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Güvenlik Stratejisi Bağlamında Avrupa Birliği’nin Afrika Misyonları

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2, 31 - 56, 30.12.2023

Öz

Güvenlik Stratejisi bağlamında AB, ticaret, iş birliği, barış ve güvenlik alanları dahil olmak üzere farklı sektörlerde Afrika ile ilişkilerini geliştirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. AB’nin artan kurumsal ve askeri kapasitesi bağlamında, Afrika’nın kriz bölgelerine müdahale etmeye istekli olması doğrultusunda son yıllarda AB ile Afrika arasında güvenlik adına iş birliğinde bir artış görülmektedir. Bu eğilim, AB’nin gerektiğinde erken, hızlı ve güçlü katılımını destekleyen Avrupa Güvenlik Stratejisinde de yansıtılmaktadır. Avrupa Birliği’nin Afrika’daki misyonlarının başarısının birçok faktörden etkilendiği yadsınamaz. Çatışmaların doğası ve karmaşıklığı, coğrafi, sosyal ve stratejik boyutları, kaynakların mevcudiyeti ve üye devletlerin siyasi iradesi ve farklı çıkarları, örgütsel düzeyde koordinasyon ve iş birliği, AB’nin krizleri yönetme, çatışmaları önleme ve çözme şeklini doğrudan etkilemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ahtisaari, M. (2017). The Role of the European Union in Conflict Resolution. Irish Studies in International Affairs, Royal Irish Academy, 28, 195-199. http://www.jstor.com/stable/10.3318/isia.2017.28.13
  • Appiah-Mensah, S. (2005). AU’s Critical Assignment in Darfur: Challenges and Constraints. African Security Review, 14 (2), 7-21. https://www.academia.edu/51785162/Aus_Critical_Assignment_in_Darfur
  • Arconada-Ledesma, P. (2021). European Union’s Mission in Somalia. Ten Years of Successes and Failures (2008-2018). Annals of University of Oradea, Series: International Relations & European Studies, 13, 23-36. Doi: https://doi.org/10.58603/XTMC4724 https://analerise.igri.ro/article_en.php?an=2021&titlu=european-union-s-mission-in-somalia-ten-years-of-successes-and-failures-2008-2018-
  • Atlamazoglou, C.& Moyer, J. C. (2022). A Strategic Compass: The European Union expands its toolbox. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/strategic-compass-european-union-expands-its-toolbox
  • Baudais, V., Maiga, S. (2022). The European Union Training Mission in Mali: An Assessment. SIPRI Background Paper, 1-32. https://doi.org/10.55163/krbn9926
  • Baudais, V., Hickendorff, A., Lijn, J. v. d., Acko, I., Maiga, S., Ali, H. M. (2022). EU Military Training Missions: A Synthesis Report. SIPRI, https://doi.org/10.55163/lfle9658
  • Besenyo, J. (2009). EU Support to the African Union Mission in Darfur – AMIS (July 26, 2009). Tradecraft Review, Periodical of the Scientific Board of Military Security Office, Special Issue, 30-45, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3610699 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3610699
  • Boin, A., Ekengren, M., & Rhinard, M. (2013). Managing future crises: Challenges and prospects for the European Union. In The European Union as Crisis Manager: Patterns and Prospects, 144-169. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139565400.006
  • Brânda, O. (2022). The Strategic Compass – A Strategic Boost of Confidence In European Security. RMT, 4, 236-247. https://doi.org/10.55535/rmt.2022.4.13
  • Braud, P. A. (2006). Implementing ESDP Operations in Africa, in Anne Deighton and Victor Mauer (eds.), Securing Europe? Implementing the European Security Strategy, Zurich: ETH Zurich, 69-78.
  • Brosig, M. (2011). The Emerging Peace and Security Regime in Africa: The Role of the EU. European Foreign Affairs Review, 16, 107-122, https://doi.org/10.54648/eerr2011006
  • Brummer, K. (2013). The Reluctant Peacekeeper: Governmental Politics and Germany’s Participation in EUFOR RD Congo, Foreign Policy Analysis, 9(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-8594.2011.00174.x, https://www.jstor.org/stable/24910745
  • Cameron, F. (2007). An Introduction to European Foreign Policy. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Carbone, M. (2021). There Is Life Beyond the European Union: Revisiting the Organization of African, Caribbean and Pacific States. Third World Quarterly, 10(42), 2451-2468. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2021.1951608
  • Carmilla, G. (2021). How Should the EU Rethink the Relations with Africa? Policy Paper, Vocal Europe. https://www.vocaleurope.eu/policy-paper-how-should-the-eu-rethink-the-relations-with-africa/
  • Claudia Fahron-Hussey (2019). Military Crisis Management Operations by NATO and the EU, Germany: Springer.
  • Charbonneau, B. (2009). What Is So Special about the European Union? EU-UN Cooperation in Crisis Management in Africa, International Peacekeeping,16(4), 546-561. DOI: 10.1080/13533310903249110, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13533310903249110
  • Council of the European Union, From a strategy for Africa to an EU-Africa strategic partnership, Brussels, 19 December 2005, 15961/05 (Presse 367), https://docplayer.net/197549386-The-eu-and-africa-towards-a-strategic-partnership.html
  • Derblom, M., Hagström, F. E., Schmidt, J. (2008). UN-EU-AU Coordination in Peace Operations in Africa. Swedish Defense Research Agency, Report No. 2602, Stockholm, November 2008. https://community.apan.org/cfs-file/__key/docpreview-s/00-00-00-98-87/UN-EU-AU-Coordination-in-Peace-Ops-in-Africa-foir2602.pdf
  • European Union External Action Service (EEAS) https://www.eeas.europa.eu/_en
