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THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS

Yıl 2019, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, 77 - 89, 31.07.2019

Öz

Birds differ from other animals with their many differences morphological and biological features. Many bird species have adapted to living in water, on land and in the air with these features. Feathers covering the bodies are not found in any other animal group. There are between 8500 and 10000 bird species in the world. In Turkey, there are 487 species of birds. Another important reason that is been much of the bird species in Turkey, Turkey have two major bird migration that passing through Anatolia's.

 

But Birds, which are an important part of biodiversity, are threatened by many different factors both in local habitats and during migration. Due to these factors, some bird species' populations decrease while some species decrease globally. In this study, the factors that threaten birds on a global scale are compiled and recommendations are made about the measures that can be taken in line with the results obtained. Factors that threaten birds can be listed as follows.

1.       Natural Enemies

2.       Climate Conditions

3.       Natural disasters

a)       Hurricanes, storms and other strong winds

b)       Snowstorm, extreme cold

c)       Earthquakes and landslides

d)       Volcano eruptions

e)       Floods and tsunamis

f)        Natural forest fires

g)       Drought and heat waves

4.       Human Influence

a)       Destruction of Living Areas

·         Environmental pollution

·         Industrialization

·         Urbanization

·         Destruction of forests:

b)       Large Scale Commercial Investments

·         Dams and Hydroelectric power stations

·         Thermal power plants

·         High voltage lines

·         Wind Turbines

·         Airports and highways:

c)       Agricultural applications

·         Barbed wires

·         Drying of wetlands

·         Pesticides

d)       Hunting

 

As a result of the researches, the factors that threaten the birds are listed as natural enemies, climate conditions, natural disasters and human. It is emphasized that the most dangerous of these factors is human and the reduction of human factors is the most effective way to protect birds. Nevertheless, some measures to be taken to protect birds against natural factors can be listed as follows.

1.       Control of populations against any epidemic diseases in domestic bird populations and application of disinfection where possible,

2.       Reducing the populations of overgrowing predators, provided that the natural balance is not disturbed,

3.       In case of climatic events (drought, snow, cold), which exceed the seasonal norms and reach a level that threatens the birds, the provision of supplementary nutrients, water and artificial shelter (bird's nest, birdhouse) to the habitats,

4.       Improving the habitats as soon as possible after taking into account the magnitude of the damage after natural disasters and providing the necessary needs for birds in the area (water, food, etc.).

5.       To create donation campaigns and public opinion to support rescue organizations in the affected areas in natural disasters to support rescue projects, to support volunteers,

6.       Support renewal conservation efforts such as habitat restoration after natural disaster or captive bird breeding programs

