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Effects of Carbohydrate and Fats in Turkish Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 6, 895 - 900, 30.11.2022
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.1033320

Öz

Aim: This study aimed to assess the effects of different kinds of diet, which were similar in total energy density but different in carbohydrate and fats, on some blood parameters in type 2 diabetics. Materials and Methods: In this study, 33 type 2 diabetics, participants were offered two different kinds of lunches within 7 days intervals. Venous blood samples were collected from the participants half an hour before and after the consumption of these meals (0-180 minutes). Blood parameters such as glucose, insulin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and triglyceride were analyzed through blood samples. Results: There was no significance between the values of the change in blood glucose before and after their consumption of the standard meal and etli ekmek. After the consumption of the etli ekmek difference between the participants’ mean insulin level values at 60 and 90 minutes was lower than the standard meal. The values under the curve (AUC) were found to be significant (p<0.05). To come to conclusion, 30 minutes after the consumption of etli ekmek and standard meal, the mean triglyceride level of participants was 218.79±91.2 mg/dL and 245.46±8 mg/ dL, respectively (p<0,05). According to blood lipids, postprandial HDL-C, LDL-C was not significant between the meals (p>0.05). Conclusion: As with other research in the literature, in comparison with foods high in carbohydrates, foods high in fat later have glycemic effects. It is necessary to conduct more detailed studies on the effect of traditional and common foods on the blood parameters of diabetics.

Kaynakça

  • Society of Turkish Endocrinology and Metabolism, TEMD. Temd Diabetes Mellitus ve Komplikasyonlarının Tanı, Tedavi ve İzlem Kılavuzu-2020. (cited 2021 June. Available from: https://temd.org.tr/admin/uploads/tbl_kilavuz/20200625154506-2020tbl_kilavuz86bf012d90.pdf
  • International Diabetes Federation, IDF . Diabetes Atlas Ninth Edition 2019. (cited 2021 May 25).Available from: https://www.diabetesatlas.org/en/
  • Brubaker PL, Ohayon EL, D’Alessandro LM, Norwich KH. A mathematical model of the oral glucose tolerance test illustrating the effects of the incretins. Ann Biomed Eng 2007;35(7): 1286–1300.
  • Holst JJ, Gribble F, Horowitz M, Rayner CK. Roles of the gut in glucose homeostasis. Diabetes Care 2016;39(6): 884–92.
  • Hu FB. Globalization of diabetes: The role of diet, lifestyle, and genes. Diabetes Care 2011; 34(6): 1249–57.
  • Mignone LE, Wu T, Horowitz M. Whey protein: the “whey” forward for treatment of type 2 diabetes? World J Diabetes 2015; 6(14): 1274–84.
  • Magnan C, Collins S, Berthault MF, et al. Lipid infusion lowers sympathetic nervous activity and leads to increased beta-cell responsiveness to glucose. J Clin Invest 1999; 103(3):413–19.
  • Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes. J Clin Invest 2005;115(5): 1111–19.
  • Yumuk VD, Hatemi H, Tarakci T, et al. High prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in Konya, a central Anatolian city in Turkey. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005;70(2):151-8.
  • Almario RU, Buchan WM, Rocke DM, Karakas SE. Glucose-lowering effect of whey protein depends upon clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diab Res Care 2017; 5:1-9.
  • Wolever T, Zeng M, Atkinson F, Brand-Miller J. Food glycemic index, as given in glycemic index tables, is a significant determinant of glycemic responses elicited by composite breakfast meals. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(6):1306-12.
  • Meckling KA, O’sullivan C, Saar D. Comparison of a Low-Fat Diet to a Low- Carbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Risk Factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Free-Living, Overweight Men and Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89(6):2717–23.
  • Kodama, S, Saito K, Tanaka, S, et al. Influence of fat and carbohydrate proportions on the metabolic profile in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis. Diabetes Care 2009;32(5) :959-65.
  • Anderson JW, Herman RH. Effects of carbohydrate restriction on glucose tolerance of normal men and reactive hypoglycemic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1975; 28(7): 748–55.
  • Clark CA, Gardiner J, McBurney MI, et al. Effects of breakfast meal composition on second meal metabolic responses in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60(9):1122-29.
  • Snorgaard O, Poulsen GM., Andersen HK, Astrup A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2017;5(1): e000354
  • Davis NJ, Tomuta N, Schechter C, et al. Comparative study of the effects of a 1- year dietary intervention of a low- carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet on weight and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32(7):1147-52.

Tip 2 Diyabetli Türk Hastalarda Karbonhidrat ve Yağların Etkileri

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 6, 895 - 900, 30.11.2022
https://doi.org/10.16899/jcm.1033320

