Araştırma Makalesi
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Türkiye’deki Belediyelerin Çevresel Gelir ve Harcamalari: Kulüp Yakinsama Perspektifi

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2, 136 - 144, 30.12.2023

Öz

Bir ülkedeki çevresel harcamalar ve gelirler, uzun vadeli kalkınma ve refahın temel ölçütleridir. Çevresel gelir ve harcamaların iller arasındaki dağılımı, uygulanan stratejilerin başarısını değerlendirmede kritik öneme sahiptir. Bu çalışma, bu amaçla, belediyelerin çevresel harcamaları ile çevresel gelirlerinde yakınsamanın varlığını araştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu sebeple, Türkiye'nin 81 ilinde 2001-2016 yılları arası dönemi değerlendirmek için, Phillips ve Sul (2007) tarafından önerilen kulüp yakınsama analizi kullanılmıştır. Bulgulara göre, 81 il tek bir durağan duruma yakınsamamaktadır. Buna rağmen bulgular, belediyenin çevre harcamalarının, belediyenin çevre gelirlerinden daha homojen dağıldığını ortaya koymaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Alataş, S., & Erkam S. (2021). An Empirical Investigation on Regional Disparities in Public Expenditures: Province Level Evidence from Turkey. Social Indicators Research 158(1):217–40. doi: 10.1007/s11205-021-02691-x.
  • Alcamo, J. (2019). Water Quality and Its Interlinkages with the Sustainable Development Goals. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36:126–40. doi: 10.1016/J.COSUST.2018.11.005.
  • Ali, S. H., & Puppim De Oliveira, J. (2018). Pollution and Economic Development: An Empirical Research Review. Environ. Res. Lett 13:123003. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aaeea7.
  • Almetwally, A. A., Bin-Jumah, M., & Allam, A. A. (2020). Ambient Air Pollution and Its Influence on Human Health and Welfare: An Overview. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27:24815–30. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-09042-2.
  • Barnes, S. J. (2019). Understanding Plastics Pollution: The Role of Economic Development and Technological Research. Environmental Pollution 249:812–21. doi: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2019.03.108.
  • Benito, B., Martínez-Córdoba, P. J., Raimo, N., & Vitolla, F. (2023). Efficiency in Environmental Spending for Sustainable Development in Spanish Cities. Local Environment. doi: 10.1080/13549839.2023.2181775.
  • Bernard, A. B., & Durlauf, S. N. (1996). Interpreting tests of the convergence hypothesis. Journal of econometrics, 71(1-2), 161-173.
  • Broietti, C., Flach, L., Rover, S., & Salvador de Souza, J. A. (2018). Public Expenditure and the Environmental Management of Brazilian Municipalities: A Panel Data Model. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology. doi: 10.1080/13504509.2018.1485599.
  • Chen, S., Song, Y., Ding, Y., Qian, X., & Zhang, M. (2019). Research on the Strategic Interaction and Convergence of China’s Environmental Public Expenditure from the Perspective of Inequality. Resources, Conservation & Recycling 145. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.02.017.
  • Dinda, S. (2004). Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey. Ecological Economics 49(4):431–55. doi: 10.1016/J.ECOLECON.2004.02.011.
  • Du, K. (2017). Econometric Convergence Test and Club Clustering Using Stata. The Stata Journal 17(4):882–900.
  • Ercolano, S., & Romano, O. (2018). Spending for the Environment: General Government Expenditure Trends in Europe. Social Indicators Research 138:1145–69. doi: 10.1007/s11205-017-1695-0.
  • Giddings, B., Hopwood, B., & O'brien, G. (2002). Environment, Economy and Society: Fitting Them Together into Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development 10(4):187–96. doi: 10.1002/SD.199.
  • Gupta, S., Miranda, K., & Parry, I. (1995). Public Expenditure Policy and the Environment: A Review and Synthesis. World Development 23(3):515–28. doi: 10.1016/0305-750X(94)00139-P.
  • Islam, N. (2003). What Have We Learnt from the Convergence Debate? Journal of Economic Surveys 17(3):309–62. doi: 10.1111/1467-6419.00197.
