Araştırma Makalesi
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Modern Yoksulluğun Kökenleri: Tarihsel Tekrarın İzinde Yoksulluk ve Çalışma İlişkisi

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2, 317 - 326, 30.12.2023

Öz

Bu makale, yoksulluğun tarihsel izlenimlerini ve toplumsal yankılarını, özellikle değişen çalışma etiği bağlamında analiz ederek modern yoksulluğun kökenlerini ve yansımalarını ortaya koymaktadır. 19. yüzyıldan günümüze, yoksulluğun ve çalışma etiğinin evrimi incelendiğinde, radikal değişimler yaşanmış gibi gözükse de yoksulların kaderine terk edilişi konusunda temel bir değişiklik olmadığı savunulmaktadır. Çalışma, tarihin tekrarından ibaret olan modern yoksulluğun, değişen zamanlarda ve çalışma etiği anlayışlarındaki dönüşümlere rağmen nasıl sürekli bir yapıya büründüğünü incelemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Alcock, P. (1999). Back to the Future: Victorian Values for the 21th Century, In C. Murray (ed.), Charles Murray and the Underclass: The Developing Debate (pp. 139–149), London: IEA.
  • Ashcraft, R. (1995). Lockean Ideas, Poverty and the Development of Liberal Political Theory, In J. Brewer & S. Staves (eds.), Early Modern Conceptions of Poverty (ss. 43–61), New York: Routledge.
  • Auletta, K. (1982). The Underclass. New York: Random House.
  • Bauman, Z. (2005). Work, Consumerism and the New Poor. New York: Open University Press.
  • Beaud, M. (2016). Kapitalizmin Tarihi: 1500-2010 (çev. F. Başkaya). İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Beaudoin, S. M. (2007). Poverty in World History. London: Routledge.
  • Bentham, J. (1843). The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 1 (Principles of Morals and Legislation, Fragment on Government, Civil Code, Penal Law) (ed. J. Bowring). https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/bentham-the-works-of-jeremy-bentham-vol-1
  • Bentham, J. (1995). The Panopticon Writings (ed. M. Bozovic). London: Verso.
  • Beveridge, S. W. (1942). Social Insurance and Allied Services. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.
  • Blaug, M. (1963). "The Myth of the Old Poor Law and the Making of the New", The Journal of Economic History, 23(2), 151–184.
  • Booth, C. (1889). Life and Labour of the People in London, Vol 1: Poverty; East, Central and South London. London: Macmillan and Co., Limited.
  • Buğra, A. (2010). Kapitalizm, Yoksulluk ve Türkiye’de Sosyal Politika. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Burke, E. (1800). Thoughts and Details on Scarcity. London: F. & C. Rivington.
  • Card, D. Lemieux, T. & Riddell, W. C. (2004). "Unions and Wage Inequality", Journal of Labor Research, 25(4), 519–559.
  • Coats, A. W. (1960). "Economic thought and Poor Law Policy in the Eighteenth Century", The Economic History Review, 13(1), 39–51.
  • de Haan, A. (1998). "Social Excluison An Alternative Concept for the Study of Deprivation?", IDS Bulletin, 29(1), 10–19.
  • Engels, F. (1845). Condition of the Working Class in England, Leipzig. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/condition-working-class-england.pdf
  • Foucault, M. (2019). Hapishanenin Doğuşu (çev. M. A. Kılıçbay). Ankara: İmge.
  • Friedman, M. (2002). Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Fülberth, G. (2008). Kapitalizmin Kısa Tarihi (çev. S. Usta). İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Geremek, B. (1994). Poverty A History (trans. A. Kolakowska). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • Giddens, A. (2008). Ulus Devlet ve Şiddet (çev. C. Atay). İstanbul: Kalkedon Yayınları.