Kaynakça

  • 1. Ahnström J., Berg A. & Ahnström H.S. (2008). Birds on farmsteads–Effects of landscape and farming characteristics. Ornis Fennica 7007(75007).
  • 2. Anonim, 2000. Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesel Gelişme Planı (DOKAP). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Başbakanlık Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı Müşteşarlığı, Nihai Raporu, 5. Cilt. Çevre, Ağustos.
  • 3. Anonim (2005). 2. Doğu Anadolu Kalkınma Projesi (DAKAP). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Başbakanlık Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı Müsteşarlığı, Nihai Raporu.
  • 4. Anonim (2006). Yusufeli Barajı ve HES Projesi Çevresel Etki Değerlendirmesi (ÇED) Raporu (Revizyon F). Encon Çevre Danışmanlık Ltd. şti, Ankara.
  • 5. Aydın İ. (2013). Balıkesir’de rüzgâr enerjisi. Eastern Geographical Review., 18(29): 29-50.
  • 6. Aytaç O. (2018). Kömür Yakıtlı Termik Santrallerin Baca Gazındaki Kirleticiler, İzin Verilen Salım Sınır Değerleri, Ülkemizdeki Santrallerdeki Baca Gazı Arıtma Tesislerinin Güncel Durumu. Mühendis Ve Makina Güncel Kasım 2018 www.mmo.org.tr
  • 7. Bevanger K. & Broseth H. (2004). Impact of power lines on bird mortality in a subalpine area. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 27(2): 67–77.
  • 8. Casas F., Mougeot F.,Vinuela J. & Bretagnolle V. (2008). Effects of hunting on the behaviour and spatial distribution of farmland birds: importance of hunting-free refuges in agricultural areas. Animal Conservation. Print ISSN 1367-9430 p:1-9.
  • 9. Cırık Ö. 2005. Gökyüzü Krallığı. Yeşil Atlas Dergisi 8:30-37.
  • 10. Çanakçıoğlu H. & Mol T. 1996. Yaban Hayvanları Bilgisi. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayın No: 3948, Fakülte Yayın No: 440 ISBN 975-404-424-4 x-550s.
  • 11. Dereli S. (2001). Rüzgar enerjisi. Ankara; Tübitak Yayını; 2001.
  • 12. Dizdaroğlu E. (2015). Avrupa Kuşları Kırmızı Listesi ISBN: 978-92-79-47450-7 vııı+68 s.
  • 13. Eken G., Bozdoğan M., İsfendiyaroğlu S., Kılıç D.T. & Lise Y. (2006). Türkiye’nin Önemli Doğa Alanları. Doğa Derneği Yayınları ISBN 978-975-89901-3-1 Mas Matbaası.
  • 14. Fry D.M. (1995). Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 103:165-171.
  • 15. Gill F. (2007). Ornithology Third Edition. W. H. Freeman and Company ISBN-13: 978-0-716749837 xxvi-758 p.
  • 16. Göktürk T., Artvinli T. & Bucak F. (2008). Artvin kuş faunası. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi, Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 9 (1-2): 33-43.
  • 17. Hagenmaıer, E., Mingoia, S. & Worthen, N. (2016). Impact of Dam-Reservoir Systems on Wetlands with an emphasis on John Redmond Reservoir. http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/student/hagenmaier1
  • 18. Junk W.J., An S., Finlayson C.M., Gopal B., Kvet, J., Mitchell S.A., Mitsch W.J. & Robarts R.D. (2013). Current state of knowledge regarding the world’s wetlands and their future under global climate change: a synthesis. Aquatic Sci. 75: 151–67.
  • 19. Sun Z., Huang Q., Opp C., Hennig T. & Marold U. (2012). Impacts and implications of major changes caused by the Three Gorges Dam in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Water Resour. Manag. 26: 3367–3378.
  • 20. Reitan O. & Thingstad Pg. (1999). Responses of birds to damming - A review of the influence of lakes, dams and reservoirs on bird ecology. Ornis Norvegica 22(1):3-37.
  • 21. Isaksson C. (2018). Impact of Urbanization on Birds. Bird Species: How They Arise, Modify and Vanish pp 235-257. 22. Kirk D. A., Lindsay K.E. & Brook R.W. (2011). Risk of agricultural practices and habitat change to farmland birds. Avian Conservation and Ecology 6(1): 5http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ACE-00446-060105
  • 23. Kiziroğlu İ. (1989). Türkiye Kuşları (Kımızı Listede Olanlar ve Bulundukları Bölgeler). Orman Genel Müdürlüğü, Eğitim Daire Başkalığı, Yayın ve Tanıtım Şube Müdürlüğü 314 s. Ankara.
  • 24. Kociolek A.V., Clevenger A., Cassady C. & Proppe D.S. (2011). Effects of Road Networks on Bird Populations Conservation Biology 25(2):241-9 DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01635.x
  • 25. Lopez A.B, Alkemade R., Schipper A.M., Ingram D.J., Verweij P.A., Eikelboom, J.A.J. & Huijbregts, M.A.J. (2017). The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations. Science 356(6334): 180-183 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaj1891
  • 26. Loss S.R., Will T. & Marra P.P. (2014). Refining estimates of bird collision and electrocution mortality at power lines in the united states. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101565. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101565
  • 27. Lyon L.J., Crawford H.S., Czuhaı E., Frederıksen R.L., Harlow R.F., Metz L.L. & Pearson, H.A. (1978). Effects of Fire on Fauna: A State of Knowledge Review. Gen. Tech. Report WO - 6. Washington, OC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 22 p.