  • Khan, S. A. R., Sharif, A., Golpîra, H., & Kumar, A. (2019). A Green Ideology in Asian Emerging Economies: From Environmental Policy and Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development 27(6):1063–75. doi: 10.1002/SD.1958.
  • Lucas Jr, R. E. (1988). On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of monetary economics, 22(1), 3-42.
  • Nazeer, M., Tabassum, U., & Alam, S. (2016). Environmental Pollution and Sustainable Development in Developing Countries. The Pakistan Development Review 55(4):589–604.
  • Ozcan, B., Tzeremes, P. G., & Tzeremes, N. G. (2020). Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in OECD Countries. Economic Modelling 84:203–13. doi: 10.1016/J.ECONMOD.2019.04.010.
  • Phillips, P. C. B., & Sul, D. (2007). Transition Modeling and Econometric Convergence Tests. Econometrica 75(6):1771–1855. doi: 10.1111/J.1468-0262.2007.00811.X.
  • Presidency of the Republic of Türkiye Presidency of Strategy and Budget. (2019). Decision of the Grand National Assembly of Türkiye: Decision on the Approval of the Eleventh Development Plan (2019-2023).
  • Raimi, M. O., Iyingiala, A. A., Sawyerr, O. H., Saliu, A. O., Ebuete, A. W., Emberru, R. E., ... & Osungbemiro, W. B. (2022). Leaving No One Behind: Impact of Soil Pollution on Biodiversity in the Global South: A Global Call for Action. 205–37. doi: 10.1007/978-981-19-3326-4_8.
  • Romagnoli, L., & Mastronardi, L. (2020). Can Local Policies Reduce the Gap between ‘centers’ and ‘Inner Areas’? The Case of Italian Municipalities’ Expenditure. Economies 8(2). doi: 10.3390/ECONOMIES8020033.
  • Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing returns and long-run growth. Journal of political economy, 94(5), 1002-1037.
  • Schnurbus, J., Haupt, H., & Meier, V. (2017). Economic Transition and Growth: A Replication. Journal of Applied Econometrics 32(5):1039–42. doi: 10.1002/JAE.2544.
  • Sofia, D., Gioiella, F., Lotrecchiano, N., & Giuliano, A. (2020). Mitigation Strategies for Reducing Air Pollution. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27(16):19226–35. doi: 10.1007/S11356-020-08647-X/FIGURES/2.
  • Solow, R. M. (1956). A contribution to the theory of economic growth. The quarterly journal of economics, 70(1), 65-94.
  • Soukopova, J., & Bakos, E. (2010). Assessing The Efficiency Of Municipal Expenditures Regarding Protection. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 131:107–19. doi: 10.2495/EEIA100101.
  • Soukopová, J., & Struk. M. (2011). Methodology for the Efficiency Evaluation of the Municipal Environmental Protection Expenditure. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 359 AICT:327–40. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-22285-6_36/COVER.
  • Sun, J., Wang, J., Wang, T., & Zhang, T. (2019). Urbanization, Economic Growth, and Environmental Pollution Partial Differential Analysis Based on the Spatial Durbin Model. Management of Environmental Quality 30(2):483–94. doi: 10.1108/MEQ-05-2018-0101.
  • United Nations General Assembly. (2015). Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development | Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved April 14, 2023 (https://sdgs.un.org/2030agenda).
  • Wang, M., Janssen, A. B., Bazin, J., Strokal, M., Ma, L., & Kroeze, C. (2022). Accounting for Interactions between Sustainable Development Goals Is Essential for Water Pollution Control in China. Nature Communications 13. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-28351-3.
  • Wang, R., Yang, B., Yao, Y., Bloom, M. S., Feng, Z., Yuan, Y., ... & Dong, G. (2020). Residential Greenness, Air Pollution and Psychological Well-Being among Urban Residents in Guangzhou, China. Science of the Total Environment 711. doi: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2019.134843.
  • Zhu, J., Zhai, Y., Feng, S., Tan, Y., & Wei, W. (2022). Trade-Offs and Synergies among Air-Pollution-Related SDGs as Well as Interactions between Air-Pollution-Related SDGs and Other SDGs. Journal of Cleaner Production 331. doi: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2021.129890.

