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Divorce, Loss and Grief: An Overview of Their Effect on Children and Adolescents and Theoretical Framework

Yıl 2021, Cilt 4, Sayı 2, 297 - 308, 29.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.53047/josse.945281

Öz

Evlilik sürecinde anne ve babalar çocuklarının ruhsal sağlıkları, sosyal ve duygusal gelişimleri için oldukça önemli bir rol üstlenirler. Anne ve babasıyla huzurlu bir ortamda büyüyen, ebeveyn kaybı yaşamayan çocukların gelişimleri daha sağlıklı olmaktadır. Ancak aile içinde sıklıkla ve şiddetli şekilde çatışma ve anlaşmazlıkların yaşanması çocukları birçok yönden olumsuz olarak etkilemektedir. Yetişkinler gibi çocuk ve ergenler de yaşamları boyunca birçok olumsuz deneyimle karşılaşabilirler. Sevilen bir kişiyi kaybetme deneyimi bireylerde hüzün, kaygı, umutsuzluk, öfke, suçluluk gibi duygular da ortaya çıkarabilir. Kişilik, sosyal, duygusal ve psikolojik gelişimin devam ettiği çocukluk ve ergenlik dönemindeki bireyler de bu olumsuz yaşantılardan ciddi ölçüde etkilenebilmektedir. Bu bağlamda bu araştırmada alanyazından hareketle ebeveynlerin boşanması, kayıp ve yas süreçlerine ilişkin kuramsal bilgilere yer verilmiş ve bu yaşantıların çocuk ve ergenler üzerindeki etkileri tartışılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Aktaş-Akoğlu, Ö. A., & Küçükkaragöz, H. (2018). A Research on the reasons of divorce and difficulties encountered following divorce: A case study in İzmir. Society and Social Work, 29(1), 153-172.
  • Anderson, J. (2014). The impact of family structure on the health of children: Effects of divorce. The Linacre Quarterly, 81(4), 378-387.
  • Attepe. S. (2010). Anne baba kaybının çocuklar üzerindeki etkileri. Sosyal Politika Çalışmaları Dergisi, 6(23), 23-28.
  • Balk, D. E. (1981). Sibling death during adolescence: Self-concept and bereave¬ment reactions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  • Bildik, T. (2013). Death, loss, grief and complicated grief. Ege Journal of Medicine, 52(4), 223-229.
  • Bilici, A. B. (2014). The Psycho-social effects of a divorce process on children. Cumhuriyet University Theology Journal, 18(2), 79-110.
  • Binay, M. (2018). Analysis of the causes for divorce in Turkey and alternative dispute methods. Ombudsman Academic, 5(9), 237-267.
  • Çakmak, S., Gedikli, H., Demirkol, M. E., & Tamam, L. (2018). Effects of parental divorcement on ımpulsivity in adolescence. Journal of Clinic Psychiatry, 21(2), 137-147.
  • Emery, R.E. (2003). Marriage, divorce and children’s adjustment. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası.
  • Erdim, L., & Ergün, A. (2016). The effects of divorce on parents and children. Journal of Health Sciences and Professions, 3(1), 78-84.
  • Fiyakalı, C. N. (2008). The comparision of the trait anger and anger expression styles of the high school students wıth divorced and nondivorced parents. Master Thesis. Pamukkale University Social Sciences Institute, Denizli.
  • Geçtan, E. (1990). Varoluş ve psikiyatri. İstanbul: Metis.
  • Geniş, M., Toker, B., & Şakiroğlu, M. (2019). Effect of divorce on children, expression to the child and parental alienation: Review study. Journal of Adnan Menderes University Health Sciences Faculty, 3(3), 190-199.
  • Goodman, R. F. (2007). Children and grief: What they know, how they feel, how to help. Retrieved, 6(18), 2012-2021.
  • Granot, T. (2005). Without you: Children and young people growing up with loss and its effects. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Gregory, N. Ö. (2016). Divorce or continue marriage for child? An ımportant question about psychological adjustment of child. -Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 8(3), 275-289.
  • Güloğlu, B., & Karaırmak, Ö. (2017). Attachment styles and psychological tendencies in intimate relations in paternal loss in early childhood. The Journal of Turkısh Psychologıcal Counselıng And Guıdance, 7(47), 99-115.
  • Hazzard, A., Weston, J., & Gutterres, C. (1992). After a child’s death: Factors related to parental bereavement. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pe¬diatrics. 13(1), 24-30.
  • Herdman, E. A. (2006). Guidelines for Conducting a Literature Review and Presenting Conference Papers, Journal of Educatıon and Research in Nursing, 3(1), 2-4.
  • Kaya, K., & Eren, G. T. (2020). Reasons for increasing divorce and early divorce. Journal of Social, Humanities and Administrative Sciences, 3(9), 708-728.