  • 28. Lyon L.J., Huff M.H., Telfer E.S., Schreıner D.S. & Smıth L.K. (2000). Fire effects on animal populations. Wildland Fire in Ecosystems, Effects of Fire on Fauna. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS - GTR 42(I): 25-34.
  • 29. Miller J.R., Wiens J.A., Hobbs T.N. & Theobald D.M. (2003). Effects of human settlement on bird communities in lowland riparian areas of Colorado (USA). Ecological Society of America, Ecological Applications. 13(4): 1041–1059. 30. Mineau P. & Whiteside M. (2013). Pesticide acute toxicity is a better correlate of U.S. grassland bird declines than agricultural intensification. PLOS One. DOI:10.31371/journak.pone.0057457.
  • 31. Mitra A., Chatterjee C. & Mandal F.B. (2011). Synthetic chemical pesticides and their effects on birds. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 5: 81-96. DOI: 10.3923/rjet.2011.81.96
  • 32. Onnerod S.J. & Tyler S.J. (1993). Birds as indicators of changes water quality. Birds as Monitors of Environmental Change pp 179-216. | 33. Özkazanç N.K. (2016). The importance of birds in biological control and insectivorous bird species determined in Bartın. International Journal of Bartın Faculty of Forestry. 18(2): 55-64 ISSN: 1302-0943 EISSN: 1308-5875.
  • 34. Özkazanç N.K. & Ertuğrul M. (2011). Orman Yangınlarının Fauna Üzerine Etkileri. Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 13(19): 128-135.
  • 35. van der Ree, R. (1999). Barbed wire fencing as a hazard for wildlife. Victorian Naturalist 116:210-217.
  • 36. Saidur R., Rahim N.A., Islam M.R. & Solangi K.H. (2011). Environmental impact of wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15: 2423–2430.
  • 37. Schüz, E. (1972). Grundriss der Vögezugskunde, Paul Parey Verlag, Berlin.
  • 38. Sokos C.K., Birtsas P.K., Connelly J.W. & Konstantinos G. (2019). Hunting of migratory birds: disturbance intolerant or harvest tolerant? Papaspyropoulos Source: Wildlife Biology, 19(2) : 113-125 Published By: Nordic Board for Wildlife Research URL:https://doi.org/10.2981/12-032
  • 39. Sovacool B.K. (2012). The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 9(4): 255-278, DOI: 10.1080/1943815X.2012.746993
  • 40. Şekercioğlu Ç.H. (2006). Increasing awareness of avian ecological function. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21(8): 465-471.
  • 41. Şekercioğlu Ç.H., Schneider T.H., Fay J.P. & Loarie S.R. (2007). Climate change, elevational range shifts, and bird extinctions. Conservation Biology, 22(1): 140–150. 42. Şenel M.C. 2012. Rüzgar türbinlerinde güç iletim mekanizmalarının tasarım esasları-dinamik davranış. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Samsun.
  • 43. Tabur M.A. & Ayvaz Y. (2010). Kuşların ekolojik önemi. Conference: Second International Symposium on Sustainable Development. June 8-9 2010.At: Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Volume: 560-565.
  • 44. Tan R. (2019). World Migratory Bird Day. https://wildshores.blogspot.com/2014/05/10-11-may-world-migratory-bird-day.html#.XTcFwOgzbIV
  • 45. Turan N. (1990). Türkiye’nin Av ve Yaban Hayvanları-Kuşlar. Orman Genel Müdürlüğü, Eğitim Daire Başkanlığı, Yayın ve Tanıtma Şube Müdürlüğü. Sıra No: 675, Yayın No:61.
  • 46. URL-1, (2018). http://www.milliparklar.gov.tr/haberler/ülkemizde-görülen-kuş-türü-sayisi-485-oldu
  • 47. URL-2 (2018). http://www.longozukoru.org/longoz/detay/Kuslar/17/10/0
  • 48. URL-3 (2019). https://www.massaudubon.org/learn/nature-wildlife/birds/common-bird-parasites-diseases
  • 49. URL-4 (2019). https://www.rspb.org.uk/birds-and-wildlife/advice/how-you-can-help-birds/disease-and-garden-wildlife/diseases-in-garden-birds/
  • 50. URL-5 (2019). http://www.birdsandblooms.com/birding/birding-basics/wild-bird-diseases/
  • 51. URL-6 (2019). https://ca.audubon.org/news/drought-and-birds
  • 52. URL-7 (2019) https://www.thespruce.com/natural-disasters-and-birds-386487
  • 53. URL-8 (2008) http://www.worldmigratorybirdday.org/2008/index5218.html?option=com_ content&view=article&id=26&phpMyAdmin=19bc4b88ec8et5959b806&Itemid=3
  • 54. URL-9 (2018) https://findingnature.co.uk/air-pollution-affects-birds/
  • 55. URL-10 (2015) https://www.carbonbrief.org/bird-death-and-wind-turbines-a-look-at-the-evidence
  • 56. URL-11 (2018) https://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Bird_Population_Trends_ and_Impact_on_Aviation_Safety
  • 57. URL-12 (2019) https://ca.audubon.org/news/how-drought-affecting-birds
  • 58. URL-13 (2015) http://helioscsp.com/birds-mortality-at-concentrated-solar-power-csp-plants/
  • 59. Wolfenden A. (2017). The effects of aircraft noise on avian communities and communication PhD candidate: Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology School of Science and the Environment Manchester Metropolitan University.

THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS

Yıl 2019, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, 77 - 89, 31.07.2019

Öz

Biyolojik çeşitliliğin önemli parçası olan kuşlar hem yerel yaşam alanlarında hem de göç esnasında birçok farklı etmen tarafından tehdit edilmektedir. Bu etmenler sebebi ile bazı kuş türlerinin popülasyonları azalırken bazı türlerde küresel ölçekli azalmalar görülmektedir. Bu çalışma ile küresel ölçekli olarak kuşları tehdit eden etmenler derlenmiş ve elde edilen sonuçlar doğrultusunda alınabilecek önlemler hakkında öneriler yapılmıştır. Araştırmalar sonucunda kuşları tehdit eden faktörler doğal düşmanlar, iklim şartları, doğal afetler ve insanlar olarak sıralanmıştır. Bu faktörlerden en tehlikelisinin insan olduğu ve kuşları korumak için insan kaynaklı faktörlerin azaltılmasının en etkili yol olduğu vurgulanmıştır. 

Kaynakça

  • 1. Ahnström J., Berg A. & Ahnström H.S. (2008). Birds on farmsteads–Effects of landscape and farming characteristics. Ornis Fennica 7007(75007).
  • 2. Anonim, 2000. Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesel Gelişme Planı (DOKAP). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Başbakanlık Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı Müşteşarlığı, Nihai Raporu, 5. Cilt. Çevre, Ağustos.
  • 3. Anonim (2005). 2. Doğu Anadolu Kalkınma Projesi (DAKAP). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Başbakanlık Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı Müsteşarlığı, Nihai Raporu.
  • 4. Anonim (2006). Yusufeli Barajı ve HES Projesi Çevresel Etki Değerlendirmesi (ÇED) Raporu (Revizyon F). Encon Çevre Danışmanlık Ltd. şti, Ankara.
  • 5. Aydın İ. (2013). Balıkesir’de rüzgâr enerjisi. Eastern Geographical Review., 18(29): 29-50.
  • 6. Aytaç O. (2018). Kömür Yakıtlı Termik Santrallerin Baca Gazındaki Kirleticiler, İzin Verilen Salım Sınır Değerleri, Ülkemizdeki Santrallerdeki Baca Gazı Arıtma Tesislerinin Güncel Durumu. Mühendis Ve Makina Güncel Kasım 2018 www.mmo.org.tr
  • 7. Bevanger K. & Broseth H. (2004). Impact of power lines on bird mortality in a subalpine area. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 27(2): 67–77.
  • 8. Casas F., Mougeot F.,Vinuela J. & Bretagnolle V. (2008). Effects of hunting on the behaviour and spatial distribution of farmland birds: importance of hunting-free refuges in agricultural areas. Animal Conservation. Print ISSN 1367-9430 p:1-9.
  • 9. Cırık Ö. 2005. Gökyüzü Krallığı. Yeşil Atlas Dergisi 8:30-37.
  • 10. Çanakçıoğlu H. & Mol T. 1996. Yaban Hayvanları Bilgisi. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayın No: 3948, Fakülte Yayın No: 440 ISBN 975-404-424-4 x-550s.
  • 11. Dereli S. (2001). Rüzgar enerjisi. Ankara; Tübitak Yayını; 2001.
  • 12. Dizdaroğlu E. (2015). Avrupa Kuşları Kırmızı Listesi ISBN: 978-92-79-47450-7 vııı+68 s.
  • 13. Eken G., Bozdoğan M., İsfendiyaroğlu S., Kılıç D.T. & Lise Y. (2006). Türkiye’nin Önemli Doğa Alanları. Doğa Derneği Yayınları ISBN 978-975-89901-3-1 Mas Matbaası.
  • 14. Fry D.M. (1995). Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 103:165-171.
  • 15. Gill F. (2007). Ornithology Third Edition. W. H. Freeman and Company ISBN-13: 978-0-716749837 xxvi-758 p.
  • 16. Göktürk T., Artvinli T. & Bucak F. (2008). Artvin kuş faunası. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi, Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 9 (1-2): 33-43.
  • 17. Hagenmaıer, E., Mingoia, S. & Worthen, N. (2016). Impact of Dam-Reservoir Systems on Wetlands with an emphasis on John Redmond Reservoir. http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/student/hagenmaier1
