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Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği

Yıl 2019, Cilt 39, Sayı 2, 321 - 344, 24.12.2019

Öz

Bu araştırmanın amacı en yakın arkadaşın yardım davranışları ile ilgili değer, bedel ve içtenlik algısının, en yakın arkadaşa hissedilen minnettarlık duygusunun ve genel olarak minnettarlık dışavurum düzeyinin, cinsiyete ve minnettarlık eğilimine göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığını incelemektir. Bir diğer amaç ise en yakın arkadaşla ilişki bağlamında hangi durumlarda minnettar hissedildiğini ve bu duygu sonrasında verilen tepkileri belirlemektir. Araştırmaya 230’u kadın ve 176’sı erkek olmak üzere toplam 406 kişi katılmıştır. Katılımcılara Yenilenmiş Minnettarlık, Memnuniyet ve Takdir Ölçeği, Minnettarlık Dışavurum Ölçeği, Minnettarlığın Bilişsel Değerlendirimi Formu, Minnettarlık Sıfat Listesi ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu uygulanmıştır. Ayrıca katılımcılardan en yakın arkadaşlarına minnettar hissettikleri bir olay örneğini ve minnettarlıklarını nasıl dışavurduklarını yazmaları için açık uçlu birer soru sorulmuştur. Çok Değişkenli Kovaryans Analizi (MANCOVA) bulgularına göre, minnettarlık eğilimi yüksek olanların (a) en yakın arkadaşlarının yardım davranışlarının değeri, bedeli ve içtenliğine yönelik algıları (b) en yakın arkadaşlarına yönelik minnettarlık hisleri ve (c) minnettarlık dışavurum düzeyleri minnettarlık eğilimi düşük olanlara kıyasla daha yüksektir. Ek olarak, kadınların minnettarlık dışavurum düzeyleri erkeklere kıyasla daha yüksektir. İçerik analizi bulgularına göre, katılımcılar kendilerini en çok, arkadaşlarının sağladığı psikolojik destek, maddi destek ve sağlık desteği sonrasında minnettar hissetmekte; minnettarlıklarını ise sözel dışavurum, sözel olmayan dışavurum veya öteki odaklı dışavurum tarzı ile ifade etmektedirler. Literatürle paralel olarak bu çalışma sonucunda minnettarlık eğilimi yüksek olan kişilerin en yakın arkadaşlarının yaptığı davranışların daha çok farkında oldukları ve bunları arkadaşlarının bir katkısı şeklinde algılayarak minnettarlık hissettikleri görülmüştür.

