Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı 23, Sayfalar 71 - 89 2021-01-08

About the Double-Axe (Labrys) / Butterfly Symbols in an Offering Pit in Tisna
Tisna’da Bir Sunu Çukuru İçerisinde Bulunan Çift Ağızlı Balta (Labrys)/Kelebek Sembolleri Hakkında

Emre ERDAN [1] , Bariş GÜR [2]


In this study, double-axe/butterfly depictions in an offering pit discovered during the 2018 archaeological survey at Kocakale Tepe (Tisna) are introduced. The double-axe/ butterfly motifs with a total of 10 scraping lines in different sizes were identified in the pit formed on the bedrock made up of white colored tuff. While double-axes have been observed in the Aegean World since the Bronze Age, it is understood to be an important religious symbol. Since the Minoan culture in Crete, it has been used both as a votive object and a sacrifice axe, and is depicted on different religious objects in iconography. Later, it continued its same feature in the Mycenaean culture during the Late Bronze Age. After this intense use in the Aegean World during the Bronze Age, double axes began to appear in iconography again in the Classical period. Double-axes, which are the symbols of Zeus Labraundos, are depicted on the coins of the Hekatomnid dynasty in the Caria Region. According to Plutarch, the double-axe cult came to Caria from the lands of Lydia. It is not possible to make a sharp comment about the Kocakale Tepe offering pit without any excavation in the area and its vicinity. However, it is noteworthy that the stepped monument in Kocakale Tepe, a possible Acropolis Sanctuary in Sarıkale Tepe, and the open-air sanctuary in Karahayıt may be related to the Mother Goddess cult in Tisna. Especially the existence of similar butterfly motifs in Gordion suggests the effect of Phrygian culture. On the other hand, the existence of the Zeus Labraundos cult on the West Anatolian coasts in the Archaic-Classical Periods should not be ignored.
Bu çalışmada Kocakale Tepe (Tisna)’da 2018 yılı arkeolojik yüzey araştırması sırasında keşfedilen bir sunu çanağı içerisinde yer alan çift ağızlı balta betimlemeleri tanıtılmıştır. Beyaz renkli tüften oluşan ana kaya üzerine oluşturulan sunu çukurunda birbirinden farklı boyutlarda toplam 10 adet kazıma çizgilerle oluşturulmuş çift ağızlı balta/kelebek motifleri tespit edilmiştir. Çift ağızlı baltalar Ege Dünyası’nda Tunç Çağı’ndan beri ele geçerken, önemli bir dinsel sembol olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Girit’teki Minos kültüründen itibaren hem bir adak objesi hem de kurban baltası olarak kullanılırken, ikonografide de farklı dinsel objeler üzerinde betimlenmektedir. Sonrasında Geç Tunç Çağı’nda Miken kültüründe de aynı özelliğini sürdürmüştür. Tunç Çağı’nda Ege Dünyası’ndaki bu yoğun kullanımın ardından çift ağızlı baltalar tekrar Klasik dönemde ikonografide görülmeye başlamıştır. Zeus Labraundos’un simgesi olarak karşımıza çıkan çift ağızlı baltalar Karia Bölgesi’nde Hekatomnid hanedanı sikkeleri üzerinde betimlenmiştir. Plutarkhos’un aktardığına göre çift ağızlı balta kültünün Karia’ya Lydia topraklarından gelmiştir. Alan ve yakın çevresinde herhangi bir kazı çalışması yapılmadan Kocakale Tepe sunu çukuru ile ilgili keskin bir yorumda bulunmak mümkün değildir. Yine de Kocakale Tepe’deki basamaklı anıtın, Sarıkale Tepe’deki kutsal alan / tapınağın ve Karahayıt’taki açık hava kutsal alanının Tisna’daki ana tanrıça kültüyle ilişkili olabilecek yönü dikkat çekicidir. Özellikle benzer kelebek motiflerinin Gordion’daki varlığı Frig kültürünün etkisini de düşündürmektedir. Diğer taraftan Zeus Labraundos kültünün Arkaik-Klasik Dönemlerde Batı Anadolu kıyılarındaki varlığı da göz ardı edilmemelidir.
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Birincil Dil en
Konular Arkeoloji
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0002-4389-2016
Yazar: Emre ERDAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-9031-9159
Yazar: Bariş GÜR
Kurum: DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 8 Ocak 2021

APA Erdan, E , Gür, B . (2021). About the Double-Axe (Labrys) / Butterfly Symbols in an Offering Pit in Tisna . Anadolu Araştırmaları , (23) , 71-89 . DOI: 10.26650/anar.2020.23.703366