  • 18. Junk W.J., An S., Finlayson C.M., Gopal B., Kvet, J., Mitchell S.A., Mitsch W.J. & Robarts R.D. (2013). Current state of knowledge regarding the world’s wetlands and their future under global climate change: a synthesis. Aquatic Sci. 75: 151–67.
  • 19. Sun Z., Huang Q., Opp C., Hennig T. & Marold U. (2012). Impacts and implications of major changes caused by the Three Gorges Dam in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Water Resour. Manag. 26: 3367–3378.
  • 20. Reitan O. & Thingstad Pg. (1999). Responses of birds to damming - A review of the influence of lakes, dams and reservoirs on bird ecology. Ornis Norvegica 22(1):3-37.
  • 21. Isaksson C. (2018). Impact of Urbanization on Birds. Bird Species: How They Arise, Modify and Vanish pp 235-257. 22. Kirk D. A., Lindsay K.E. & Brook R.W. (2011). Risk of agricultural practices and habitat change to farmland birds. Avian Conservation and Ecology 6(1): 5http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ACE-00446-060105
  • 23. Kiziroğlu İ. (1989). Türkiye Kuşları (Kımızı Listede Olanlar ve Bulundukları Bölgeler). Orman Genel Müdürlüğü, Eğitim Daire Başkalığı, Yayın ve Tanıtım Şube Müdürlüğü 314 s. Ankara.
  • 24. Kociolek A.V., Clevenger A., Cassady C. & Proppe D.S. (2011). Effects of Road Networks on Bird Populations Conservation Biology 25(2):241-9 DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01635.x
  • 25. Lopez A.B, Alkemade R., Schipper A.M., Ingram D.J., Verweij P.A., Eikelboom, J.A.J. & Huijbregts, M.A.J. (2017). The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations. Science 356(6334): 180-183 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaj1891
  • 26. Loss S.R., Will T. & Marra P.P. (2014). Refining estimates of bird collision and electrocution mortality at power lines in the united states. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101565. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101565
  • 27. Lyon L.J., Crawford H.S., Czuhaı E., Frederıksen R.L., Harlow R.F., Metz L.L. & Pearson, H.A. (1978). Effects of Fire on Fauna: A State of Knowledge Review. Gen. Tech. Report WO - 6. Washington, OC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 22 p.
  • 28. Lyon L.J., Huff M.H., Telfer E.S., Schreıner D.S. & Smıth L.K. (2000). Fire effects on animal populations. Wildland Fire in Ecosystems, Effects of Fire on Fauna. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS - GTR 42(I): 25-34.
  • 29. Miller J.R., Wiens J.A., Hobbs T.N. & Theobald D.M. (2003). Effects of human settlement on bird communities in lowland riparian areas of Colorado (USA). Ecological Society of America, Ecological Applications. 13(4): 1041–1059. 30. Mineau P. & Whiteside M. (2013). Pesticide acute toxicity is a better correlate of U.S. grassland bird declines than agricultural intensification. PLOS One. DOI:10.31371/journak.pone.0057457.
  • 31. Mitra A., Chatterjee C. & Mandal F.B. (2011). Synthetic chemical pesticides and their effects on birds. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 5: 81-96. DOI: 10.3923/rjet.2011.81.96
  • 32. Onnerod S.J. & Tyler S.J. (1993). Birds as indicators of changes water quality. Birds as Monitors of Environmental Change pp 179-216. | 33. Özkazanç N.K. (2016). The importance of birds in biological control and insectivorous bird species determined in Bartın. International Journal of Bartın Faculty of Forestry. 18(2): 55-64 ISSN: 1302-0943 EISSN: 1308-5875.
  • 34. Özkazanç N.K. & Ertuğrul M. (2011). Orman Yangınlarının Fauna Üzerine Etkileri. Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 13(19): 128-135.
