de vergi gelirlerinin ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki etkisinin analizi. Vergi Raporu Dergisi, 228, 19-32. google scholar
  • Dickey, D.A. & Fuller, W.A. (1979). Distribution of the estimators for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 74(366), 427-431. google scholar
  • Durkaya, M. & Ceylan, S. (2006). Vergi gelirleri ve ekonomik büyüme. Maliye Dergisi, 150, 79-89. google scholar
  • Easterly, W. & Rebelo, S. (1992). Marginal income tax rates and economic growth in developing countries. Policy Research Working Papers, No. 1050. Retrieved from http://documents. worldbank.org/curated/en/432391468766196026/pdf/multi-page.pdf google scholar
  • Easterly, W. & Rebelo, S. (1993). Marginal income tax rates and economic growth in developing countries. European Economic Review, 37, 409-417. google scholar
  • Easterly, W. & Rebelo, S. (1993). Fiscal policy and economic growth: an empirical investigation. Journal of Monetary Economics, 32, pp. 417-58. google scholar
  • Enders, W. (2004). Applied Econometric Time Series (2.ed.). United States of America: John Wiley & Sons. google scholar
  • Engen, S. & Skinner, J. (1992). Fiscal policy and economic growth. NBER Working Paper, 4223, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass. google scholar
  • Engle, R. & Granger, C. (1987). Cointegration and error correction representation: estimation and testing. Econometrica, 55, 251-276. google scholar
  • Fenochietto, M.R. & Pessino, M.C. (2013). Understanding Countries’ Tax Effort. International Monetary Fund, No. 13-244. google scholar
  • Ferretti, M.M.G. & Roubini, N. (1995). Growth effects of income and consumption taxes: positive and normative analysis. NBER Working Paper Series, Working Paper 5317, 1-40. google scholar
  • Furceri, D. & Karras, G. (2008). Tax changes and economic growth: empirical evidence for a panel of OECD countries. OECD ECB Public Finance Workshop Frankfurt, 1-29. google scholar
  • Gonzalo, J. & Granger, C.W. (1995). Estimation of common long-memory components in cointegrated systems. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 13, 27-35. google scholar
  • Goode, R. (1980). Limits of Taxation. Finance Development, 17(I), 11-13. google scholar
  • Göçer, İ., Mercan, M., Bulut, Ş. & Dam, M.M. (2010). Ekonomik büyüme ile vergi gelirleri arasındaki ilişki: sınır testi yaklaşımı. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi SBE Dergisi, 28, 97-110. google scholar
  • Granger, C.W. & Yoon, G. (2002). Hidden cointegration. University of California, Department of Economics Working Paper, San Diego. google scholar
  • Greenidge, K. & Drakes, L. (2009). Tax policy and macroeconomic activity in Barbados. Retrieved from http://www.centralbank.org.bb Accessed 21 Nov. 2020 google scholar
  • Gujarati, D. (2015). Econometrics by example (2. ed.). London, United Kingdom: Macmillan International Higher Education. google scholar
  • Harberger, A.C. (1964). Taxation, resource allocation and welfare, in the role of direct and indirect taxes in the federal reserve system. Princeton University Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Brookings Institution, Princeton, New Jersey. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/268442018_Taxation_Resource_Allocation_and_Welfare Accessed 15 Dec. 2020 google scholar
  • Helhel, Y.& Demir, Y. (2012) The relationship between tax revenue and economic growth in Turkey: the period of 1975-2011. International Symposium on Sustainable Development, 1(1), 32-40. google scholar
  • Karabulut, R. & Şeker, K. (2018). Belirlenmiş değişkenlerin vergi gelirleri üzerindeki etkisi: çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizi. Süleymen Demirel Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 23(3), 1049-1070. google scholar
  • Karamelikli, H. (2018). Dolaylı ve dolaysız vergilerin ekonomik aktiviteler üzerindeki simetrik ve asimetrik etkileri. Maliye ve Finans Yazıları, 110, 95-110. google scholar
  • Karras, G. & Furceri, D. (2009). Taxes & growth in Europe. South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, 2, 181-204. google scholar
  • King, R.G. & Rebelo, S. (1990). Public policy and economic growth: developing neoclassical implications. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 126-150. google scholar
  • Knight, F.H. (1944). Diminishing returns from investment.J Polit Econ, 52(3), 26-47. google scholar
  • Koch, S.F., Schoeman, N.J. & Van Tonder, J.J. (2005). Economic growth and the structure of taxes in South Africa: 1960-2002. South African Journal of Economics, 73(2), 190-210. google scholar
  • Koester, R.B. & Kormendi, R.C. (1989). Taxation, aggregate activity and economic growth: cross-country evidence on some supply side hypotheses. Economic Inquiry, 27, 367-387. Retrieved from https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/35806/b1410787.0001.001. pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y google scholar
  • Kong, S. & Hoek, M.P. (2008). Is the growth of Chinese annual tax revenues unnatural?. Journal of Public Budgeting Accounting & Financial Management, 20(4), 554-570. google scholar
  • Lucas, R.E. (1988). On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22, 3-42. google scholar
  • Malthus, T. R. (1798). An essay on the principle of population. History of Economic Thought Books, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, number malthus1798. google scholar
  • Mangır, F. & Ertuğrul, H.M. (2012). Vergi yükü ve ekonomik büyüme ilişkisi: 1988-2011 Türkiye örneği. Maliye Dergisi, 162, 256-265. google scholar
  • Mankiw, G., Weinzierl, M. & Yagan, D. (2009). Optimal taxation in theory and practice. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 23(4), 147-174. DOI:10.3386/w15071 google scholar
  • Marsden, K. (1983). Links between taxes and economic growth. World Bank Staff Working Papers, No. 605 google scholar
