Araştırma Makalesi
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Digital Economy: A Systematic Literature Survey

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2, 606 - 618, 30.12.2023

Öz

This study covers a wide range of scholarly material, including articles, papers, theses, dissertations, and other academic sources published between 1999 and 2023, and it offers a thorough review of the academic literature on the topic of the digital economy. The goal of studying the digital economy is to comprehend how new technological advancements affect commerce, business, finance, and society as a whole. The dynamic nature of this subject makes it an invaluable tool for comprehending the evolution and transformation of the digital economy. By looking at a number of subtopics, trends, and focal points, the analysis also aims to highlight the intricate and varied features of the digital economy. E-commerce, digital payments, data privacy and security, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and digital marketing are the main focuses of the this study. Additionally, it might shed some light on the different political, social, and economic facets of the digital economy.

Kaynakça

  • Abdrakhmanova, G. I., Vishnevsky, K. O., Gokhberg, L. M., Demidkina, O. V., Demyanova, A. V., Kovaleva, G. G., ... & Shugal, N. B. (2021). Digital economy.
  • Ali, R., Barrdear, J., Clews, R., & Southgate, J. (2014). The economics of digital currencies. Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Q3.
  • Alleman, J., Rappoport, P. N., & Hamoudia, M. (2020). Applied Economics in the Digital Era. Springer.
  • Amuso, V., Poletti, G., & Montibello, D. (2019). The digital economy: Opportunities and challenges. Global Policy, 11(1), 124-127.
  • Antonelli, C. (2003). The digital divide: understanding the economics of new information and communication technology in the global economy. Information Economics and Policy, 15(2), 173-199.
  • Anvarovna, T. (2023). Development of The Digital Economy. Journal of Modern Educational Achievements, 5(5), 488-492.
  • Ashmarina, S. I., & Mantulenko, V. V. (Eds.). (2022). Digital Technologies in the New Socio-Economic Reality. Springer.
  • Ayhan, B. (2017). Digitalization and Society (Edition 1). Peter Lang International Academic Publishers.
  • Betancourt, M. (2015). The critique of digital capitalism: An analysis of the political economy of digital culture and technology. punctum books.
  • Boccia, F., & Leonardi, R. (2016). The challenge of the digital economy. Markets, Taxation and Appropriate Economic Model. Rome, Italy. LUISS University.
  • Bolton, P., Lacy, P., Spence, M., Xu, M., Chen, L., Choi, S., … & Tang, B. (2022). Digital Circular Economy for Net Zero. Available at SSRN 4092608.
  • Bondarenko, V. M. (2020). Digital economy: a vision from the future. Journal of Economic Science Research| Volume, 3(01).
  • Brauweiler, H., Kurchenkov, V., Abilov, S., & Zirkler, B. (2020). Digitalization and Industry 4.0: Economic and Societal Development. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
  • Brousseau, E., & Curien, N. (Eds.). (2007). Internet and digital economics: principles, methods and applications. Cambridge University Press.
  • Brousseau, E., & Penard, T. (2007). The economics of digital business models: A framework for analyzing the economics of platforms. Review of network Economics, 6(2).
  • Brynjolfsson, E., & Kahin, B. (Eds.). (2002). Understanding the digital economy: data, tools, and research. MIT press.
  • Bukht, R., & Heeks, R. (2017). Defining, conceptualising and measuring the digital economy. Development Informatics working paper, (68).
  • Bukht, R., & Heeks, R. (2018). Digital economy policy in developing countries.
  • Cellini, P. (2016). Internet Economics: Understanding Digital and New Media Markets. Luiss University Press.
  • Cepal, N. (2013). The digital economy for structural change and equality.
  • Chamoux, J. P. (Ed.). (2019). The Digital Era 2: Political Economy Revisited. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Chandler, J. D. (2020). Innovation, Social Networks, and Service Ecosystems: Managing Value in the Digital Economy. Springer Nature.
  • Chohan, U. W. (2020). Some Precepts of the Digital Economy. Critical Blockchain Research Initiative (CBRI) Working Papers.
  • Choi, S. Y., & Whinston, A. B. (2000). The future of the digital economy. Handbook on electronic commerce, 25-52.
  • Coyle, D. (1999). The weightless world: strategies for managing the digital economy. MIT press.
  • D'souza, C., & Williams, D. (2017). The digital economy. Bank of Canada Review, 2017(Spring), 5-18.
  • Filippov, V. M., Chursin, A. A., Ragulina, J. V., & Popkova, E. G. (2019). The Cyber Economy.
  • Frey, B. S. (2018). Digitization, measurement and the unmeasurable.
  • Georgieva, E. A., Аkimbaeva, К. Т., Askarova, Z. A., & Kyzdarbekova, A. S. (2020). Digital Economy–An Element Of Information. Farabi Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 44-51.
  • Goldfarb, A., & Tucker, C. (2019). Digital economics. Journal of economic literature, 57(1), 3-43.
  • Goldfarb, A., Greenstein, S. M., & Tucker, C. E. (Eds.). (2015). Economic analysis of the digital economy. University of Chicago Press.
  • Gómez Bengoechea, G., & Jung Lusiardo, J. F. (2023). Economía Digital/Digital Economics.
  • Greenan, N., L'Horty, Y., & Mairesse, J. (Eds.). (2002). Productivity, inequality, and the digital economy: A transatlantic perspective. MIT Press.
  • Gries, T., & Suhl, L. (Eds.). (2012). Economic aspects of digital information technologies. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Grodskiy, V. S., & Khasaev, G. R. (2020). Digital economy–information era: retrospective analysis. In Digital transformation of the economy: Challenges, trends and new opportunities (pp. 163-179). Springer International Publishing.