Kaynakça

  • Algoe, S. B. (2012). Find, remind, and bind: The functions of gratitude in everyday relationships. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(6), 455–469. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00439.x
  • Algoe, S. B., Fredrickson, B. L., & Gable, S. (2013). The social functions of the emotion of gratitude via expression. Emotion, 13(4), 605–609. doi: 10.1037/a0032701
  • Algoe, S. B., Gable, S. L., & Maisel, N. C. (2010). It’s the little things: Everyday gratitude as a booster shot for romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 17, 217–233. doi: 10.1111/j.14756811.2010.01273.x
  • Algoe, S. B., Haidt, J., & Gable, S. L. (2008). Beyond reciprocity: Gratitude and relationships. Emotion, 8(3), 425–429. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.8.3.425.
  • Allemand, M., & Hill, P. L. (2016). Gratitude from early adulthood to old age. Journal of Personality, 84, 21–35. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12134.
  • Araz, A., & Erdugan, C. (2017). Minnettarlık dışavurum ölçeği geliştirme çalışması [Developing a scale for measuring the expression of gratitude]. Nesne, 5(11), 404-425. doi: 10.7816/nesne-05-11-04.
  • Bartlett, M. Y., Condon P., Cruz, J., Baumann, J., & Desteno, D. (2012). Gratitude: Prompting behaviours that build relationships. Cognition and Emotion, 26(1), 2-13. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2011.561297.
  • Baumeister, R. F., & Ilko, S. A. (1995). Shallow gratitude: Public and private acknowledgement of external help in accounts of success. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16(1), 191-209. doi: 10.1080/01973533.1995.9646109
  • Baumgarten-Tramer, F. (1938). “Gratefulness” in children and young people. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 53, 53-66. doi: 10.1080/08856559.1938.10533797.
  • Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00157.
  • Birditt, K. S., Jackey, L. M. H., & Antonucci, T. C. (2009). Longitudinal patterns of negative relationship quality across adulthood. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64B(1), 55–64. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbn031.
  • Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New Brunswick, USA: Transaction Publishers.
  • Blieszner, R., & Adams, R. G. (1992). Adult friendship. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Blieszner, R., & Roberto, K.A. (2004). Friendship across the life span: Reciprocity in individual and relationship development. In F. R. Lang, & K. L. Fingerman (Eds.), Growing together: Personal relationships across the lifespan (pp. 159–182). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Brody, L. R. (1999). Gender, emotion, and the family. Cambridge, MA, US: Harvard University Press.
  • Ciarrochi, J., Hynes, K., & Crittenden, N. (2005). Can men do better if they try harder: Sex and motivational effects on emotional awareness. Cognition and Emotion, 19(1), 133-141. doi:10.1080/02699930441000102.
  • Demir, M., Özen, A., & Proscal, A. D. (2014). Friendship and happiness. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 2359-2364). Dordrecht, Canada: Springer
  • Demir, M., & Özdemir, M. (2010). Friendship, need satisfaction and happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(2), 243-259. doi: 10.1007/s10902-009-9138-5
  • Emmons, R. A. (2007). Thanks! How the new science of gratitude can make you happier. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.
  • Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377-389. doi :10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377.
  • Erdugan, C. (2016). Yakın arkadaşlık ilişkisinde minnettarlığın bilişsel, duygusal ve davranışsal göstergeleri (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, İzmir.
  • Freitas, L. B. L., Pieta, M. A. M., & Tudge, J. R. H. (2011). Beyond politeness: The expression of gratitude in children and adolescents. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24(4), 757-764. doi: 10.1590/ S0102-79722011000400016.
  • Froh, J. J., Yurkewicz, C., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 32(3), 633–650. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.06.006
  • Grant, A. M., & Gino, F. (2010). A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(6), 946–955. doi: 10.1037/a0017935.
  • Hays, R. B. (1988). Friendship. In Handbook of personal relationships (pp. 391-408). London: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications
  • John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004), Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72, 1301–1334. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x
  • Kashdan, T. B., Mishra, A., Breen, W. E., & Froh, J. J. (2009). Gender differences in gratitude: Examining appraisals, narratives, the willingness to express emotions, and changes in psychological needs. Journal of Personality,77(3), 691-730. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00562.x.
  • Kring, A. M., & Gordon, A. H. (1998). Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 686-703. doi: 10.1037/00223514.74.3.686.
  • Kubacka, K. E., Finkenauer, C., Rusbult, C. E., & Keijsers, L. (2011). Maintaining close relationships: Gratitude as a motivator and a detector of maintenance behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(10), 1362–1374. doi: 10.1177/0146167211412196.
  • Lambert, N. M., & Fincham, F. D. (2011). Expressing gratitude to a partner leads to more relationship maintenance behavior. Emotion, 11(1), 52–60. doi: 10.1037/a0021557.
  • Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). An application of hierarchical kappa-type statistics in the assessment of majority agreement among multiple observers. Biometrics, 33(2), 363-374. doi: 10.2307/2529786
  • Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A Measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155. doi: 10.1023/A:1006824100041
  • MacKenzie, M. J. Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2014). You didn’t have to do that: Belief in free will promotes gratitude. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(11), 1423–1434. doi: 10.1177/0146167214549322.
  • Markiewicz, D., Doyle, A. B., & Brendgen, M. (2001). The quality of adolescents’ friendships: Associations with mothers’ interpersonal relationships, attachments to parents and friends, and prosocial behaviors. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 429–445. doi: 10.1006/jado.2001.0374.
  • Ma, L. K., Tunney, R. J., & Ferguson, E. (2017). Does gratitude enhance prosociality?: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 143(6), 601-635. doi: 10.1037/bul0000103
  • McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2002). The grateful disposition: Conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112-127. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.82.1.112
  • McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D. Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. A. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 249–266. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.127.2.249
  • Mendelson, M. J., & Aboud, F. (1999). Measuring friendship quality in late adolescents and young adults: McGill friendship questionnaires. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31, 130-132. doi: 10.1037/h0087080
  • Monsour, M. (2002). Women and men as friends: Relationships across the life span in the 21st century. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjánsson, K. (2017). A new approach to measuring moral virtues: The Multi-Component Gratitude Measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 107, 179-189. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.11.044
  • Wright, P. H. (1978). Toward a theory of friendship based on a conception of self. Human Communication Research, 4, 196–207. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1978.tb00609.x.
  • Newsom, J. T., McFarland, B. H., Kaplan, M. S., Huguet, N., & Zani, B. (2005). The health consciousness myth. Implications of the near independence of major health behaviors in the North American population. The Journals of Gerontology, 60(6), 304-312. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.015.
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Yıl 2019, Cilt 39, Sayı 2, 321 - 344, 24.12.2019

