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Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nde Kapsayıcı Eğitim: Algı, Politika ve Yapıya Bir Bakış

Yıl 2020, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 42 - 54, 28.08.2020

Öz

Kapsayıcı eğitim tüm dünyada farklı şekilde kavramsallaştırılır, ancak kuşkusuz “dâhil etme/kapsama” kelimesi ilk olarak engelli öğrencileri aklımıza getirir. Son elli yıl içerisinde “Herkes için Eğitim” mücadelesi geliştikçe, kapsayıcılık kavramı da zaman içerisinde gelişmiştir. Dünyadaki nüfus daha çeşitli hale geldikçe, terim Amerika'daki göçmenleri, çeşitli ırkları ve etnik kökenleri ve farklı kültürleri kapsayacak şekilde genişletilmiştir. Bu makale, engelli öğrencilerle ilgili mevzuat da dâhil olmak üzere Amerika'daki okulların yapısını incelemektedir. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nde kapsayıcılığın nasıl kavramsallaştırıldığı ve bazı durumlarda Amerika'daki devlet okullarında nasıl engellendiği hakkında paylaşımları içermektedir. Özel eğitimde ırksal eşitsizlikler konusunda bazı tartışmalar bulunmaktadır. Buna ek olarak, kapsayıcılığın göçmenler için nasıl geçerli olduğu ve Amerika'ya “yeni gelenleri” eğitilmeleri hakkında bazı bilgiler de dâhil edilmiştir. Engeli olan öğrencilerin eğitimde kapsanmasına ilişkin öğretmen ve ebeveyn algıları da ele alınmıştır. 

Kaynakça

  • ADL (2020) Fighting hate for good. Retrieved on June 20, 2020 from https://www.adl.org/education/resources/tools-and-strategies/table-talk/what-is-daca-and-who-are-the-dreamers May 19, 2020.
  • Ainscow, M. (2020). Promoting inclusion and equity in education: lessons from international experiences. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 6(1), 7-16.
  • Bajaj, M., Canlas, M., & Argenal, A. (2017). Between rights and realities: Human rights education for immigrant and refugee youth in an urban public high school. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 48(2), 124-140.
  • Barnes, R. (2020, June 18). Supreme court blocks Trump’s bid to end DACA, a win for undocumented ‘dreamers’. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/courts_law/supreme-court-rules-against-trump-administration-attempt-to-end-daca-a-win-for-undocumented-immigrants-brought-to-us-as-children/2020/06/18/4f0b6c74-b163-11ea-8758-bfd1d045525a_story.html
  • Brophy, J. (1982). Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations. East Lancing: Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University.
  • Cole, T. (2015). Mental Health Difficulties and Children at Risk of Exclusion from Schools in England. A Review from an educational perspective of policy, practice and research, 1997 to 2015. Oxford University Press. Available from http://www.education.ox.ac.uk/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/MENTAL- HEALTH-AND-EXCLUSION-FINAL-DIGITAL-13-06-15.pdf
  • Cook, B. G. (2001). A comparison of teachers’ attitudes toward their included students with mild and severe disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 34, 203-213.
  • Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher student relationships are effective: A meta- analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77, 113 143.
  • Davidson, T., & Burson, K. (2017). Keep those kids out: Nativism and attitudes toward access to public education for the children of undocumented immigrants. Journal of Latinos and Education, 16(1), 41-50.