  • Grover, V., & Ramanlal, P. (2004). Digital economics and the e-business dilemma. Business Horizons, 47(4).
  • Hilbert, M. R. (2001). From industrial economics to digital economics: an introduction to the transition. ECLAC.
  • Hindman, M. (2018). The Internet trap: How the digital economy builds monopolies and undermines democracy. Princeton University Press.
  • Illing, G., & Peitz, M. (Eds.). (2006). Industrial organization and the digital economy. MIT Press.
  • Jablonsk, A., & Jablonsk, M. (2020). Digital business models: Perspectives on monetisation. Routledge.
  • Juniper, J. (2018). The economic philosophy of the internet of things. Routledge.
  • Karaçor, Z., Güvenek, B., & Karadoğan, E. (2020). Ekonominin Değişen Maskesi: Dijital Ekonomi. Journal Of Social, Humanities and Administrative Sciences, 6(34), 2140-2149.
  • Kehal, H. S., & Singh, V. P. (Eds.). (2005). Digital Economy: impacts, influences, and challenges. IGI Global.
  • Kobilov, A. U., Khashimova, D. P., Mannanova, S. G., & Abdulakhatov, M. M. O. (2022). Modern content and concept of digital economy. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 9(2), 375-378.
  • Kruljac, Ž. (2021). Digital economy–a bibliometric addition to understanding an “undefined” domain of the economy. Ekonomski vjesnik: Review of Contemporary Entrepreneurship, Business, and Economic Issues, 34(2), 471-488.
  • Leka, E. (2022). What Should Economists Know About the Cloud? A Literature Review on Digital Economics.
  • Liu, Z. (2022a). Ideological Origin of Digital Economics. In The Power of Ideas: A History of Technological Thoughts on Digital Economics, Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.
  • Liu, Z. (2022b). Principles of Digital Economics. Springer Singapore.
  • Madden, G., & Cooper, R. (2009). The economics of digital markets. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Malecki, E. J., & Moriset, B. (2007). The digital economy: Business organization, production processes and regional developments. Routledge.
  • Melnik, M., & Antipova, T. (2019). Organizational aspects of digital economics management. In International Conference on Integrated Science (pp. 148-162). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  • Milenkovski, B., Markovska, M., & Asani, A. (2019). Digital Economy-Present and Future Trends. Knowledge-International Journal, 30(6), 1651-1653.
  • Mourougane, A. (2021). Measuring digital trade, Going Digital Toolkit Note, No. 18.
  • Mutula, S. M. (Ed.). (2009). Digital Economies: SMEs and E-Readiness: SMEs and E-Readiness. IGI Global.
  • Neittaanmäki, P., Galeieva, E., & Ogbechie, A. (2016). Platform economy & digital platforms. Informaatioteknologian tiedekunnan julkaisuja/Jyväskylän yliopisto, (2016, 25).
  • OECD, Digital Economy Outlook 2015.
  • Overby, H., & Audestad, J. A. (2018). Digital economics: How information and communication technology is shaping markets, businesses, and innovation. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
  • Peitz, M., & Waldfogel, J. (Eds.). (2012). The Oxford handbook of the digital economy. Oxford University Press.
  • Petit, N. (2020). Big tech and the digital economy: The moligopoly scenario.
  • Raisinghani, M. S. (Ed.). (2004). Business intelligence in the digital economy: opportunities, limitations and risks. IGI Global.
  • Reber, B., & Brossaud, C. (2010). Digital cognitive technologies: epistemology and the knowledge economy.
  • Rong, K. (2022). Research agenda for the digital economy: an IBCDE framework. Journal of Digital Economy.
  • Schwab, K., & Davis, N. (2018). Shaping the future of the fourth industrial revolution. Currency.
  • Sendler, U. (Ed.). (2017). The internet of things: Industrie 4.0 unleashed. Springer.
  • Si, S., Hall, J., Suddaby, R., Ahlstrom, D., & Wei, J. (2023). Technology, entrepreneurship, innovation and social change in digital economics. Technovation, 119, 102484.
  • Śledziewska, K., & Włoch, R. (2021). The economics of digital transformation: The disruption of markets, production, consumption, and work. Routledge.
  • Spence, M. (2021). Government and economics in the digital economy. Journal of Government and Economics, 3, 100020.
  • Sudoh, O. (2005). Digital economy and social design (1-236). O. Sudoh (Ed.). Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Tanaka, G. Y. (2004). Digital deflation: the productivity revolution and how it will ignite the economy (No. 23381). McGraw-Hill.
  • Turcan, V., Gribincea, A., & Birca, I. (2014). Digital economy-a premise for economic development in the 20th century. Economie si Sociologie: Revista Teoretico-Stiintifica, (2), 109-115.
  • UNCTAD (2019). The Digital Economy Report 2019: Value Creatıon and Capture: Implıcatıons for Developıng Countrıes.
  • Van Duy, L. (2023). A Review of Digital Economy and Digital Economics. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(1), 1745-1753.
  • Varian, H. R., Farrell, J., & Shapiro, C. (2004). The economics of information technology: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.
  • Weeks, M. (2018). The Evolution and Design of Digital Economies. URL: https://fetch. ai/uploads/Fetch. AI-Economics-white-paper. pdf.
  • Welfens, P. J., & Weske, M. (Eds.). (2007). Digital economic dynamics: Innovations, networks and regulations. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Zaistev, V. (2019). Digital economy as a research object: a literature review. Public administration issues, (3), 107-122.
  • Zhiyi. Lıu. (2023). Principles of Digital Economics: Innovation Theory in the Age of Intelligence. Springer.