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Algoe, S. B. (2012). Find, remind, and bind: The functions of gratitude in everyday relationships. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(6), 455–469. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00439.x
  • Algoe, S. B., Fredrickson, B. L., & Gable, S. (2013). The social functions of the emotion of gratitude via expression. Emotion, 13(4), 605–609. doi: 10.1037/a0032701
  • Algoe, S. B., Gable, S. L., & Maisel, N. C. (2010). It’s the little things: Everyday gratitude as a booster shot for romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 17, 217–233. doi: 10.1111/j.14756811.2010.01273.x
  • Algoe, S. B., Haidt, J., & Gable, S. L. (2008). Beyond reciprocity: Gratitude and relationships. Emotion, 8(3), 425–429. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.8.3.425.
  • Allemand, M., & Hill, P. L. (2016). Gratitude from early adulthood to old age. Journal of Personality, 84, 21–35. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12134.
  • Araz, A., & Erdugan, C. (2017). Minnettarlık dışavurum ölçeği geliştirme çalışması [Developing a scale for measuring the expression of gratitude]. Nesne, 5(11), 404-425. doi: 10.7816/nesne-05-11-04.
  • Bartlett, M. Y., Condon P., Cruz, J., Baumann, J., & Desteno, D. (2012). Gratitude: Prompting behaviours that build relationships. Cognition and Emotion, 26(1), 2-13. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2011.561297.
  • Baumeister, R. F., & Ilko, S. A. (1995). Shallow gratitude: Public and private acknowledgement of external help in accounts of success. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16(1), 191-209. doi: 10.1080/01973533.1995.9646109
  • Baumgarten-Tramer, F. (1938). “Gratefulness” in children and young people. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 53, 53-66. doi: 10.1080/08856559.1938.10533797.
  • Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00157.
  • Birditt, K. S., Jackey, L. M. H., & Antonucci, T. C. (2009). Longitudinal patterns of negative relationship quality across adulthood. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64B(1), 55–64. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbn031.
  • Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New Brunswick, USA: Transaction Publishers.
  • Blieszner, R., & Adams, R. G. (1992). Adult friendship. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Blieszner, R., & Roberto, K.A. (2004). Friendship across the life span: Reciprocity in individual and relationship development. In F. R. Lang, & K. L. Fingerman (Eds.), Growing together: Personal relationships across the lifespan (pp. 159–182). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Brody, L. R. (1999). Gender, emotion, and the family. Cambridge, MA, US: Harvard University Press.
  • Ciarrochi, J., Hynes, K., & Crittenden, N. (2005). Can men do better if they try harder: Sex and motivational effects on emotional awareness. Cognition and Emotion, 19(1), 133-141. doi:10.1080/02699930441000102.
  • Demir, M., Özen, A., & Proscal, A. D. (2014). Friendship and happiness. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 2359-2364). Dordrecht, Canada: Springer
  • Demir, M., & Özdemir, M. (2010). Friendship, need satisfaction and happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(2), 243-259. doi: 10.1007/s10902-009-9138-5
  • Emmons, R. A. (2007). Thanks! How the new science of gratitude can make you happier. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.
  • Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377-389. doi :10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377.
  • Erdugan, C. (2016). Yakın arkadaşlık ilişkisinde minnettarlığın bilişsel, duygusal ve davranışsal göstergeleri (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, İzmir.
  • Freitas, L. B. L., Pieta, M. A. M., & Tudge, J. R. H. (2011). Beyond politeness: The expression of gratitude in children and adolescents. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24(4), 757-764. doi: 10.1590/ S0102-79722011000400016.
  • Froh, J. J., Yurkewicz, C., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 32(3), 633–650. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.06.006
  • Grant, A. M., & Gino, F. (2010). A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(6), 946–955. doi: 10.1037/a0017935.
  • Hays, R. B. (1988). Friendship. In Handbook of personal relationships (pp. 391-408). London: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications
  • John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004), Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72, 1301–1334. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x
  • Kashdan, T. B., Mishra, A., Breen, W. E., & Froh, J. J. (2009). Gender differences in gratitude: Examining appraisals, narratives, the willingness to express emotions, and changes in psychological needs. Journal of Personality,77(3), 691-730. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00562.x.
  • Kring, A. M., & Gordon, A. H. (1998). Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 686-703. doi: 10.1037/00223514.74.3.686.
  • Kubacka, K. E., Finkenauer, C., Rusbult, C. E., & Keijsers, L. (2011). Maintaining close relationships: Gratitude as a motivator and a detector of maintenance behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(10), 1362–1374. doi: 10.1177/0146167211412196.
  • Lambert, N. M., & Fincham, F. D. (2011). Expressing gratitude to a partner leads to more relationship maintenance behavior. Emotion, 11(1), 52–60. doi: 10.1037/a0021557.
  • Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). An application of hierarchical kappa-type statistics in the assessment of majority agreement among multiple observers. Biometrics, 33(2), 363-374. doi: 10.2307/2529786
  • Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A Measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155. doi: 10.1023/A:1006824100041
  • MacKenzie, M. J. Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2014). You didn’t have to do that: Belief in free will promotes gratitude. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(11), 1423–1434. doi: 10.1177/0146167214549322.
  • Markiewicz, D., Doyle, A. B., & Brendgen, M. (2001). The quality of adolescents’ friendships: Associations with mothers’ interpersonal relationships, attachments to parents and friends, and prosocial behaviors. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 429–445. doi: 10.1006/jado.2001.0374.
  • Ma, L. K., Tunney, R. J., & Ferguson, E. (2017). Does gratitude enhance prosociality?: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 143(6), 601-635. doi: 10.1037/bul0000103
  • McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2002). The grateful disposition: Conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112-127. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.82.1.112
  • McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D. Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. A. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 249–266. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.127.2.249
  • Mendelson, M. J., & Aboud, F. (1999). Measuring friendship quality in late adolescents and young adults: McGill friendship questionnaires. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31, 130-132. doi: 10.1037/h0087080
  • Monsour, M. (2002). Women and men as friends: Relationships across the life span in the 21st century. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjánsson, K. (2017). A new approach to measuring moral virtues: The Multi-Component Gratitude Measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 107, 179-189. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.11.044
  • Wright, P. H. (1978). Toward a theory of friendship based on a conception of self. Human Communication Research, 4, 196–207. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1978.tb00609.x.
  • Newsom, J. T., McFarland, B. H., Kaplan, M. S., Huguet, N., & Zani, B. (2005). The health consciousness myth. Implications of the near independence of major health behaviors in the North American population. The Journals of Gerontology, 60(6), 304-312. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.015.
  • Nutt, R. M., & Lam, D. (2011). A comparison of mood-dependent memory in bipolar disorder and normal controls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 18, 379- 386. doi: 10.1002/cpp.778.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Canan ERDUGAN Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
ORTA DOĞU TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9735-1215
Türkiye