  • European External Action Service (EEAS), 2020. Security and Defense, http://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/area/security-and-defence_en
  • European Parliament, Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, Pirozzi, N., Venturi, B., Sartori, The joint Africa-EU strategy – , European Parliament, 2017, https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2861/46520
  • Giegerich, B. (2008). European Military Crisis Management: Connecting Ambition and Reality, London: International Institute for Security Studies.
  • Franke, B. (2009) The European Union supporting actions to the African Union missions in Sudan (AMIS) and Somalia (AMISOM). In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 255-264. http://www.efsps.eu/docs/ESDP_10-web.pdf
  • Handolin, L. & Elomaa,T. (2007). The Finnish Forward Surgical Team Experience During EUFOR Operation RD Congo in 2006. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg, 33, 245–250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-007-6209-3
  • Helly, D. (2009). The EU Military Operation in the Republic of Chad and in the Central African Republic (Operation EUFOR Tchad/ RCA9. In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 339-352. http://www.efsps.eu/docs/ESDP_10-web.pdf
  • Helly, D. (2009). Operation ARTEMIS (RD Congo). In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 181-186. http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep36293.10
  • Helly, D. (2009). EU NAVFOR Somalia, The Military Operation Atalanta. In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 391-402. http://www.efsps.eu/docs/ESDP_10-web.pdf
  • Hickendorff, A. and Acko, I. (2021). The European Union Training Mission in The Central African Republic: An Assessment, SIPRI, 1-24. https://www.sipri.org/publications/2021/sipri-background-papers/european-union-training-mission-central-african-republic-assessment
  • Homan, K. (2007). Operation Artemis in the Democratic Republic of Congo. European Commission (ed.), Faster and more united? The debate about Europe’s crisis response capacity, Luxembourg: OPOCE, 151-55. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/20070531_cscp_chapter_homan.pdf
  • Howorth, J. (2007). Security and Defense Policy in the European Union, Basingstoke: Palgrave. http://library.lol/main/CA65F637CFD8D7678FE6C8E1978126A2
  • IMPETUS, Magazine of the EU Military Staff, EEAS, Brussels - Spring/Summer 2019, Issue 27, https://www.eeas.europa.eu/sites/default/files/impetus_27_web.pdf)
  • Institute for Economics and Peace, Global Peace Index, 2017. https://reliefweb.int/sites/ reliefweb.int/files/resources/GPI-2017-Report-1.pdf
  • Juncos, A. E. & Blockmans, S. (2018). The EU’s role in conflict prevention and peacebuilding: fourkey challenges, Global Affairs, 4 (2-3), 131-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/23340460.2018.1502619
  • Koziejz, S. (2018). Polityka Bezpieczeństwa i Obrony Unii Europejskiej: od Strategii Globalnej do PESCO. Pulaski Policy Paper, 1. https://pulaski.pl/polityka-bezpieczenstwa-obrony-unii-europejskiej-strategii-globalnej-pesco/
  • Kuźniar, R. (2018). Wspólna polityka bezpieczeństwa i obrony Unii Europejskiej. In: J. Barcz et al. (eds.).Polska w Unii Europejskiej. Nowe wyzwania (pp. 55–67). Warszawa: Komisja Europejska-Przedstawicielstwo w Polsce.
  • Magalhães, N. P. (2020). The European Union, Conflict Management, and the Normative Illusion. Nação e Defesa -Instituto da Defesa Nacional, 155, 9-36. https://www.idn.gov.pt/pt/publicacoes/nacao/Documents/NeD155/NeDef155_1_NunoPereiraMagalhaes.pdf
  • Major, C. (2009). The Military Operation EOFOR RD Congo 2006. In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 255-264. http://www.efsps.eu/docs/ESDP_10-web.pdf.
  • Mattelaer, A. (2008). The Strategic Planning of EU Military Operations -The Case of EUFOR TCHAD / RCA, IES Working Paper, 5, 1-36. http://aei.pitt.edu/60824/1/2008.5.pdf
  • Michael, C. (2021). The Ambiguity of EU Policy Papers: Republic Of Mali Tracing the Change Through Constructivism. EJSSS, 01(02), 61-77. https://doi.org/10.47362/ejsss.2021.2111
  • Müller, L. M. (2021). Pre-Eminent or Subordinate? An Organizational Environment Perspective on the EU’s Security Cooperation with ASEAN and ECOWAS. European Review of International Studies, 8(3), 413–442. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27142395
  • Oproiu, M. (2012). The European Union as a Conflict Manager: Perspectives after the Lisbon Treaty, Studia Diplomatica, 65 (4), 39-54. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/26531553
  • Peters, I. (2011). Strategic Culture and Multilateralism: The Interplay of the EU and the UN in Conflict and Crisis Management. Contemporary Security Policy, 32(3), 644-666. DOI: 10.1080/13523260.2011.623065
  • Pentland, C. C. (2005). The European Union and Civil Conflict in Africa. International Journal, 60(4), 919-936. https://doi.org/10.2307/40204091
  • Reichard, M. (2004). Conference Report - The (not so) Common European Foreign and Security Policy – Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law – Heidelberg, Germany, 19-20 September 2003. German Law Journal, 5(2), 177-183. doi:10.1017/S2071832200012372
  • Rein, C. (2017). The Prospects for the Future of European Union–African Union Relations in Uncertain Times. European Review, 25(4), 550-559. doi:10.1017/S1062798717000217
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African Missions of the European Union in the Context of Security Strategy