Dijital Ekonomi: Sistematik Bir Literatür Araştırması

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2, 606 - 618, 30.12.2023

Öz

Bu çalışma, dijital ekonomi alanına ilişkin akademik literatürün kapsamlı bir incelemesini sunmaktadır ve 1999-2023 yılları arasında yayınlanmış makaleler, bildiriler, tezler ve diğer akademik kaynaklar gibi bir dizi bilimsel materyali kapsamaktadır. Dijital ekonomi çalışması, bu kapsamda ortaya çıkan teknolojik gelişmelerin iş, ticaret, finans ve toplum üzerindeki etkilerini anlamayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu konu, dinamik doğası ile karakterize edilebilir olması nedeniyle; dijital ekonominin metamorfozunu ve gelişimini anlamak için değerli bir kaynak olmaya adaydır. Analiz, çeşitli alt konuların, eğilimlerin ve odak noktalarının incelenmesi yoluyla dijital ekonominin karmaşık ve çeşitli özelliklerini ortaya koymayı da denemektedir. Araştırma, dijital ekonominin temel unsurları olan e-ticaret, dijital ödemeler, veri gizliliği ve güvenliği, yapay zeka, bulut bilişim ve dijital pazarlama üzerinde yoğunlaştırmaktadır. Ayrıca, dijital ekonominin çeşitli sosyal, ekonomik ve siyasi yönlerine ilişkin belirli bir içgörü sağlama potansiyeline de sahiptir.