Arzu ARAZ Bu kişi benim
DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7510-917X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 24 Aralık 2019
Başvuru Tarihi 8 Ocak 2019
Kabul Tarihi 23 Temmuz 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 39, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { iupcd664456, journal = {Psikoloji Çalışmaları}, issn = {1304-4680}, eissn = {2602-2982}, address = {}, publisher = {İstanbul Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {39}, number = {2}, pages = {321 - 344}, title = {Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği}, key = {cite}, author = {Erdugan, Canan and Araz, Arzu} }
APA Erdugan, C. & Araz, A. (2019). Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği . Psikoloji Çalışmaları , 39 (2) , 321-344 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iupcd/issue/49419/664456
MLA Erdugan, C. , Araz, A. "Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği" . Psikoloji Çalışmaları 39 (2019 ): 321-344 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iupcd/issue/49419/664456>
Chicago Erdugan, C. , Araz, A. "Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği". Psikoloji Çalışmaları 39 (2019 ): 321-344
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği AU - CananErdugan, ArzuAraz Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Psikoloji Çalışmaları JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 321 EP - 344 VL - 39 IS - 2 SN - 1304-4680-2602-2982 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Psikoloji Çalışmaları Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği %A Canan Erdugan , Arzu Araz %T Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği %D 2019 %J Psikoloji Çalışmaları %P 1304-4680-2602-2982 %V 39 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Erdugan, Canan , Araz, Arzu . "Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği". Psikoloji Çalışmaları 39 / 2 (Aralık 2019): 321-344 .
AMA Erdugan C. , Araz A. Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği. Psikoloji Çalışmaları. 2019; 39(2): 321-344.
Vancouver Erdugan C. , Araz A. Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği. Psikoloji Çalışmaları. 2019; 39(2): 321-344.
IEEE C. Erdugan ve A. Araz , "Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği", Psikoloji Çalışmaları, c. 39, sayı. 2, ss. 321-344, Ara. 2019

Psikoloji Çalışmaları / Studies In Psychology / ISSN- 1304-4680