  • Kaytez, N. (2020). Death and Effects on The Child. Eurasian Journal of Health Scıences, 3(3), 171-176.
  • Keser, E. (2019). Investigation of prolonged grief symptoms in bereaved adults within the context of continuing bonds, cognitions on continuing bonds, and meaning reconstruction. Master Thesis. Hacettepe University Social Sciences Institute, Ankara.
  • Küçükali, R. (2018). Çocuk ve aile. Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.
  • Maddocks, I. (2003). Grief and bereavement. The Medical Journal of Australia, 179 (6), 6-7.
  • McCoyd, J. L., Koller, J., & Walter, C. A. (2021). Grief and loss across the lifespan: A biopsychosocial perspective. Springer Publishing Company.
  • Neimeyer, R. A. (1999). Narrative strategies in grief therapy. Journal of Constructive Psychology, 12, 65-85.
  • Öngider, N. (2013). Effects of divorce on children. Current Approaches in Psychiatry. 5(2), 140-161.
  • Öngören, S. (2017). Divorce and effects of divorce on children in early childhood. The Journal of International Education Science, (13), 73-87.
  • Öz, İ. (2005). Anne-baba olma sanatı. İstanbul: Alfa.
  • Özdal, F., & Aral, N. (2005). A study on anxiety levels of children having fatherless and living with mother and father. Ahi Evran University Kırşehir Faculty of Education Journal, 6(2), 255-267.
  • Özgüven, İ. E. (2000). Evlilik ve aile terapisi. Ankara: Nobel Akademik.
  • Öztürk, S. (2006). The relation between the self esteem and the anxiety levels of children between the age-9-13 whose parents had divorced and the same range of whpm are not divorced. Master Thesis. Dokuz Eylül University Institute of Education Sciences, İzmir.
  • Sancaklı, D. (2014). Divorced mothers' and their childrens' experiences about divorce process. Master Thesis. Maltepe University Institute of Social Sciences, İstanbul.
  • Sezal, İ. (1996). Aile nedir. Ankara: Başbakanlık Yayınevi.
  • Şener, A. ve Terzioğlu, G. (2008). Study on some socio-economic and demographic variables and communication effect on the marital adjustment. Journal of Family and Society Education-Culture, 10 (1), 7-19.
  • Şenol, S. (2006). Çocuk ve gençlik ruh sağlığı. Ankara: Hyb Yayıncılık.
  • Şirvanlı, D. (1999). The effects of marital conflict and divorce on children I: Behavior and adjustment problems. Turkish Journal of Child And Adolescent Mental Health, 6(1), 19-29.
  • Tarhan, N. (2012). Aile okulu. İstanbul: Timaş.
  • Tatarer, Z. (2020). The impact of the psychological resilience programme for children and adolescents on the psychological level of children who have experienced father loss. Master Thesis. İbn Haldun University Graduate Institute of Education, İstanbul.
  • TÜIK (2020, 26 Şubat). Marriage and divorce statistics. https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33708
  • Turkish Psychological Association (2014). Grief in children: A parent handbook. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayınevi.
  • Türkarslan, N. (2007). The negative İmpacts of divorce on children and the ways to cope with Them. Family and Society. 3(11), 99-108.
  • Uluğ, Ö.Ş. (2008). The effect of parental loss and separation on depression levels in university students. Master Thesis. Kocaeli University Health Sciences Institute, Kocaeli.
  • Üzbe-Atalay, N., & Kurt-Ulucan, T. (2018). Development process of resilience: A qualitative study on adolescents with divorced parents Introduction. The Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 16(2), 176-196.
  • Vural, G. (2021). Çocuklarda ebeveyn kaybı ile ebeveyn boşanmasının travmatik etkileri. Ankara: İKSAD.
  • Wilson, J. (2014). Supporting people through loss and grief: An introduction for counsellors and other caring practitioners. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Winokuer, H. R., ve Harris, D. (2016). Principles and practice of grief counseling. (Second Edition). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Worden, J. W. (2009). Grief counseling and grief therapy: A handbook for mental health practitioner (4. Ed.). New York: Springer Publishing.
  • World Health Organization (2016). The top 10 causes of death. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/
  • Yörükoğlu, A. (2012). Çocuk ruh sağlığı. İstanbul: Özgür Yayınları.
  • Zara, A. (2011). Losses, grief reactions and the grief process. Yaşadıkça, 73-90.
  • Zisook, S., Shuchter, S. R., Irwin, M., Darko, D. F., Sledge, P., & Resovsky, K. (1994). Bere-avement, depression, and immune function. Psychiatry Research, 52(1), 1-10.