Kaynakça

  • Abdrakhmanova, G. I., Vishnevsky, K. O., Gokhberg, L. M., Demidkina, O. V., Demyanova, A. V., Kovaleva, G. G., ... & Shugal, N. B. (2021). Digital economy.
  • Ali, R., Barrdear, J., Clews, R., & Southgate, J. (2014). The economics of digital currencies. Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Q3.
  • Alleman, J., Rappoport, P. N., & Hamoudia, M. (2020). Applied Economics in the Digital Era. Springer.
  • Amuso, V., Poletti, G., & Montibello, D. (2019). The digital economy: Opportunities and challenges. Global Policy, 11(1), 124-127.
  • Antonelli, C. (2003). The digital divide: understanding the economics of new information and communication technology in the global economy. Information Economics and Policy, 15(2), 173-199.
  • Anvarovna, T. (2023). Development of The Digital Economy. Journal of Modern Educational Achievements, 5(5), 488-492.
  • Ashmarina, S. I., & Mantulenko, V. V. (Eds.). (2022). Digital Technologies in the New Socio-Economic Reality. Springer.
  • Ayhan, B. (2017). Digitalization and Society (Edition 1). Peter Lang International Academic Publishers.
  • Betancourt, M. (2015). The critique of digital capitalism: An analysis of the political economy of digital culture and technology. punctum books.
  • Boccia, F., & Leonardi, R. (2016). The challenge of the digital economy. Markets, Taxation and Appropriate Economic Model. Rome, Italy. LUISS University.
  • Bolton, P., Lacy, P., Spence, M., Xu, M., Chen, L., Choi, S., … & Tang, B. (2022). Digital Circular Economy for Net Zero. Available at SSRN 4092608.
  • Bondarenko, V. M. (2020). Digital economy: a vision from the future. Journal of Economic Science Research| Volume, 3(01).
  • Brauweiler, H., Kurchenkov, V., Abilov, S., & Zirkler, B. (2020). Digitalization and Industry 4.0: Economic and Societal Development. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
  • Brousseau, E., & Curien, N. (Eds.). (2007). Internet and digital economics: principles, methods and applications. Cambridge University Press.
  • Brousseau, E., & Penard, T. (2007). The economics of digital business models: A framework for analyzing the economics of platforms. Review of network Economics, 6(2).
  • Brynjolfsson, E., & Kahin, B. (Eds.). (2002). Understanding the digital economy: data, tools, and research. MIT press.
  • Bukht, R., & Heeks, R. (2017). Defining, conceptualising and measuring the digital economy. Development Informatics working paper, (68).
  • Bukht, R., & Heeks, R. (2018). Digital economy policy in developing countries.
  • Cellini, P. (2016). Internet Economics: Understanding Digital and New Media Markets. Luiss University Press.
  • Cepal, N. (2013). The digital economy for structural change and equality.
  • Chamoux, J. P. (Ed.). (2019). The Digital Era 2: Political Economy Revisited. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Chandler, J. D. (2020). Innovation, Social Networks, and Service Ecosystems: Managing Value in the Digital Economy. Springer Nature.
  • Chohan, U. W. (2020). Some Precepts of the Digital Economy. Critical Blockchain Research Initiative (CBRI) Working Papers.
  • Choi, S. Y., & Whinston, A. B. (2000). The future of the digital economy. Handbook on electronic commerce, 25-52.
  • Coyle, D. (1999). The weightless world: strategies for managing the digital economy. MIT press.
  • D'souza, C., & Williams, D. (2017). The digital economy. Bank of Canada Review, 2017(Spring), 5-18.
  • Filippov, V. M., Chursin, A. A., Ragulina, J. V., & Popkova, E. G. (2019). The Cyber Economy.
  • Frey, B. S. (2018). Digitization, measurement and the unmeasurable.
  • Georgieva, E. A., Аkimbaeva, К. Т., Askarova, Z. A., & Kyzdarbekova, A. S. (2020). Digital Economy–An Element Of Information. Farabi Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 44-51.