  • 35. van der Ree, R. (1999). Barbed wire fencing as a hazard for wildlife. Victorian Naturalist 116:210-217.
  • 36. Saidur R., Rahim N.A., Islam M.R. & Solangi K.H. (2011). Environmental impact of wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15: 2423–2430.
  • 37. Schüz, E. (1972). Grundriss der Vögezugskunde, Paul Parey Verlag, Berlin.
  • 38. Sokos C.K., Birtsas P.K., Connelly J.W. & Konstantinos G. (2019). Hunting of migratory birds: disturbance intolerant or harvest tolerant? Papaspyropoulos Source: Wildlife Biology, 19(2) : 113-125 Published By: Nordic Board for Wildlife Research URL:https://doi.org/10.2981/12-032
  • 39. Sovacool B.K. (2012). The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 9(4): 255-278, DOI: 10.1080/1943815X.2012.746993
  • 40. Şekercioğlu Ç.H. (2006). Increasing awareness of avian ecological function. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21(8): 465-471.
  • 41. Şekercioğlu Ç.H., Schneider T.H., Fay J.P. & Loarie S.R. (2007). Climate change, elevational range shifts, and bird extinctions. Conservation Biology, 22(1): 140–150. 42. Şenel M.C. 2012. Rüzgar türbinlerinde güç iletim mekanizmalarının tasarım esasları-dinamik davranış. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Samsun.
  • 43. Tabur M.A. & Ayvaz Y. (2010). Kuşların ekolojik önemi. Conference: Second International Symposium on Sustainable Development. June 8-9 2010.At: Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Volume: 560-565.
  • 44. Tan R. (2019). World Migratory Bird Day. https://wildshores.blogspot.com/2014/05/10-11-may-world-migratory-bird-day.html#.XTcFwOgzbIV
  • 45. Turan N. (1990). Türkiye’nin Av ve Yaban Hayvanları-Kuşlar. Orman Genel Müdürlüğü, Eğitim Daire Başkanlığı, Yayın ve Tanıtma Şube Müdürlüğü. Sıra No: 675, Yayın No:61.
  • 46. URL-1, (2018). http://www.milliparklar.gov.tr/haberler/ülkemizde-görülen-kuş-türü-sayisi-485-oldu
  • 47. URL-2 (2018). http://www.longozukoru.org/longoz/detay/Kuslar/17/10/0
  • 48. URL-3 (2019). https://www.massaudubon.org/learn/nature-wildlife/birds/common-bird-parasites-diseases
  • 49. URL-4 (2019). https://www.rspb.org.uk/birds-and-wildlife/advice/how-you-can-help-birds/disease-and-garden-wildlife/diseases-in-garden-birds/
  • 50. URL-5 (2019). http://www.birdsandblooms.com/birding/birding-basics/wild-bird-diseases/
  • 51. URL-6 (2019). https://ca.audubon.org/news/drought-and-birds
  • 52. URL-7 (2019) https://www.thespruce.com/natural-disasters-and-birds-386487
  • 53. URL-8 (2008) http://www.worldmigratorybirdday.org/2008/index5218.html?option=com_ content&view=article&id=26&phpMyAdmin=19bc4b88ec8et5959b806&Itemid=3
  • 54. URL-9 (2018) https://findingnature.co.uk/air-pollution-affects-birds/
  • 55. URL-10 (2015) https://www.carbonbrief.org/bird-death-and-wind-turbines-a-look-at-the-evidence
  • 56. URL-11 (2018) https://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Bird_Population_Trends_ and_Impact_on_Aviation_Safety
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  • 59. Wolfenden A. (2017). The effects of aircraft noise on avian communities and communication PhD candidate: Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology School of Science and the Environment Manchester Metropolitan University.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Temel Bilimler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Nuri Kaan ÖZKAZANÇ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
BARTIN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, BARTIN ORMAN FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-7098-447X
Türkiye