  • Mendoza, E., Milesi-Ferretti, G.M. & Asea, P. (1997). On the effectiveness of tax policy in altering long-run growth: Harberger’s superneutrality conjecture. Journal of Public Economics, 66, 99-126. google scholar
  • Musanga, B. (2007). Effects of taxation on economic growth (Uganda’s experience: 1987-2005). Unpublished Misc Qualitative Economics. University of Makerere. google scholar
  • Mutaşcu, M.I. & Dânule|iu, D.C. (2011). Taxes and economic growth in Romania. A VAR approach. Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Oeconomica, 13(1), 94-105. google scholar
  • Myles, G. (2000). Taxation and economic growth. Fiscal Studies, 21(1), 141-168. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-5890.2000.tb00583.x google scholar
  • Organ, İ. & Ergen, E. (2017). Türkiye’de vergi yükünün ekonomik büyümeye etkileri üzerine bir çalışma. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 27, 197-207. DOI: 10.5505/ pausbed.2017.75508 google scholar
  • Öztürk, Ö.F., Şaşmaz, M.Ü., Bayar, Y. & Odabaşı, H. (2019). Türkiye’de başlıca ekonomik değişkenlerin vergi gelirleri üzerindeki etkisi: çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizi. Journal of Turkish Court of Accounts / Sayistay Dergisi, 115, 37-53. google scholar
  • Padda, I.U.H. & Akram, N. (2009). The impact of tax policies on economic growth: evidence from South-Asian economies. The Pakistan Development Review, 48(4), 961-971. google scholar
  • Parasız, İ. (2008). Büyüme Teorileri (3.bs.). Bursa: Ezgi Kitabevi. google scholar
  • Phillips, P.C.B. & Perron, P. (1988). Testing for a unit root in time series regression. Biometrika, 75(2), 335-346. google scholar
  • Piana, V. (2003). Tax Revenue, Economics Web Institute. Retrieved from http://www. economicswebinstitute.org/glossary/taxrev.htm#determinants google scholar
  • Polat, M.A. (2019). Ekonomik büyüme ile vergi gelirleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi: Türkiye örneği. İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 8(3), 1991-2009. google scholar
  • Ramsey, F.P. (1928) A mathematical theory of saving. Economic Journal, 38, 543-559. http://dx.doi. org/10.2307/2224098 google scholar
  • Ricardo, D. (1817). On the principles of political economy and taxation ( John Murray, London). In: Sraffa, P., Ed., The Works and Correspondence of David Ricardo, Vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1951. google scholar
  • Romer, P.M. (1986). Increasing returns and long run growth. The Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002-1037. google scholar
  • Romer, P.M. (1990). Endogenous technological change. The Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 71-102. google scholar
  • Romer, C.D. & Romer, D.H. (2010). The macroeconomic effects of tax changes: estimates based on a new measure of fiscal shocks. American Economic Review American Economic Association, 100(3), 763-801. google scholar
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The theory of economic development: an inquiry into profits, capital, credits, interest, and the business cycle. Transaction Publishers, Piscataway. google scholar
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular İşletme
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Gülgün ÇİĞDEM (Sorumlu Yazar)
İstanbul Gelişim University, İstanbul, Turkey
0000-0001-5353-8638
Türkiye


Merve ALTAYLAR
Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey
0000-0001-5413-5048
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 16 Temmuz 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 3 Nisan 2021
Kabul Tarihi 7 Mayıs 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 71, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { istjecon908769, journal = {İstanbul İktisat Dergisi}, issn = {2602-4152}, eissn = {2602-3954}, address = {istjecon@istanbul.edu.tr}, publisher = {İstanbul Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {71}, number = {1}, pages = {21 - 38}, title = {Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach}, key = {cite}, author = {Çiğdem, Gülgün and Altaylar, Merve} }
APA Çiğdem, G. & Altaylar, M. (2021). Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach . İstanbul İktisat Dergisi , 71 (1) , 21-38 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/istjecon/issue/64179/908769
MLA Çiğdem, G. , Altaylar, M. "Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach" . İstanbul İktisat Dergisi 71 (2021 ): 21-38 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/istjecon/issue/64179/908769>
Chicago Çiğdem, G. , Altaylar, M. "Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach". İstanbul İktisat Dergisi 71 (2021 ): 21-38
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach AU - Gülgün Çiğdem , Merve Altaylar Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - İstanbul İktisat Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 21 EP - 38 VL - 71 IS - 1 SN - 2602-4152-2602-3954 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 İstanbul İktisat Dergisi Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach %A Gülgün Çiğdem , Merve Altaylar %T Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach %D 2021 %J İstanbul İktisat Dergisi %P 2602-4152-2602-3954 %V 71 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Çiğdem, Gülgün , Altaylar, Merve . "Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach". İstanbul İktisat Dergisi 71 / 1 (Temmuz 2021): 21-38 .
AMA Çiğdem G. , Altaylar M. Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach. İstanbul İktisat Dergisi. 2021; 71(1): 21-38.
Vancouver Çiğdem G. , Altaylar M. Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach. İstanbul İktisat Dergisi. 2021; 71(1): 21-38.
IEEE G. Çiğdem ve M. Altaylar , "Nonlinear Relationship between Economic Growth and Tax Revenue in Turkey: Hidden Cointegration Approach", İstanbul İktisat Dergisi, c. 71, sayı. 1, ss. 21-38, Tem. 2021