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ATTITUDES OF MEDICAL STUDENTS TO VIOLENT DISCIPLINARY METHODS, SOCIAL GENDER ROLES AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL RESEARCH

Yıl 2018, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, 23 - 38, 31.01.2018

Öz

The use of all types of violent disciplinary methods degrading the child including physical punishment is a common violation of children’s rights. As a result, the aim of this study is to investigate the attitudes of medical students related to “violent disciplinary methods, social gender roles and children’s rights” and to examine the correlation between these attitudes. Based on the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child and the child abuse literature, a survey developed by the researcher aiming to measure attitudes and containing 5-point Likert type questions was applied to medical students. The correlations between attitude questions were analyzed with Kendall’s Tau Correlation. The survey was voluntarily completed by medical students in years 1 to 5. Of students 54.1% were female and the mean age was 21.3±2.7 years. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between attitudes that “children may be punished physically” and “the use of some behavior with the aim of demeaning children as a disciplinary method” with attitudes “supporting traditional social gender roles” (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between these violent disciplinary methods and attitudes supporting stereotypical gender roles with “rights of the child” (p<0.05). Students gave the answer “definitely disagree” at a rate of 32.8% in answer to the statement “some harmful traditional applications may be carefully used with the aim of increasing children’s stamina”. Medical students’ attitudes supporting “violent disciplinary methods” and “traditional social gender roles” are an important factor causing attitudes that prevent protection and provision of children’s rights. This study reveals the need for educational interventions aiming to change attitudes of medical students in terms of selective preventive studies.