  • Grover, D. C. (2003). "‘New Labour’, Welfare Reform and the Reserve Army of Labour", Capital & Class, 27(1), 17–23.
  • Guenzi, A. (2006). European Expansion in the Seventeenth Century, In A. Di Vittorio (ed.), An Economic History of Europe: From Expansion to Development (pp. 54–91), New York: Routledge.
  • Himmelfarb, G. (1984). The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age. London: Faber & Faber.
  • Hobsbawn, E. (2020a). Devrim Çağı: 1789-1848 (çev. B. S. Şener). Ankara: Dost Kitabevi.
  • Hobsbawn, E. (2020b). İmparatorluk Çağı 1875-1914 (çev. V. Aslan). Ankara: Dost Kitabevi.
  • Keyder, Ç. (2004). Ulusal Kalkınmacılığın İflası. İstanbul: Metis.
  • Kidd, A. (1999). State, Society and The Poor in Nineteenth-Century England. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Lal, D. (2002). The Poverty of “Development Economics”. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.
  • Malthus, T. R. (1998). An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers. London: J. Johson.
  • Marshall, J. D. (1985). The Old Poor Law: 1795-1834. London: Macmillan.
  • Marx, K. (2011). Kapital 1. Cilt (çev. M. Selik & N. Satlıgan). İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Morris, L. (2002). Dangerous Class: The Underclass and Social Citizenship. New York: Routledge.
  • Murray, C. (1999). The Underclass Revisited. Washington: The AEI Press.
  • Polanyi, K. (2010). Büyük Dönüşüm: Çağımızın Siyasal ve Ekonomik Kökenleri (çev. A. Buğra). İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Ricardo, D. (2008). Siyasal İktisadın ve Vergilendirmenin İlkeleri (çev. B. Zeren). İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Rowntree, S. B. (1901). Poverty: A Study of Town Life. London: Macmillan and Co., Limited.
  • Şenel, A. (2006). Kemirgenlerden Sürüngenlere İnsanlık Tarihi. Ankara: İmge.
  • Senior, N. W. (1834). Poor Law Commissioners’ Report of 1834. https://oll.libertyfund.org/title/chadwick-poor-law-commissioners-report-of-1834.
  • Şenses, F. (2006). Küreselleşmenin Öteki Yüzü Yoksulluk. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Şenses, F. (2016). Neoliberal Küreselleşme Kalkınma İçin Bir Fırsat mı, Engel mi?, İçinde F. Şenses (ed.), Neoliberal Küreselleşme ve Kalkınma (ss. 235–280), İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Silver, H. (1994). "Social Exclusion and Social Solidarity: Three Paradigms", International Labour Review, 133, 531–578.
  • Smith, A. (2014). Milletlerin Zenginliği (çev. H. Derin). İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Standing, G. (2017). Basic Income: A Guide for the Open-Minded. London: Yale University Press.
  • Streeten, P. (1995). The ILO and Poverty: Reactions and Debates, In G. Rodgers (ed.), New Approaches to Poverty Analysis and Policy I: The Poverty Agenda and the ILO (pp. 91–100), Geneva: ILO.
  • Titmuss, R. (1975). Social Policy: An Introduction. New York: Panheon Books.
  • Townsend, J. (1817). A Dissertation on the Poor Laws. London: Ridgways.
  • Townsend, P. (2004). Poverty, Social Exclusion and Social Polarisation: The Need to Construct an International Welfare State, In P. Townsend & D. Gordon (eds.), World Poverty: New Policies to Defeat an Old Enemy (pp. 3–24), Bristol: The Policy Press.
  • Visser, J. (2013). Wage Bargaining Institutions from Crisis to Crisis. European Commission, Economic Papers, No. 488.
  • Webb, S. & Webb, B. (1927). English Poor Law History. London: Frank Cass & Co Ltd.