Environmental Revenue and Expenditure of Turkish Municipalities: A Perspective From Club Convergence

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2, 136 - 144, 30.12.2023

Öz

Environmental expenditures and revenues in a country are key measures of long-term development and welfare. The distribution of environmental revenue and expenditure among provinces is critical in evaluating the success of strategies implemented. This study aims to investigate the existence of convergence in municipal environmental expenditures and environmental revenues for this purpose. To this end we employ a club convergence analysis proposed by Phillips and Sul (2007) for 81 provinces of Türkiye over the period between 2001 and 2016. Based on the findings, 81 provinces do not converge to a single steady-state. Despite this, the findings reveal that municipal environmental expenditures are more homogeneous than municipal environmental revenues.

Kaynakça

  • Alataş, S., & Erkam S. (2021). An Empirical Investigation on Regional Disparities in Public Expenditures: Province Level Evidence from Turkey. Social Indicators Research 158(1):217–40. doi: 10.1007/s11205-021-02691-x.
  • Alcamo, J. (2019). Water Quality and Its Interlinkages with the Sustainable Development Goals. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36:126–40. doi: 10.1016/J.COSUST.2018.11.005.
  • Ali, S. H., & Puppim De Oliveira, J. (2018). Pollution and Economic Development: An Empirical Research Review. Environ. Res. Lett 13:123003. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aaeea7.
  • Almetwally, A. A., Bin-Jumah, M., & Allam, A. A. (2020). Ambient Air Pollution and Its Influence on Human Health and Welfare: An Overview. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27:24815–30. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-09042-2.
  • Barnes, S. J. (2019). Understanding Plastics Pollution: The Role of Economic Development and Technological Research. Environmental Pollution 249:812–21. doi: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2019.03.108.
  • Benito, B., Martínez-Córdoba, P. J., Raimo, N., & Vitolla, F. (2023). Efficiency in Environmental Spending for Sustainable Development in Spanish Cities. Local Environment. doi: 10.1080/13549839.2023.2181775.
  • Bernard, A. B., & Durlauf, S. N. (1996). Interpreting tests of the convergence hypothesis. Journal of econometrics, 71(1-2), 161-173.
  • Broietti, C., Flach, L., Rover, S., & Salvador de Souza, J. A. (2018). Public Expenditure and the Environmental Management of Brazilian Municipalities: A Panel Data Model. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology. doi: 10.1080/13504509.2018.1485599.
  • Chen, S., Song, Y., Ding, Y., Qian, X., & Zhang, M. (2019). Research on the Strategic Interaction and Convergence of China’s Environmental Public Expenditure from the Perspective of Inequality. Resources, Conservation & Recycling 145. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.02.017.
  • Dinda, S. (2004). Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey. Ecological Economics 49(4):431–55. doi: 10.1016/J.ECOLECON.2004.02.011.
  • Du, K. (2017). Econometric Convergence Test and Club Clustering Using Stata. The Stata Journal 17(4):882–900.
  • Ercolano, S., & Romano, O. (2018). Spending for the Environment: General Government Expenditure Trends in Europe. Social Indicators Research 138:1145–69. doi: 10.1007/s11205-017-1695-0.
  • Giddings, B., Hopwood, B., & O'brien, G. (2002). Environment, Economy and Society: Fitting Them Together into Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development 10(4):187–96. doi: 10.1002/SD.199.
  • Gupta, S., Miranda, K., & Parry, I. (1995). Public Expenditure Policy and the Environment: A Review and Synthesis. World Development 23(3):515–28. doi: 10.1016/0305-750X(94)00139-P.
  • Islam, N. (2003). What Have We Learnt from the Convergence Debate? Journal of Economic Surveys 17(3):309–62. doi: 10.1111/1467-6419.00197.
  • Khan, S. A. R., Sharif, A., Golpîra, H., & Kumar, A. (2019). A Green Ideology in Asian Emerging Economies: From Environmental Policy and Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development 27(6):1063–75. doi: 10.1002/SD.1958.
  • Lucas Jr, R. E. (1988). On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of monetary economics, 22(1), 3-42.