Kaynakça

  • REFERENCES ADMASSU, F., NIDA, H., BELACHEW, T., AND HAILEAMLAK, A., 2006. Children's Rights and Corporal Punishment in Assendabo Town and the Surrounding Area, South West Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 44(1): 9-16. AKDUMAN, G.G., 2010. Okul öncesi dönem çocuğu olan annelerin uyguladıkları disiplin yöntemlerinin çocuk istismarı açısından değerlendirilmesi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Buca Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 27: 31-43. ALTINOVA, H.H., VE DUYAN, V., 2013. Toplumsal cinsiyet algısı ölçeğinin geçerlik güvenirlik çalışması. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet Dergisi, 24(2): 9-22. ATEAH, C.A., AND DURRANT, J.E., 2005. Maternal use of physical punishment in response to child misbehavior: implications for child abuse prevention. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 169–185. BERLIN, L.J., ISPA, J.M., FINE, M.A., MALONE, P.S., BROOKS-GUNN, J., BRADY-SMITH, C., et al., 2009. Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers. Child Development, 80: 1403–1420. BİÇER, B.K., ÖZCEBE, H., KÖSE, E., ÜNLÜ. H., 2017. Türkiye’de ailelerin fiziksel ceza uygulamalarına bakışı: karşılaştırmalı inceleme. Turkish J Pediatr Dis, 2: 90-7. BİÇER B.K., ÖZCEBE H., DOĞAN B.G., HAZNEDAROĞLU D., BERTAN M., 2016., Üniversite öğrencileri çocuk haklarını ne kadar biliyor?. Turkish J Pediatr Dis, 3: 186-193. BİLİR, Ş., ARI, M., DÖNMEZ B.N., ATİK, B., SAN, P., 1991. Türkiye’nin 16 ilinde 4-12 yaşlar arasındaki 50.473 çocuğa fiziksel ceza verme sıklığı ve buna ilişkin problem durumlarının incelenmesi. Aile ve Toplum, 1: 57-70. ÇETİNKAYA, S.K., 2013. Üniversite öğrencilerinin şiddet eğilimlerinin ve toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin tutumlarının incelenmesi, Nesne, 1(2): 21-43. DAWES, A., KAFAAR, Z., DE SAS KROPIWNICKİ, Z.O., PATHER, R., RICHTER, L. 2004. Partner violence, attitudes to child discipline & the use of corporal punishment: A South African national survey. Cape Town: Child Youth & Family Development, Human Sciences Research Council. DURRANT J., AND ENSOM R., 2012. Physical punishment of children: lessons from 20 years of research. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184: 1373–1377. ESEN, E., SOYLU, Y., SİYEZ, D.M., DEMİRGÜRZ, G., 2017. Üniversite öğrencilerinde toplumsal cinsiyet algısının toplumsal cinsiyet rolü ve cinsiyet değişkenlerine göre incelenmesi. E-Uluslararası Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 8(1): 46-63. FERREIRA, T.M.A., 2014, Children Physical Punishment – The perception of medical students. Thesis, Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto. FRÉCHETTE, S., ZORATTI, M., ROMANO, E., 2015. What is the link between corporal punishment and child physical abuse? J Fam Viol, 30:135–148. GAGNÉ, M.H., TOURİGNY, M., JOLY J., POULİOT-LAPOİNTE J., 2007. Predictors of adult attitudes toward corporal punishment of children. J Interpers Violence, 22(10): 1285–1304.
  • GEBREHİWOT, S.G., 2015. Violent Child Disciplining Practices at Home in Mekelle, Ethiopia: A Child Rights-Based Perspective. International Institute of Social Sciences, Netherland. GERSHOFF, E.T., 2002. Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539-579. GERSHOFF E.T., LEE S. J., DURRANT J.E., 2017. Promising intervention strategies to reduce parents’ use of physical punishment, Child Abuse & Neglect, 71: 9–23. GLOBAL INITIATIVE TO END ALL CORPORAL PUNISHMENT OF CHILDREN, 2017. States which have prohibited all corporal punishment, http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/progress/prohibiting-states/, Date accessed: 18 January 2018. HEWARD B.J., 2011. Comparison Of The Acceptability Of Discipline Practices Between Chinese Medical Students And Residents And Us Medical Students. Yale Medicine Thesis Digital Library. ORHON F.S., ULUKOL B., BİNGOLER B., GULNAR S.B., 2006. Attitudes of Turkish parents, pediatric residents and medical students toward child disciplinary practices. Child Abuse and Neglect, 30: 1081–1092. PINHEIRO P.S., 2006. World Report on Violence Against Children, United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children. POLAT O., 2014. Klinik Adli Tıp Uygulamaları. 7. Baskı, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara, ISBN: 9789750231032. ŞİMSEK, F., ULUKOL, B., BİNGOLER, B., 2004. Çocuk istismarına disiplin penceresinden bakış. Turkish Journal of Forensic Sciences, 3 (1):47 - 52, 2004 TAYLOR, C.A., FLECKMAN, J.M., LEE, S.J., 2017.. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceived norms about corporal punishment and related training needs among members of the “American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children”, Child Abuse & Neglect,71: 56-68. TAYLOR, C. A., HAMVAS, L., RICE, J., NEWMAN, D. L., DEJONG, W. 2011. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishmentamong an urban community sample of parents. Journal of Urban Health, 88: 254–269. TURLA, A., DÜNDAR, C., AND ÖZKANLİ, Ç., 2010. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in a Representative Sample of College Students in Samsun, Turkey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(7): 1298–1308. UÇAR, T., DERYA, Y.A., KARAASLAN, T., TUNÇ, Ö.A., 2017. Üniversite öğrencilerinin toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin tutumları ve şiddet davranışları. STED, 26(3): 96-103. UÇTU, A.K., KARAHAN, N., 2016. Sağlık yüksekokulu öğrencilerinin cinsiyet rolleri, toplumsal cinsiyet algısı ve şiddet eğilimleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(8): 2882-2905. UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD, GENERAL COMMENT NO.13, (2011): The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, (U.N. CRC/C/GC/13), http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e6da4922..html, accessed date: 18 January 2018.
  • UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD, GENERAL COMMENT NO.8, (2006): The Right of the Child to Protection from Corporal Punishment and Other Cruel or Degrading forms of Punishment (U.N.CRC/C/GC/8), http://www.refworld.org/docid/460bc7772.html, Accessed date: 18 January 2018. VITTRUP, B., HOLDEN, G.W., AND BUCK, J., 2006. Attitudes predict the use of physical punishment: a prospective study of the emergence of disciplinary practices. Pediatrics, 117: 2055–2064. WONDE, N.J., AND BARU, D.A. 2014. 'The Dilemma of Corporal Punishment of Children from Parents’ Perspective in some Selected Rural and Urban Communities of Jimma Zone, Oromia/Ethiopia', Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research 14(4): 17-27. WORLD REPORT ON VIOLENCE AND HEALTH, 2002, Geneva, World Health Organization. WORLD HEALTH ORGANİZATİON, 2009. Violence Prevention the Evidence: Changing Cultural and Social Norms that Support Violence. Malta: WHO. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44147/1/9789241598330_eng.pdf, Date accessed: 12 January 2017.