  • Goldfarb, A., & Tucker, C. (2019). Digital economics. Journal of economic literature, 57(1), 3-43.
  • Goldfarb, A., Greenstein, S. M., & Tucker, C. E. (Eds.). (2015). Economic analysis of the digital economy. University of Chicago Press.
  • Gómez Bengoechea, G., & Jung Lusiardo, J. F. (2023). Economía Digital/Digital Economics.
  • Greenan, N., L'Horty, Y., & Mairesse, J. (Eds.). (2002). Productivity, inequality, and the digital economy: A transatlantic perspective. MIT Press.
  • Gries, T., & Suhl, L. (Eds.). (2012). Economic aspects of digital information technologies. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Grodskiy, V. S., & Khasaev, G. R. (2020). Digital economy–information era: retrospective analysis. In Digital transformation of the economy: Challenges, trends and new opportunities (pp. 163-179). Springer International Publishing.
  • Grover, V., & Ramanlal, P. (2004). Digital economics and the e-business dilemma. Business Horizons, 47(4).
  • Hilbert, M. R. (2001). From industrial economics to digital economics: an introduction to the transition. ECLAC.
  • Hindman, M. (2018). The Internet trap: How the digital economy builds monopolies and undermines democracy. Princeton University Press.
  • Illing, G., & Peitz, M. (Eds.). (2006). Industrial organization and the digital economy. MIT Press.
  • Jablonsk, A., & Jablonsk, M. (2020). Digital business models: Perspectives on monetisation. Routledge.
  • Juniper, J. (2018). The economic philosophy of the internet of things. Routledge.
  • Karaçor, Z., Güvenek, B., & Karadoğan, E. (2020). Ekonominin Değişen Maskesi: Dijital Ekonomi. Journal Of Social, Humanities and Administrative Sciences, 6(34), 2140-2149.
  • Kehal, H. S., & Singh, V. P. (Eds.). (2005). Digital Economy: impacts, influences, and challenges. IGI Global.
  • Kobilov, A. U., Khashimova, D. P., Mannanova, S. G., & Abdulakhatov, M. M. O. (2022). Modern content and concept of digital economy. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 9(2), 375-378.
  • Kruljac, Ž. (2021). Digital economy–a bibliometric addition to understanding an “undefined” domain of the economy. Ekonomski vjesnik: Review of Contemporary Entrepreneurship, Business, and Economic Issues, 34(2), 471-488.
  • Leka, E. (2022). What Should Economists Know About the Cloud? A Literature Review on Digital Economics.
  • Liu, Z. (2022a). Ideological Origin of Digital Economics. In The Power of Ideas: A History of Technological Thoughts on Digital Economics, Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.
  • Liu, Z. (2022b). Principles of Digital Economics. Springer Singapore.
  • Madden, G., & Cooper, R. (2009). The economics of digital markets. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Malecki, E. J., & Moriset, B. (2007). The digital economy: Business organization, production processes and regional developments. Routledge.
  • Melnik, M., & Antipova, T. (2019). Organizational aspects of digital economics management. In International Conference on Integrated Science (pp. 148-162). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  • Milenkovski, B., Markovska, M., & Asani, A. (2019). Digital Economy-Present and Future Trends. Knowledge-International Journal, 30(6), 1651-1653.
  • Mourougane, A. (2021). Measuring digital trade, Going Digital Toolkit Note, No. 18.
  • Mutula, S. M. (Ed.). (2009). Digital Economies: SMEs and E-Readiness: SMEs and E-Readiness. IGI Global.
  • Neittaanmäki, P., Galeieva, E., & Ogbechie, A. (2016). Platform economy & digital platforms. Informaatioteknologian tiedekunnan julkaisuja/Jyväskylän yliopisto, (2016, 25).
  • OECD, Digital Economy Outlook 2015.
  • Overby, H., & Audestad, J. A. (2018). Digital economics: How information and communication technology is shaping markets, businesses, and innovation. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