  • Nazeer, M., Tabassum, U., & Alam, S. (2016). Environmental Pollution and Sustainable Development in Developing Countries. The Pakistan Development Review 55(4):589–604.
  • Ozcan, B., Tzeremes, P. G., & Tzeremes, N. G. (2020). Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in OECD Countries. Economic Modelling 84:203–13. doi: 10.1016/J.ECONMOD.2019.04.010.
  • Phillips, P. C. B., & Sul, D. (2007). Transition Modeling and Econometric Convergence Tests. Econometrica 75(6):1771–1855. doi: 10.1111/J.1468-0262.2007.00811.X.
  • Presidency of the Republic of Türkiye Presidency of Strategy and Budget. (2019). Decision of the Grand National Assembly of Türkiye: Decision on the Approval of the Eleventh Development Plan (2019-2023).
  • Raimi, M. O., Iyingiala, A. A., Sawyerr, O. H., Saliu, A. O., Ebuete, A. W., Emberru, R. E., ... & Osungbemiro, W. B. (2022). Leaving No One Behind: Impact of Soil Pollution on Biodiversity in the Global South: A Global Call for Action. 205–37. doi: 10.1007/978-981-19-3326-4_8.
  • Romagnoli, L., & Mastronardi, L. (2020). Can Local Policies Reduce the Gap between ‘centers’ and ‘Inner Areas’? The Case of Italian Municipalities’ Expenditure. Economies 8(2). doi: 10.3390/ECONOMIES8020033.
  • Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing returns and long-run growth. Journal of political economy, 94(5), 1002-1037.
  • Schnurbus, J., Haupt, H., & Meier, V. (2017). Economic Transition and Growth: A Replication. Journal of Applied Econometrics 32(5):1039–42. doi: 10.1002/JAE.2544.
  • Sofia, D., Gioiella, F., Lotrecchiano, N., & Giuliano, A. (2020). Mitigation Strategies for Reducing Air Pollution. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27(16):19226–35. doi: 10.1007/S11356-020-08647-X/FIGURES/2.
  • Solow, R. M. (1956). A contribution to the theory of economic growth. The quarterly journal of economics, 70(1), 65-94.
  • Soukopova, J., & Bakos, E. (2010). Assessing The Efficiency Of Municipal Expenditures Regarding Protection. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 131:107–19. doi: 10.2495/EEIA100101.
  • Soukopová, J., & Struk. M. (2011). Methodology for the Efficiency Evaluation of the Municipal Environmental Protection Expenditure. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 359 AICT:327–40. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-22285-6_36/COVER.
  • Sun, J., Wang, J., Wang, T., & Zhang, T. (2019). Urbanization, Economic Growth, and Environmental Pollution Partial Differential Analysis Based on the Spatial Durbin Model. Management of Environmental Quality 30(2):483–94. doi: 10.1108/MEQ-05-2018-0101.
  • United Nations General Assembly. (2015). Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development | Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved April 14, 2023 (https://sdgs.un.org/2030agenda).
  • Wang, M., Janssen, A. B., Bazin, J., Strokal, M., Ma, L., & Kroeze, C. (2022). Accounting for Interactions between Sustainable Development Goals Is Essential for Water Pollution Control in China. Nature Communications 13. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-28351-3.
  • Wang, R., Yang, B., Yao, Y., Bloom, M. S., Feng, Z., Yuan, Y., ... & Dong, G. (2020). Residential Greenness, Air Pollution and Psychological Well-Being among Urban Residents in Guangzhou, China. Science of the Total Environment 711. doi: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2019.134843.
  • Zhu, J., Zhai, Y., Feng, S., Tan, Y., & Wei, W. (2022). Trade-Offs and Synergies among Air-Pollution-Related SDGs as Well as Interactions between Air-Pollution-Related SDGs and Other SDGs. Journal of Cleaner Production 331. doi: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2021.129890.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma, Yeşil Ekonomi
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Burcu HİÇYILMAZ 0000-0003-3501-2012

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 16 Ekim 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA HİÇYILMAZ, B. (2023). Environmental Revenue and Expenditure of Turkish Municipalities: A Perspective From Club Convergence. JOEEP: Journal of Emerging Economies and Policy, 8(2), 136-144.

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