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2, 31 - 56, 30.12.2023

Öz

In the context of Security Strategy, EU aspires to improve relations with African countries in a variety of sectors, including trade, collaboration, peace and security. Because of the EU’s growing institutional and military capacity and readiness to intervene in African crisis zones, there has been an increase in security cooperation between the EU and Africa in recent years. This trend is reflected in the European Security Strategy, which mandates that the EU create a strategic culture that supports early, prompt, and robust engagement when necessary. The primary responsibility for prevention, management, and resolution of conflicts on the African continent lies with Africans themselves. It is undeniable that several factors affect the successes and failures of the missions in Africa. Nature and complexity of the conflicts, geographical, social, and strategic dimensions, availability of resources and the member states’ political will and different interests, coordination, and cooperation at the organizational level influence how the EU manages crises, prevents, and resolves conflicts.

Kaynakça

  • Ahtisaari, M. (2017). The Role of the European Union in Conflict Resolution. Irish Studies in International Affairs, Royal Irish Academy, 28, 195-199. http://www.jstor.com/stable/10.3318/isia.2017.28.13
  • Appiah-Mensah, S. (2005). AU’s Critical Assignment in Darfur: Challenges and Constraints. African Security Review, 14 (2), 7-21. https://www.academia.edu/51785162/Aus_Critical_Assignment_in_Darfur
  • Arconada-Ledesma, P. (2021). European Union’s Mission in Somalia. Ten Years of Successes and Failures (2008-2018). Annals of University of Oradea, Series: International Relations & European Studies, 13, 23-36. Doi: https://doi.org/10.58603/XTMC4724 https://analerise.igri.ro/article_en.php?an=2021&titlu=european-union-s-mission-in-somalia-ten-years-of-successes-and-failures-2008-2018-
  • Atlamazoglou, C.& Moyer, J. C. (2022). A Strategic Compass: The European Union expands its toolbox. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/strategic-compass-european-union-expands-its-toolbox
  • Baudais, V., Maiga, S. (2022). The European Union Training Mission in Mali: An Assessment. SIPRI Background Paper, 1-32. https://doi.org/10.55163/krbn9926
  • Baudais, V., Hickendorff, A., Lijn, J. v. d., Acko, I., Maiga, S., Ali, H. M. (2022). EU Military Training Missions: A Synthesis Report. SIPRI, https://doi.org/10.55163/lfle9658
  • Besenyo, J. (2009). EU Support to the African Union Mission in Darfur – AMIS (July 26, 2009). Tradecraft Review, Periodical of the Scientific Board of Military Security Office, Special Issue, 30-45, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3610699 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3610699
  • Boin, A., Ekengren, M., & Rhinard, M. (2013). Managing future crises: Challenges and prospects for the European Union. In The European Union as Crisis Manager: Patterns and Prospects, 144-169. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139565400.006
  • Brânda, O. (2022). The Strategic Compass – A Strategic Boost of Confidence In European Security. RMT, 4, 236-247. https://doi.org/10.55535/rmt.2022.4.13
  • Braud, P. A. (2006). Implementing ESDP Operations in Africa, in Anne Deighton and Victor Mauer (eds.), Securing Europe? Implementing the European Security Strategy, Zurich: ETH Zurich, 69-78.
  • Brosig, M. (2011). The Emerging Peace and Security Regime in Africa: The Role of the EU. European Foreign Affairs Review, 16, 107-122, https://doi.org/10.54648/eerr2011006
  • Brummer, K. (2013). The Reluctant Peacekeeper: Governmental Politics and Germany’s Participation in EUFOR RD Congo, Foreign Policy Analysis, 9(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-8594.2011.00174.x, https://www.jstor.org/stable/24910745