Origins of Modern Poverty: The Relationship Between Poverty and Work in the Light of Historical Recurrence

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2, 317 - 326, 30.12.2023

Öz

This study reveals the origins and reflections of modern poverty by analyzing the historical impressions and societal reverberations, especially in the context of the changing work ethic. Examining the evolution of poverty and the work ethic from the 19th century to the present, it is argued that despite seemingly radical changes, there has been no fundamental shift in abandoning the poor to their fate. The study investigates how modern poverty, which is characterized as a repetition of history, assumes a continuous structure despite transformations in perceptions of the work ethic over time.

Kaynakça

  • Alcock, P. (1999). Back to the Future: Victorian Values for the 21th Century, In C. Murray (ed.), Charles Murray and the Underclass: The Developing Debate (pp. 139–149), London: IEA.
  • Ashcraft, R. (1995). Lockean Ideas, Poverty and the Development of Liberal Political Theory, In J. Brewer & S. Staves (eds.), Early Modern Conceptions of Poverty (ss. 43–61), New York: Routledge.
  • Auletta, K. (1982). The Underclass. New York: Random House.
  • Bauman, Z. (2005). Work, Consumerism and the New Poor. New York: Open University Press.
  • Beaud, M. (2016). Kapitalizmin Tarihi: 1500-2010 (çev. F. Başkaya). İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Beaudoin, S. M. (2007). Poverty in World History. London: Routledge.
  • Bentham, J. (1843). The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 1 (Principles of Morals and Legislation, Fragment on Government, Civil Code, Penal Law) (ed. J. Bowring). https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/bentham-the-works-of-jeremy-bentham-vol-1
  • Bentham, J. (1995). The Panopticon Writings (ed. M. Bozovic). London: Verso.
  • Beveridge, S. W. (1942). Social Insurance and Allied Services. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.
  • Blaug, M. (1963). "The Myth of the Old Poor Law and the Making of the New", The Journal of Economic History, 23(2), 151–184.
  • Booth, C. (1889). Life and Labour of the People in London, Vol 1: Poverty; East, Central and South London. London: Macmillan and Co., Limited.
  • Buğra, A. (2010). Kapitalizm, Yoksulluk ve Türkiye’de Sosyal Politika. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Burke, E. (1800). Thoughts and Details on Scarcity. London: F. & C. Rivington.
  • Card, D. Lemieux, T. & Riddell, W. C. (2004). "Unions and Wage Inequality", Journal of Labor Research, 25(4), 519–559.
  • Coats, A. W. (1960). "Economic thought and Poor Law Policy in the Eighteenth Century", The Economic History Review, 13(1), 39–51.
  • de Haan, A. (1998). "Social Excluison An Alternative Concept for the Study of Deprivation?", IDS Bulletin, 29(1), 10–19.
  • Engels, F. (1845). Condition of the Working Class in England, Leipzig. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/condition-working-class-england.pdf
  • Foucault, M. (2019). Hapishanenin Doğuşu (çev. M. A. Kılıçbay). Ankara: İmge.
  • Friedman, M. (2002). Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Fülberth, G. (2008). Kapitalizmin Kısa Tarihi (çev. S. Usta). İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Geremek, B. (1994). Poverty A History (trans. A. Kolakowska). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • Giddens, A. (2008). Ulus Devlet ve Şiddet (çev. C. Atay). İstanbul: Kalkedon Yayınları.
  • Grover, D. C. (2003). "‘New Labour’, Welfare Reform and the Reserve Army of Labour", Capital & Class, 27(1), 17–23.
  • Guenzi, A. (2006). European Expansion in the Seventeenth Century, In A. Di Vittorio (ed.), An Economic History of Europe: From Expansion to Development (pp. 54–91), New York: Routledge.
  • Himmelfarb, G. (1984). The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age. London: Faber & Faber.
  • Hobsbawn, E. (2020a). Devrim Çağı: 1789-1848 (çev. B. S. Şener). Ankara: Dost Kitabevi.
  • Hobsbawn, E. (2020b). İmparatorluk Çağı 1875-1914 (çev. V. Aslan). Ankara: Dost Kitabevi.
  • Keyder, Ç. (2004). Ulusal Kalkınmacılığın İflası. İstanbul: Metis.
  • Kidd, A. (1999). State, Society and The Poor in Nineteenth-Century England. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Lal, D. (2002). The Poverty of “Development Economics”. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.