Emir ÖZAY>
BARTIN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, BARTIN ORMAN FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-8213-2725
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Temmuz 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 2, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { jonas588852, journal = {Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences}, eissn = {2667-5048}, address = {Bartın Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Ağdacı Kampüsü 74100-BARTIN}, publisher = {Bartın Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {2}, number = {1}, pages = {77 - 89}, title = {THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS}, key = {cite}, author = {Özkazanç, Nuri Kaan and Özay, Emir} }
APA Özkazanç, N. K. & Özay, E. (2019). THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS . Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences , 2 (1) , 77-89 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jonas/issue/47366/588852
MLA Özkazanç, N. K. , Özay, E. "THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS" . Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences 2 (2019 ): 77-89 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jonas/issue/47366/588852>
Chicago Özkazanç, N. K. , Özay, E. "THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS". Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences 2 (2019 ): 77-89
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS AU - Nuri KaanÖzkazanç, EmirÖzay Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 77 EP - 89 VL - 2 IS - 1 SN - -2667-5048 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Bartın Üniversitesi Uluslararası Fen Bilimleri Dergisi THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS %A Nuri Kaan Özkazanç , Emir Özay %T THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS %D 2019 %J Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences %P -2667-5048 %V 2 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Özkazanç, Nuri Kaan , Özay, Emir . "THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS". Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences 2 / 1 (Temmuz 2019): 77-89 .
AMA Özkazanç N. K. , Özay E. THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS. JONAS. 2019; 2(1): 77-89.
Vancouver Özkazanç N. K. , Özay E. THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS. Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 2019; 2(1): 77-89.
IEEE N. K. Özkazanç ve E. Özay , "THE FACTORS THAT THREATEN THE MIGRATORY BIRDS", Bartın University International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, c. 2, sayı. 1, ss. 77-89, Tem. 2019