  • Cameron, F. (2007). An Introduction to European Foreign Policy. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Carbone, M. (2021). There Is Life Beyond the European Union: Revisiting the Organization of African, Caribbean and Pacific States. Third World Quarterly, 10(42), 2451-2468. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2021.1951608
  • Carmilla, G. (2021). How Should the EU Rethink the Relations with Africa? Policy Paper, Vocal Europe. https://www.vocaleurope.eu/policy-paper-how-should-the-eu-rethink-the-relations-with-africa/
  • Claudia Fahron-Hussey (2019). Military Crisis Management Operations by NATO and the EU, Germany: Springer.
  • Charbonneau, B. (2009). What Is So Special about the European Union? EU-UN Cooperation in Crisis Management in Africa, International Peacekeeping,16(4), 546-561. DOI: 10.1080/13533310903249110, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13533310903249110
  • Council of the European Union, From a strategy for Africa to an EU-Africa strategic partnership, Brussels, 19 December 2005, 15961/05 (Presse 367), https://docplayer.net/197549386-The-eu-and-africa-towards-a-strategic-partnership.html
  • Derblom, M., Hagström, F. E., Schmidt, J. (2008). UN-EU-AU Coordination in Peace Operations in Africa. Swedish Defense Research Agency, Report No. 2602, Stockholm, November 2008. https://community.apan.org/cfs-file/__key/docpreview-s/00-00-00-98-87/UN-EU-AU-Coordination-in-Peace-Ops-in-Africa-foir2602.pdf
  • European Union External Action Service (EEAS) https://www.eeas.europa.eu/_en
  • European External Action Service (EEAS), 2020. Security and Defense, http://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/area/security-and-defence_en
  • European Parliament, Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, Pirozzi, N., Venturi, B., Sartori, The joint Africa-EU strategy – , European Parliament, 2017, https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2861/46520
  • Giegerich, B. (2008). European Military Crisis Management: Connecting Ambition and Reality, London: International Institute for Security Studies.
  • Franke, B. (2009) The European Union supporting actions to the African Union missions in Sudan (AMIS) and Somalia (AMISOM). In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 255-264. http://www.efsps.eu/docs/ESDP_10-web.pdf
  • Handolin, L. & Elomaa,T. (2007). The Finnish Forward Surgical Team Experience During EUFOR Operation RD Congo in 2006. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg, 33, 245–250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-007-6209-3
  • Helly, D. (2009). The EU Military Operation in the Republic of Chad and in the Central African Republic (Operation EUFOR Tchad/ RCA9. In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 339-352. http://www.efsps.eu/docs/ESDP_10-web.pdf
  • Helly, D. (2009). Operation ARTEMIS (RD Congo). In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 181-186. http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep36293.10
  • Helly, D. (2009). EU NAVFOR Somalia, The Military Operation Atalanta. In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 391-402. http://www.efsps.eu/docs/ESDP_10-web.pdf
  • Hickendorff, A. and Acko, I. (2021). The European Union Training Mission in The Central African Republic: An Assessment, SIPRI, 1-24. https://www.sipri.org/publications/2021/sipri-background-papers/european-union-training-mission-central-african-republic-assessment
  • Homan, K. (2007). Operation Artemis in the Democratic Republic of Congo. European Commission (ed.), Faster and more united? The debate about Europe’s crisis response capacity, Luxembourg: OPOCE, 151-55. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/20070531_cscp_chapter_homan.pdf
  • Howorth, J. (2007). Security and Defense Policy in the European Union, Basingstoke: Palgrave. http://library.lol/main/CA65F637CFD8D7678FE6C8E1978126A2