Divorce, Loss and Grief: An Overview of Their Effect on Children and Adolescents and Theoretical Framework

Yıl 2021, Cilt 4, Sayı 2, 297 - 308, 29.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.53047/josse.945281

Öz

During the marriage process, parents play a very important role for their children's mental health, social and emotional development. The development of children who grow up in a peaceful environment with their parents and do not experience parental loss is healthy. However, frequent and severe conflicts and disagreements within the family affect children negatively in many ways. Like adults, children and adolescents may encounter many negative experiences throughout their lives. The experience of losing a loved one can also reveal feelings such as sadness, anxiety, hopelessness, anger, and guilt. Individuals in childhood and adolescence, whose personality, social, emotional and psychological development continue, can also be seriously affected by these negative experiences. In this context, in this study, theoretical information about the divorce of parents, loss and grief processes were examined based on the literature, and the effects of these experiences on children and adolescents were discussed.

Kaynakça

  • Aktaş-Akoğlu, Ö. A., & Küçükkaragöz, H. (2018). A Research on the reasons of divorce and difficulties encountered following divorce: A case study in İzmir. Society and Social Work, 29(1), 153-172.
  • Anderson, J. (2014). The impact of family structure on the health of children: Effects of divorce. The Linacre Quarterly, 81(4), 378-387.
  • Attepe. S. (2010). Anne baba kaybının çocuklar üzerindeki etkileri. Sosyal Politika Çalışmaları Dergisi, 6(23), 23-28.
  • Balk, D. E. (1981). Sibling death during adolescence: Self-concept and bereave¬ment reactions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  • Bildik, T. (2013). Death, loss, grief and complicated grief. Ege Journal of Medicine, 52(4), 223-229.
  • Bilici, A. B. (2014). The Psycho-social effects of a divorce process on children. Cumhuriyet University Theology Journal, 18(2), 79-110.
  • Binay, M. (2018). Analysis of the causes for divorce in Turkey and alternative dispute methods. Ombudsman Academic, 5(9), 237-267.
  • Çakmak, S., Gedikli, H., Demirkol, M. E., & Tamam, L. (2018). Effects of parental divorcement on ımpulsivity in adolescence. Journal of Clinic Psychiatry, 21(2), 137-147.
  • Emery, R.E. (2003). Marriage, divorce and children’s adjustment. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası.
  • Erdim, L., & Ergün, A. (2016). The effects of divorce on parents and children. Journal of Health Sciences and Professions, 3(1), 78-84.
  • Fiyakalı, C. N. (2008). The comparision of the trait anger and anger expression styles of the high school students wıth divorced and nondivorced parents. Master Thesis. Pamukkale University Social Sciences Institute, Denizli.
  • Geçtan, E. (1990). Varoluş ve psikiyatri. İstanbul: Metis.
  • Geniş, M., Toker, B., & Şakiroğlu, M. (2019). Effect of divorce on children, expression to the child and parental alienation: Review study. Journal of Adnan Menderes University Health Sciences Faculty, 3(3), 190-199.
  • Goodman, R. F. (2007). Children and grief: What they know, how they feel, how to help. Retrieved, 6(18), 2012-2021.
  • Granot, T. (2005). Without you: Children and young people growing up with loss and its effects. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Gregory, N. Ö. (2016). Divorce or continue marriage for child? An ımportant question about psychological adjustment of child. -Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 8(3), 275-289.
  • Güloğlu, B., & Karaırmak, Ö. (2017). Attachment styles and psychological tendencies in intimate relations in paternal loss in early childhood. The Journal of Turkısh Psychologıcal Counselıng And Guıdance, 7(47), 99-115.
  • Hazzard, A., Weston, J., & Gutterres, C. (1992). After a child’s death: Factors related to parental bereavement. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pe¬diatrics. 13(1), 24-30.
  • Herdman, E. A. (2006). Guidelines for Conducting a Literature Review and Presenting Conference Papers, Journal of Educatıon and Research in Nursing, 3(1), 2-4.
  • Kaya, K., & Eren, G. T. (2020). Reasons for increasing divorce and early divorce. Journal of Social, Humanities and Administrative Sciences, 3(9), 708-728.
  • Kaytez, N. (2020). Death and Effects on The Child. Eurasian Journal of Health Scıences, 3(3), 171-176.
  • Keser, E. (2019). Investigation of prolonged grief symptoms in bereaved adults within the context of continuing bonds, cognitions on continuing bonds, and meaning reconstruction. Master Thesis. Hacettepe University Social Sciences Institute, Ankara.