Yıl 2018, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, 23 - 38, 31.01.2018

Öz

Kaynakça

  • REFERENCES ADMASSU, F., NIDA, H., BELACHEW, T., AND HAILEAMLAK, A., 2006. Children's Rights and Corporal Punishment in Assendabo Town and the Surrounding Area, South West Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 44(1): 9-16. AKDUMAN, G.G., 2010. Okul öncesi dönem çocuğu olan annelerin uyguladıkları disiplin yöntemlerinin çocuk istismarı açısından değerlendirilmesi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Buca Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 27: 31-43. ALTINOVA, H.H., VE DUYAN, V., 2013. Toplumsal cinsiyet algısı ölçeğinin geçerlik güvenirlik çalışması. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet Dergisi, 24(2): 9-22. ATEAH, C.A., AND DURRANT, J.E., 2005. Maternal use of physical punishment in response to child misbehavior: implications for child abuse prevention. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 169–185. BERLIN, L.J., ISPA, J.M., FINE, M.A., MALONE, P.S., BROOKS-GUNN, J., BRADY-SMITH, C., et al., 2009. Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers. Child Development, 80: 1403–1420. BİÇER, B.K., ÖZCEBE, H., KÖSE, E., ÜNLÜ. H., 2017. Türkiye’de ailelerin fiziksel ceza uygulamalarına bakışı: karşılaştırmalı inceleme. Turkish J Pediatr Dis, 2: 90-7. BİÇER B.K., ÖZCEBE H., DOĞAN B.G., HAZNEDAROĞLU D., BERTAN M., 2016., Üniversite öğrencileri çocuk haklarını ne kadar biliyor?. Turkish J Pediatr Dis, 3: 186-193. BİLİR, Ş., ARI, M., DÖNMEZ B.N., ATİK, B., SAN, P., 1991. Türkiye’nin 16 ilinde 4-12 yaşlar arasındaki 50.473 çocuğa fiziksel ceza verme sıklığı ve buna ilişkin problem durumlarının incelenmesi. Aile ve Toplum, 1: 57-70. ÇETİNKAYA, S.K., 2013. Üniversite öğrencilerinin şiddet eğilimlerinin ve toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin tutumlarının incelenmesi, Nesne, 1(2): 21-43. DAWES, A., KAFAAR, Z., DE SAS KROPIWNICKİ, Z.O., PATHER, R., RICHTER, L. 2004. Partner violence, attitudes to child discipline & the use of corporal punishment: A South African national survey. Cape Town: Child Youth & Family Development, Human Sciences Research Council. DURRANT J., AND ENSOM R., 2012. Physical punishment of children: lessons from 20 years of research. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184: 1373–1377. ESEN, E., SOYLU, Y., SİYEZ, D.M., DEMİRGÜRZ, G., 2017. Üniversite öğrencilerinde toplumsal cinsiyet algısının toplumsal cinsiyet rolü ve cinsiyet değişkenlerine göre incelenmesi. E-Uluslararası Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 8(1): 46-63. FERREIRA, T.M.A., 2014, Children Physical Punishment – The perception of medical students. Thesis, Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto. FRÉCHETTE, S., ZORATTI, M., ROMANO, E., 2015. What is the link between corporal punishment and child physical abuse? J Fam Viol, 30:135–148. GAGNÉ, M.H., TOURİGNY, M., JOLY J., POULİOT-LAPOİNTE J., 2007. Predictors of adult attitudes toward corporal punishment of children. J Interpers Violence, 22(10): 1285–1304.
  • GEBREHİWOT, S.G., 2015. Violent Child Disciplining Practices at Home in Mekelle, Ethiopia: A Child Rights-Based Perspective. International Institute of Social Sciences, Netherland. GERSHOFF, E.T., 2002. Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539-579. GERSHOFF E.T., LEE S. J., DURRANT J.E., 2017. Promising intervention strategies to reduce parents’ use of physical punishment, Child Abuse & Neglect, 71: 9–23. GLOBAL INITIATIVE TO END ALL CORPORAL PUNISHMENT OF CHILDREN, 2017. States which have prohibited all corporal punishment, http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/progress/prohibiting-states/, Date accessed: 18 January 2018. HEWARD B.J., 2011. Comparison Of The Acceptability Of Discipline Practices Between Chinese Medical Students And Residents And Us Medical Students. Yale Medicine Thesis Digital Library. ORHON F.S., ULUKOL B., BİNGOLER B., GULNAR S.B., 2006. Attitudes of Turkish parents, pediatric residents and medical students toward child disciplinary practices. Child Abuse and Neglect, 30: 1081–1092. PINHEIRO P.S., 2006. World Report on Violence Against Children, United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children. POLAT O., 2014. Klinik Adli Tıp Uygulamaları. 