  • IMPETUS, Magazine of the EU Military Staff, EEAS, Brussels - Spring/Summer 2019, Issue 27, https://www.eeas.europa.eu/sites/default/files/impetus_27_web.pdf)
  • Institute for Economics and Peace, Global Peace Index, 2017. https://reliefweb.int/sites/ reliefweb.int/files/resources/GPI-2017-Report-1.pdf
  • Juncos, A. E. & Blockmans, S. (2018). The EU’s role in conflict prevention and peacebuilding: fourkey challenges, Global Affairs, 4 (2-3), 131-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/23340460.2018.1502619
  • Koziejz, S. (2018). Polityka Bezpieczeństwa i Obrony Unii Europejskiej: od Strategii Globalnej do PESCO. Pulaski Policy Paper, 1. https://pulaski.pl/polityka-bezpieczenstwa-obrony-unii-europejskiej-strategii-globalnej-pesco/
  • Kuźniar, R. (2018). Wspólna polityka bezpieczeństwa i obrony Unii Europejskiej. In: J. Barcz et al. (eds.).Polska w Unii Europejskiej. Nowe wyzwania (pp. 55–67). Warszawa: Komisja Europejska-Przedstawicielstwo w Polsce.
  • Magalhães, N. P. (2020). The European Union, Conflict Management, and the Normative Illusion. Nação e Defesa -Instituto da Defesa Nacional, 155, 9-36. https://www.idn.gov.pt/pt/publicacoes/nacao/Documents/NeD155/NeDef155_1_NunoPereiraMagalhaes.pdf
  • Major, C. (2009). The Military Operation EOFOR RD Congo 2006. In D. Helly, G. Grevi, & D. Keohane (Eds.), European Security and Defense Policy: the first ten years (1999-2009). European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), 255-264. http://www.efsps.eu/docs/ESDP_10-web.pdf.
  • Mattelaer, A. (2008). The Strategic Planning of EU Military Operations -The Case of EUFOR TCHAD / RCA, IES Working Paper, 5, 1-36. http://aei.pitt.edu/60824/1/2008.5.pdf
  • Michael, C. (2021). The Ambiguity of EU Policy Papers: Republic Of Mali Tracing the Change Through Constructivism. EJSSS, 01(02), 61-77. https://doi.org/10.47362/ejsss.2021.2111
  • Müller, L. M. (2021). Pre-Eminent or Subordinate? An Organizational Environment Perspective on the EU’s Security Cooperation with ASEAN and ECOWAS. European Review of International Studies, 8(3), 413–442. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27142395
  • Oproiu, M. (2012). The European Union as a Conflict Manager: Perspectives after the Lisbon Treaty, Studia Diplomatica, 65 (4), 39-54. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/26531553
  • Peters, I. (2011). Strategic Culture and Multilateralism: The Interplay of the EU and the UN in Conflict and Crisis Management. Contemporary Security Policy, 32(3), 644-666. DOI: 10.1080/13523260.2011.623065
  • Pentland, C. C. (2005). The European Union and Civil Conflict in Africa. International Journal, 60(4), 919-936. https://doi.org/10.2307/40204091
  • Reichard, M. (2004). Conference Report - The (not so) Common European Foreign and Security Policy – Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law – Heidelberg, Germany, 19-20 September 2003. German Law Journal, 5(2), 177-183. doi:10.1017/S2071832200012372
  • Rein, C. (2017). The Prospects for the Future of European Union–African Union Relations in Uncertain Times. European Review, 25(4), 550-559. doi:10.1017/S1062798717000217
  • Samadashvili, S. (2016). Good or Bad Neighbors: The Main European Security Challenge. https://www.martenscentre.eu/sites/default/files/publication-files/europe-security-challenge.pdf.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Sevil ŞAHİN 0000-0003-2982-7450

Mustafa Ozan ŞAHİN 0000-0001-6060-5034

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 4 Ağustos 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA ŞAHİN, S., & ŞAHİN, M. O. (2023). African Missions of the European Union in the Context of Security Strategy. JOEEP: Journal of Emerging Economies and Policy, 8(2), 31-56.

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