  • Peitz, M., & Waldfogel, J. (Eds.). (2012). The Oxford handbook of the digital economy. Oxford University Press.
  • Petit, N. (2020). Big tech and the digital economy: The moligopoly scenario.
  • Raisinghani, M. S. (Ed.). (2004). Business intelligence in the digital economy: opportunities, limitations and risks. IGI Global.
  • Reber, B., & Brossaud, C. (2010). Digital cognitive technologies: epistemology and the knowledge economy.
  • Rong, K. (2022). Research agenda for the digital economy: an IBCDE framework. Journal of Digital Economy.
  • Schwab, K., & Davis, N. (2018). Shaping the future of the fourth industrial revolution. Currency.
  • Sendler, U. (Ed.). (2017). The internet of things: Industrie 4.0 unleashed. Springer.
  • Si, S., Hall, J., Suddaby, R., Ahlstrom, D., & Wei, J. (2023). Technology, entrepreneurship, innovation and social change in digital economics. Technovation, 119, 102484.
  • Śledziewska, K., & Włoch, R. (2021). The economics of digital transformation: The disruption of markets, production, consumption, and work. Routledge.
  • Spence, M. (2021). Government and economics in the digital economy. Journal of Government and Economics, 3, 100020.
  • Sudoh, O. (2005). Digital economy and social design (1-236). O. Sudoh (Ed.). Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Tanaka, G. Y. (2004). Digital deflation: the productivity revolution and how it will ignite the economy (No. 23381). McGraw-Hill.
  • Turcan, V., Gribincea, A., & Birca, I. (2014). Digital economy-a premise for economic development in the 20th century. Economie si Sociologie: Revista Teoretico-Stiintifica, (2), 109-115.
  • UNCTAD (2019). The Digital Economy Report 2019: Value Creatıon and Capture: Implıcatıons for Developıng Countrıes.
  • Van Duy, L. (2023). A Review of Digital Economy and Digital Economics. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(1), 1745-1753.
  • Varian, H. R., Farrell, J., & Shapiro, C. (2004). The economics of information technology: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.
  • Weeks, M. (2018). The Evolution and Design of Digital Economies. URL: https://fetch. ai/uploads/Fetch. AI-Economics-white-paper. pdf.
  • Welfens, P. J., & Weske, M. (Eds.). (2007). Digital economic dynamics: Innovations, networks and regulations. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Zaistev, V. (2019). Digital economy as a research object: a literature review. Public administration issues, (3), 107-122.
  • Zhiyi. Lıu. (2023). Principles of Digital Economics: Innovation Theory in the Age of Intelligence. Springer.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Uygulamalı Ekonomi (Diğer)
Bölüm Derleme Makale
Yazarlar

Rahmi Deniz ÖZBAY 0000-0002-3927-8216

Sema YILMAZ GENÇ 0000-0002-3138-1622

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 25 Ekim 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 8 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA ÖZBAY, R. D., & YILMAZ GENÇ, S. (2023). Dijital Ekonomi: Sistematik Bir Literatür Araştırması. JOEEP: Journal of Emerging Economies and Policy, 8(2), 606-618.

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JOEEP is published as two issues per year June and December and all publication policies and processes are conducted according to the international standards. JOEEP accepts and publishes the research articles in the fields of economics, political economy, fiscal economics, applied economics, business economics, labour economics and econometrics. JOEEP, without depending on any institution or organization, is a non-profit journal that has an International Editorial Board specialist on their fields. All “Publication Process” and “Writing Guidelines” are explained in the related title and it is expected from authors to Show a complete match to the rules. JOEEP is an open Access journal.