7. Baskı, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara, ISBN: 9789750231032. ŞİMSEK, F., ULUKOL, B., BİNGOLER, B., 2004. Çocuk istismarına disiplin penceresinden bakış. Turkish Journal of Forensic Sciences, 3 (1):47 - 52, 2004 TAYLOR, C.A., FLECKMAN, J.M., LEE, S.J., 2017.. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceived norms about corporal punishment and related training needs among members of the “American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children”, Child Abuse & Neglect,71: 56-68. TAYLOR, C. A., HAMVAS, L., RICE, J., NEWMAN, D. L., DEJONG, W. 2011. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishmentamong an urban community sample of parents. Journal of Urban Health, 88: 254–269. TURLA, A., DÜNDAR, C., AND ÖZKANLİ, Ç., 2010. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in a Representative Sample of College Students in Samsun, Turkey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(7): 1298–1308. UÇAR, T., DERYA, Y.A., KARAASLAN, T., TUNÇ, Ö.A., 2017. Üniversite öğrencilerinin toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin tutumları ve şiddet davranışları. STED, 26(3): 96-103. UÇTU, A.K., KARAHAN, N., 2016. Sağlık yüksekokulu öğrencilerinin cinsiyet rolleri, toplumsal cinsiyet algısı ve şiddet eğilimleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(8): 2882-2905. UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD, GENERAL COMMENT NO.13, (2011): The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, (U.N. CRC/C/GC/13), http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e6da4922..html, accessed date: 18 January 2018.
  • UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD, GENERAL COMMENT NO.8, (2006): The Right of the Child to Protection from Corporal Punishment and Other Cruel or Degrading forms of Punishment (U.N.CRC/C/GC/8), http://www.refworld.org/docid/460bc7772.html, Accessed date: 18 January 2018. VITTRUP, B., HOLDEN, G.W., AND BUCK, J., 2006. Attitudes predict the use of physical punishment: a prospective study of the emergence of disciplinary practices. Pediatrics, 117: 2055–2064. WONDE, N.J., AND BARU, D.A. 2014. 'The Dilemma of Corporal Punishment of Children from Parents’ Perspective in some Selected Rural and Urban Communities of Jimma Zone, Oromia/Ethiopia', Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research 14(4): 17-27. WORLD REPORT ON VIOLENCE AND HEALTH, 2002, Geneva, World Health Organization. WORLD HEALTH ORGANİZATİON, 2009. Violence Prevention the Evidence: Changing Cultural and Social Norms that Support Violence. Malta: WHO. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44147/1/9789241598330_eng.pdf, Date accessed: 12 January 2017.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Tıp
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Esin AKGÜL KALKAN>

Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ocak 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 2, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Akgül Kalkan, E. (2018). ATTITUDES OF MEDICAL STUDENTS TO VIOLENT DISCIPLINARY METHODS, SOCIAL GENDER ROLES AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL RESEARCH . Journal of Scientific Perspectives , 2 (1) , 23-38 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jsp/issue/36400/410486