  • Gause, C. P. (2011). Diversity, equity, and inclusive education: A voice from the margins. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense.
  • Fldoe.org
  • https://fl-pda.org/independent/courses/TSWD/index.html#2-3
  • https://www.justlanded.com/english/United-States/USA-Guide/Education/The-American-school-system
  • https://www.parentcenterhub.org/
  • Kamenetz, A. (2018) Suspensions are down in U.S. schools but large racial gaps remain.
  • Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/12/17/677508707. June 6, 2020.
  • Losen, D. J., & Skiba, R. J. (2010). Suspended education: Urban middle schools in crises. Retrieved from https://www.splcenter.org/20100901/suspended-education-urban-middle-school-crisis.
  • Miroff, N., Sacchetti, M. & Jan, T. (2020). Trump to suspend immigration to U.S. for 60 days, citing coronavirus crisis and jobs shortage but will allow some workers. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/immigration/coronavirus-trump-suspend-immigration/2020/04/21/464e2440-838d-11ea-ae26-989cfce1c7c7_story.html
  • Peck, C. A., Staub, D., Gallucci, C., & Schwartz, I. (2004). Parent perception of the impacts of inclusion on their nondisabled child. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29(2), 135-143.
  • Potter, H., Boggs, B., & Dunbar, C. (2017). Discipline and punishment: How schools are building the school-to-prison pipeline. The school to prison pipeline: The role of culture and discipline in school, 65-90.
  • Ritter, C. L., Michel, C. S., & Irby, B. (1999). Concerning inclusion: Perceptions of middle school students, their parents, and teachers. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 18(2), 10-16.
  • Rist, R. (1970). Student social class and teacher expectations: The self-fulfilling prophecy in ghetto education. Harvard Educational Review, 40, 411-451.
  • Roorda, D. L., Jak, S., Zee, M., Oort, F. J., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2017). Affective teacher student relationships and students’ engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic update and test of the mediating role of engagement. School Psychology Review, 46, 239 261.
  • Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta- analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81, 493 529. United States Department of Justice, & United States Department of Education. (2014). Notice of language assistance dear colleague letter on the nondiscriminatory administration of school discipline. Washington D.C.
  • Woodrock, S., & Vialle, W. (2011). Are we exacerbating students’ learning disabilities? An investigation of preservice teachers’ attributions of the educational outcomes of students with learning disabilities. Annals of Dyslexia, 61, 223-241.
  • Yang, J. L., Anyon, Y., Pauline, M., Wiley, K. E., Cash, D., Downing, B. J., ... & Pisciotta, L. (2018). “We Have to Educate Every Single Student, Not Just the Ones That Look Like Us”: Support Service Providers’ Beliefs About the Root Causes of the School-to-Prison Pipeline for Youth of Color. Equity & Excellence in Education, 51(3-4), 316-331.
  • Yssel, N., Engelbrecht, P., Oswald, M. M., Eloff, I., & Swart, E. (2007). Views of inclusion: A comparative study of parents' perceptions in South Africa and the United States. Remedial and Special Education, 28(6), 356-365.