  • Malthus, T. R. (1998). An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers. London: J. Johson.
  • Marshall, J. D. (1985). The Old Poor Law: 1795-1834. London: Macmillan.
  • Marx, K. (2011). Kapital 1. Cilt (çev. M. Selik & N. Satlıgan). İstanbul: Yordam Kitap.
  • Morris, L. (2002). Dangerous Class: The Underclass and Social Citizenship. New York: Routledge.
  • Murray, C. (1999). The Underclass Revisited. Washington: The AEI Press.
  • Polanyi, K. (2010). Büyük Dönüşüm: Çağımızın Siyasal ve Ekonomik Kökenleri (çev. A. Buğra). İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Ricardo, D. (2008). Siyasal İktisadın ve Vergilendirmenin İlkeleri (çev. B. Zeren). İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Rowntree, S. B. (1901). Poverty: A Study of Town Life. London: Macmillan and Co., Limited.
  • Şenel, A. (2006). Kemirgenlerden Sürüngenlere İnsanlık Tarihi. Ankara: İmge.
  • Senior, N. W. (1834). Poor Law Commissioners’ Report of 1834. https://oll.libertyfund.org/title/chadwick-poor-law-commissioners-report-of-1834.
  • Şenses, F. (2006). Küreselleşmenin Öteki Yüzü Yoksulluk. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Şenses, F. (2016). Neoliberal Küreselleşme Kalkınma İçin Bir Fırsat mı, Engel mi?, İçinde F. Şenses (ed.), Neoliberal Küreselleşme ve Kalkınma (ss. 235–280), İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Silver, H. (1994). "Social Exclusion and Social Solidarity: Three Paradigms", International Labour Review, 133, 531–578.
  • Smith, A. (2014). Milletlerin Zenginliği (çev. H. Derin). İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Standing, G. (2017). Basic Income: A Guide for the Open-Minded. London: Yale University Press.
  • Streeten, P. (1995). The ILO and Poverty: Reactions and Debates, In G. Rodgers (ed.), New Approaches to Poverty Analysis and Policy I: The Poverty Agenda and the ILO (pp. 91–100), Geneva: ILO.
  • Titmuss, R. (1975). Social Policy: An Introduction. New York: Panheon Books.
  • Townsend, J. (1817). A Dissertation on the Poor Laws. London: Ridgways.
  • Townsend, P. (2004). Poverty, Social Exclusion and Social Polarisation: The Need to Construct an International Welfare State, In P. Townsend & D. Gordon (eds.), World Poverty: New Policies to Defeat an Old Enemy (pp. 3–24), Bristol: The Policy Press.
  • Visser, J. (2013). Wage Bargaining Institutions from Crisis to Crisis. European Commission, Economic Papers, No. 488.
  • Webb, S. & Webb, B. (1927). English Poor Law History. London: Frank Cass & Co Ltd.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Maliye Kuramı, Maliye Çalışmaları (Diğer)
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Ali Gökhan GÖLÇEK 0000-0002-7948-7688

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 23 Ekim 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA GÖLÇEK, A. G. (2023). Modern Yoksulluğun Kökenleri: Tarihsel Tekrarın İzinde Yoksulluk ve Çalışma İlişkisi. JOEEP: Journal of Emerging Economies and Policy, 8(2), 317-326.

The sole purpose of JOEEP is to be a prestigious journal which contributes to scientific knowledge. In order to keep this purpose, JOEEP, adopts and follows the publication policies of world’s prestigious scientific journals. All original and qualified works which may contribute to the scientific knowledge, are evaluated through a rigorous editorial and peer review process. Hereby, JOEEP is a peer reviewed and scientific journal. It strictly depends on the scientific principles, rules and ethical framework that are required to this qualification.

JOEEP is published as two issues per year June and December and all publication policies and processes are conducted according to the international standards. JOEEP accepts and publishes the research articles in the fields of economics, political economy, fiscal economics, applied economics, business economics, labour economics and econometrics. JOEEP, without depending on any institution or organization, is a non-profit journal that has an International Editorial Board specialist on their fields. All “Publication Process” and “Writing Guidelines” are explained in the related title and it is expected from authors to Show a complete match to the rules. JOEEP is an open Access journal.