  • Küçükali, R. (2018). Çocuk ve aile. Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.
  • Maddocks, I. (2003). Grief and bereavement. The Medical Journal of Australia, 179 (6), 6-7.
  • McCoyd, J. L., Koller, J., & Walter, C. A. (2021). Grief and loss across the lifespan: A biopsychosocial perspective. Springer Publishing Company.
  • Neimeyer, R. A. (1999). Narrative strategies in grief therapy. Journal of Constructive Psychology, 12, 65-85.
  • Öngider, N. (2013). Effects of divorce on children. Current Approaches in Psychiatry. 5(2), 140-161.
  • Öngören, S. (2017). Divorce and effects of divorce on children in early childhood. The Journal of International Education Science, (13), 73-87.
  • Öz, İ. (2005). Anne-baba olma sanatı. İstanbul: Alfa.
  • Özdal, F., & Aral, N. (2005). A study on anxiety levels of children having fatherless and living with mother and father. Ahi Evran University Kırşehir Faculty of Education Journal, 6(2), 255-267.
  • Özgüven, İ. E. (2000). Evlilik ve aile terapisi. Ankara: Nobel Akademik.
  • Öztürk, S. (2006). The relation between the self esteem and the anxiety levels of children between the age-9-13 whose parents had divorced and the same range of whpm are not divorced. Master Thesis. Dokuz Eylül University Institute of Education Sciences, İzmir.
  • Sancaklı, D. (2014). Divorced mothers' and their childrens' experiences about divorce process. Master Thesis. Maltepe University Institute of Social Sciences, İstanbul.
  • Sezal, İ. (1996). Aile nedir. Ankara: Başbakanlık Yayınevi.
  • Şener, A. ve Terzioğlu, G. (2008). Study on some socio-economic and demographic variables and communication effect on the marital adjustment. Journal of Family and Society Education-Culture, 10 (1), 7-19.
  • Şenol, S. (2006). Çocuk ve gençlik ruh sağlığı. Ankara: Hyb Yayıncılık.
  • Şirvanlı, D. (1999). The effects of marital conflict and divorce on children I: Behavior and adjustment problems. Turkish Journal of Child And Adolescent Mental Health, 6(1), 19-29.
  • Tarhan, N. (2012). Aile okulu. İstanbul: Timaş.
  • Tatarer, Z. (2020). The impact of the psychological resilience programme for children and adolescents on the psychological level of children who have experienced father loss. Master Thesis. İbn Haldun University Graduate Institute of Education, İstanbul.
  • TÜIK (2020, 26 Şubat). Marriage and divorce statistics. https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33708
  • Turkish Psychological Association (2014). Grief in children: A parent handbook. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayınevi.
  • Türkarslan, N. (2007). The negative İmpacts of divorce on children and the ways to cope with Them. Family and Society. 3(11), 99-108.
  • Uluğ, Ö.Ş. (2008). The effect of parental loss and separation on depression levels in university students. Master Thesis. Kocaeli University Health Sciences Institute, Kocaeli.
  • Üzbe-Atalay, N., & Kurt-Ulucan, T. (2018). Development process of resilience: A qualitative study on adolescents with divorced parents Introduction. The Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 16(2), 176-196.
  • Vural, G. (2021). Çocuklarda ebeveyn kaybı ile ebeveyn boşanmasının travmatik etkileri. Ankara: İKSAD.
  • Wilson, J. (2014). Supporting people through loss and grief: An introduction for counsellors and other caring practitioners. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Winokuer, H. R., ve Harris, D. (2016). Principles and practice of grief counseling. (Second Edition). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Worden, J. W. (2009). Grief counseling and grief therapy: A handbook for mental health practitioner (4. Ed.). New York: Springer Publishing.
  • World Health Organization (2016). The top 10 causes of death. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/
  • Yörükoğlu, A. (2012). Çocuk ruh sağlığı. İstanbul: Özgür Yayınları.
  • Zara, A. (2011). Losses, grief reactions and the grief process. Yaşadıkça, 73-90.
  • Zisook, S., Shuchter, S. R., Irwin, M., Darko, D. F., Sledge, P., & Resovsky, K. (1994). Bere-avement, depression, and immune function. Psychiatry Research, 52(1), 1-10.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Bölüm Review Article
Yazarlar

Oğuzhan YILDIRIM (Sorumlu Yazar)
ONDOKUZ MAYIS ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8174-9640
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 4, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Yıldırım, O. (2021). Divorce, Loss and Grief: An Overview of Their Effect on Children and Adolescents and Theoretical Framework . Journal of Social Sciences And Education , 4 (2) , 297-308 . DOI: 10.53047/josse.945281

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