Inclusive Education in the United States of America: A Glimpse into Perceptions, Policy, and Structure

Yıl 2020, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 42 - 54, 28.08.2020

Öz

Inclusion is conceptualized differently around the globe but undoubtedly the word inclusion brings to mind students with disabilities. The notion of inclusion has evolved over time as the fight for the education for all people has evolved over the last fifty years. As populations around the globe become more diverse, the term has been expanded to the inclusion of immigrants, various races and ethnicities, and diverse cultures in America. This article explores the structure of schools in America including the legislation around students with disabilities. Insight is shared about how inclusion is conceptualized in the United States and, in some cases, how it is hindered in public schools in America. There is some discussion on the topic issues of racial disparities in special education. In addition, information on how inclusion applies to immigrants and some issues of educating “newcomers” to America is also included. Teacher and parent perceptions of inclusion of students with disabilities are explored as well.

Kaynakça

  • ADL (2020) Fighting hate for good. Retrieved on June 20, 2020 from https://www.adl.org/education/resources/tools-and-strategies/table-talk/what-is-daca-and-who-are-the-dreamers May 19, 2020.
  • Ainscow, M. (2020). Promoting inclusion and equity in education: lessons from international experiences. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 6(1), 7-16.
  • Bajaj, M., Canlas, M., & Argenal, A. (2017). Between rights and realities: Human rights education for immigrant and refugee youth in an urban public high school. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 48(2), 124-140.
  • Barnes, R. (2020, June 18). Supreme court blocks Trump’s bid to end DACA, a win for undocumented ‘dreamers’. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/courts_law/supreme-court-rules-against-trump-administration-attempt-to-end-daca-a-win-for-undocumented-immigrants-brought-to-us-as-children/2020/06/18/4f0b6c74-b163-11ea-8758-bfd1d045525a_story.html
  • Brophy, J. (1982). Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations. East Lancing: Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University.
  • Cole, T. (2015). Mental Health Difficulties and Children at Risk of Exclusion from Schools in England. A Review from an educational perspective of policy, practice and research, 1997 to 2015. Oxford University Press. Available from http://www.education.ox.ac.uk/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/MENTAL- HEALTH-AND-EXCLUSION-FINAL-DIGITAL-13-06-15.pdf
  • Cook, B. G. (2001). A comparison of teachers’ attitudes toward their included students with mild and severe disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 34, 203-213.
  • Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher student relationships are effective: A meta- analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77, 113 143.
  • Davidson, T., & Burson, K. (2017). Keep those kids out: Nativism and attitudes toward access to public education for the children of undocumented immigrants. Journal of Latinos and Education, 16(1), 41-50.
  • Gause, C. P. (2011). Diversity, equity, and inclusive education: A voice from the margins. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense.
  • Fldoe.org
  • https://fl-pda.org/independent/courses/TSWD/index.html#2-3
  • https://www.justlanded.com/english/United-States/USA-Guide/Education/The-American-school-system
  • https://www.parentcenterhub.org/
  • Kamenetz, A. (2018) Suspensions are down in U.S. schools but large racial gaps remain.
  • Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/12/17/677508707. June 6, 2020.
  • Losen, D. J., & Skiba, R. J. (2010). Suspended education: Urban middle schools in crises. Retrieved from https://www.splcenter.org/20100901/suspended-education-urban-middle-school-crisis.
  • Miroff, N., Sacchetti, M. & Jan, T. (2020). Trump to suspend immigration to U.S. for 60 days, citing coronavirus crisis and jobs shortage but will allow some workers. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/immigration/coronavirus-trump-suspend-immigration/2020/04/21/464e2440-838d-11ea-ae26-989cfce1c7c7_story.html
  • Peck, C. A., Staub, D., Gallucci, C., & Schwartz, I. (2004). Parent perception of the impacts of inclusion on their nondisabled child. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29(2), 135-143.
  • Potter, H., Boggs, B., & Dunbar, C. (2017). Discipline and punishment: How schools are building the school-to-prison pipeline. The school to prison pipeline: The role of culture and discipline in school, 65-90.
  • Ritter, C. L., Michel, C. S., & Irby, B. (1999). Concerning inclusion: Perceptions of middle school students, their parents, and teachers. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 18(2), 10-16.
  • Rist, R. (1970). Student social class and teacher expectations: The self-fulfilling prophecy in ghetto education. Harvard Educational Review, 40, 411-451.
  • Roorda, D. L., Jak, S., Zee, M., Oort, F. J., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2017). Affective teacher student relationships and students’ engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic update and test of the mediating role of engagement. School Psychology Review, 46, 239 261.
  • Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta- analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81, 493 529. United States Department of Justice, & United States Department of Education. (2014). Notice of language assistance dear colleague letter on the nondiscriminatory administration of school discipline. Washington D.C.
  • Woodrock, S., & Vialle, W. (2011). Are we exacerbating students’ learning disabilities? An investigation of preservice teachers’ attributions of the educational outcomes of students with learning disabilities. Annals of Dyslexia, 61, 223-241.
  • Yang, J. L., Anyon, Y., Pauline, M., Wiley, K. E., Cash, D., Downing, B. J., ... & Pisciotta, L. (2018). “We Have to Educate Every Single Student, Not Just the Ones That Look Like Us”: Support Service Providers’ Beliefs About the Root Causes of the School-to-Prison Pipeline for Youth of Color. Equity & Excellence in Education, 51(3-4), 316-331.
  • Yssel, N., Engelbrecht, P., Oswald, M. M., Eloff, I., & Swart, E. (2007). Views of inclusion: A comparative study of parents' perceptions in South Africa and the United States. Remedial and Special Education, 28(6), 356-365.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Derleme Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Hope ZİKPİ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
University of South Florida
0000-0002-5338-738X
United States

Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Ağustos 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Zikpi, H. (2020). Inclusive Education in the United States of America: A Glimpse into Perceptions, Policy, and Structure . Journal of Inclusive Education in Research and Practice , 1 (1) , 42-54 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jierp/issue/56579/754879