Öz

Amaç: Bu çalışma, tip 2 diyabetlilerde t enerji yoğunluğu bakımından benzer, karbonhidrat ve yağ bakımından farklı olan farklı diyet türlerinin bazı kan parametreleri üzerindeki etkilerini değerlendirmeyi amaçlamıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: 33 tip 2 diyabet hastasının yer aldığı bu çalışmada, katılımcılara 7 gün arayla iki farklı çeşit öğle yemeği sunulmuştur. Katılımcılardan bu öğünlerin tüketilmesinden yarım saat önce ve sonra (0-180 dakika) venöz kan örnekleri alınmıştır. Glikoz, insülin, düşük yoğunluklu lipoprotein (LDL-C), yüksek yoğunluklu lipoprotein (HDL-C) ve trigliserit gibi kan parametreleri kan örnekleri aracılığıyla analiz edilmiştir. Bulgular: Standart öğün ve etli ekmek tüketimi öncesi ve sonrası kan şekeri değişim değerleri arasında fark bulunmamıştır. Ayrıca, test öğününün tüketilmesinden sonra, katılımcıların 60 ve 90 dakikadaki ortalama insülin düzeyi değerleri arasındaki fark, standart öğünden daha düşük bulunmuş ve eğrinin altındaki alan anlamlı bulunmuştur (p<0.05). Bu çalışma sonucunda, etli ekmek ve standart yemek tüketiminden 30 dakika sonra katılımcıların ortalama trigliserit düzeyi sırasıyla 218.79±91.2 mg/dL ve 245.46±8 mg/dL olarak bulunmuştur (p< 0.05). Kan lipidlerine göre tokluk HDL-K, LDL-K öğünler arasında anlamlı değildi (p>0.05). Sonuç: Literatürdeki diğer araştırmalarda olduğu gibi, karbonhidrat oranı yüksek gıdalarla karşılaştırıldığında, yağ oranı yüksek gıdalar daha geç glisemik etkilere sahiptir. Geleneksel ve yaygın olarak tüketilen besinlerin diyabetiklerin kan parametreleri üzerine etkisi konusunda daha detaylı çalışmaların yapılması gerekmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Society of Turkish Endocrinology and Metabolism, TEMD. Temd Diabetes Mellitus ve Komplikasyonlarının Tanı, Tedavi ve İzlem Kılavuzu-2020. (cited 2021 June. Available from: https://temd.org.tr/admin/uploads/tbl_kilavuz/20200625154506-2020tbl_kilavuz86bf012d90.pdf
  • International Diabetes Federation, IDF . Diabetes Atlas Ninth Edition 2019. (cited 2021 May 25).Available from: https://www.diabetesatlas.org/en/
  • Brubaker PL, Ohayon EL, D’Alessandro LM, Norwich KH. A mathematical model of the oral glucose tolerance test illustrating the effects of the incretins. Ann Biomed Eng 2007;35(7): 1286–1300.
  • Holst JJ, Gribble F, Horowitz M, Rayner CK. Roles of the gut in glucose homeostasis. Diabetes Care 2016;39(6): 884–92.
  • Hu FB. Globalization of diabetes: The role of diet, lifestyle, and genes. Diabetes Care 2011; 34(6): 1249–57.
  • Mignone LE, Wu T, Horowitz M. Whey protein: the “whey” forward for treatment of type 2 diabetes? World J Diabetes 2015; 6(14): 1274–84.
  • Magnan C, Collins S, Berthault MF, et al. Lipid infusion lowers sympathetic nervous activity and leads to increased beta-cell responsiveness to glucose. J Clin Invest 1999; 103(3):413–19.
  • Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes. J Clin Invest 2005;115(5): 1111–19.
  • Yumuk VD, Hatemi H, Tarakci T, et al. High prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in Konya, a central Anatolian city in Turkey. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005;70(2):151-8.
  • Almario RU, Buchan WM, Rocke DM, Karakas SE. Glucose-lowering effect of whey protein depends upon clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diab Res Care 2017; 5:1-9.
  • Wolever T, Zeng M, Atkinson F, Brand-Miller J. Food glycemic index, as given in glycemic index tables, is a significant determinant of glycemic responses elicited by composite breakfast meals. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(6):1306-12.
  • Meckling KA, O’sullivan C, Saar D. Comparison of a Low-Fat Diet to a Low- Carbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Risk Factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Free-Living, Overweight Men and Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89(6):2717–23.
  • Kodama, S, Saito K, Tanaka, S, et al. Influence of fat and carbohydrate proportions on the metabolic profile in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis. Diabetes Care 2009;32(5) :959-65.
  • Anderson JW, Herman RH. Effects of carbohydrate restriction on glucose tolerance of normal men and reactive hypoglycemic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1975; 28(7): 748–55.
  • Clark CA, Gardiner J, McBurney MI, et al. Effects of breakfast meal composition on second meal metabolic responses in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60(9):1122-29.
  • Snorgaard O, Poulsen GM., Andersen HK, Astrup A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2017;5(1): e000354
  • Davis NJ, Tomuta N, Schechter C, et al. Comparative study of the effects of a 1- year dietary intervention of a low- carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet on weight and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32(7):1147-52.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Orjinal Araştırma
Yazarlar

M. Gizem KESER> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KTO KARATAY UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9425-9088
Türkiye


Hülya HACİŞAHİNOĞULLARI>
ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY, İSTANBUL FACULTY OF MEDICINE, İSTANBUL MEDICINE PR.
0000-0001-9989-6473
Türkiye


Kubilay KARŞIDAĞ>
ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY, İSTANBUL FACULTY OF MEDICINE, İSTANBUL MEDICINE PR.
0000-0002-9332-1262
Türkiye


Hüsamettin VATANSEV>
SELCUK UNIVERSITY, SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
0000-0002-0230-3414
Türkiye


Suleyman IPEKCİ>
ISTANBUL ATLAS UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES
0000-0003-4410-2212
Türkiye


Hafize YAĞCILAR TAN>
SELCUK UNIVERSITY, SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
0000-0003-1296-0124
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Istanbul University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit
Proje Numarası 310889
Teşekkür Thanks to Nurhan UNUSAN for assisting in the implementation of the study. The authors would like to thank all volunteers for their willing cooperation. Due to their contribution, the author would like to thank the employees of the Department of Selcuk University Biochemistry Laboratory and volunteers of study.
Erken Görünüm Tarihi 1 Ekim 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Kasım 2022
Kabul Tarihi 20 Eylül 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 6

Kaynak Göster

AMA Keser M. G. , Hacişahinoğulları H. , Karşıdağ K. , Vatansev H. , Ipekci S. , Yağcılar Tan H. Effects of Carbohydrate and Fats in Turkish Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. J Contemp Med. 2022; 12(6): 895-900.