Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

AN ASSESMENT OF EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN MARITIME BOUNDARY DELIMITATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN TURKEY AND LIBYA

Yıl 2020, Cilt 30, Sayı 1, 51 - 84, 30.06.2020

Öz

In recent years, the Eastern Mediterranean hydrocarbon discoveries is one of the hot topic. Related to it, maritime jurisdiction area disputes have occurred in the region. The most important one is the Turkey- Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) and Greek Cypriot State (GCA) dispute. Turkey, made an agreement with Libya on November, 2019 against ongoing dispute and unlawful activities. As a result of it, Turkey and Libya became coastal neighbors, and two littoral states. Agreement has strong impact on entire political and economic situation in the Eastern Mediterranean, particularly, regional and global actors competition on energy resources. Agreement will definitely change proxy war balances which is conducted by global actors such as the USA, Russia and the European Union (EU). The ongoing civil war in Libya is the active and passive component of this agreement. Regional and global actors reacted very sharply to the agreement because of their interest and plans about region are deteriorated. In this study, the impact of the agreement on Eastern Mediterranean hydrocarbon activities, regional and global actors, Libyan Civil War, Eastmed Pipeline project and the Turkey-TRNC-GCA dispute are evaluated. Agreement’s legality is analyzed accompanying with Libya’s political situation and diplomatic relations with Turkey. Finally, Turkey’s important role and place in the Eastern Mediterranean is considered to explain the importance of the agreement.

Kaynakça

  • Aksu, Z, Eminoğlu, A. (2019). Bm İnsani Müdahale Kararları ve Nato’nun Libya Müdahalesi. ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi. 322-330. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/assam/issue/48907/578818
  • Alhas, Murat A. (2019). Turkish-Libyan maritime pact a game changer in E.Med. Anadolu Ajansı. Retrieved from https://www.aa.com.tr/en/politics/turkish-libyan-maritime-pact-a-game-changer-in-emed/1671447
  • Aliriza, B. (2020). Erdogan's Libyan Gambit. CSIS. Retrieved from https://www.csis.org/analysis/erdogans-libyan-gambit
  • AlJazeera. (2020). Four Mediterranean countries call Turkey-GNA deals 'void'. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/mediterranean-countries-call-turkey-gna-deals-void-200109062417867.html
  • AlJazeera. (2020). Libya's Haftar secretly flies to Greece ahead of Berlin summit. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/libya-haftar-secretly-flies-greece-berlin-summit-200116212706542.html
  • Anadolu Ajansı. (2019). Paylaşılamayan deniz: Doğu Akdeniz'de Türkiye'siz denklem mümkün mü?. Retrieved from https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/dunya/paylasilamayan-deniz-dogu-akdenizde-turkiyesiz-denklem-mumkun-mu/1677295
  • Anadolu Ajansı. (2019). Turkey’s stance in the Eastern Mediterranean is clear. Retrieved from https://www.aa.com.tr/en/info/infographic/14896#!
  • Bag, M. (2020). Libya'da kim kiminle savaşıyor? Türkiye ve uluslararası güçler hangi tarafı destekliyor?. Euro News. Retrieved from https://tr.euronews.com/2020/01/02/libya-da-neler-oluyor-kim-kiminle-neden-savasiyor
  • Barltrop, R. (2019). Oil and Gas in a New Libyan Era. OIES. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Oil-and-Gas-in-a-New-Libyan-Era-Conflict-and-Continuity-MEP-22.pdf?v=ebe021079e5a Başeren, S. H. (2011). Doğu Akdeniz Yetki Alanları Uyuşmazlığı. TÜDAV İstanbul.
  • Başpınar, H . (2017). Libya: Politics & Energy. Energy Policy Turkey , (4) , 47-57 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ept/issue/31249/340276
  • BBC. (2018). Doğu Akdeniz - Kıbrıs'taki Doğalgaz Gerginliği Hakkında Bilinmesi Gerekenler. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-turkiye-43061162
  • BBC. (2019). Libya country profile. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13754897
  • BBC. (2020a). Why is Libya so lawless?. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-24472322
  • BBC. (2020b). Libya conflict: Turkey confirms first soldiers killed. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-51626743
  • BBC. (2020c). Libya conflict: Turkey sends troops to shore up UN-backed government. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-51003034
  • Bershidsky, L. (2020). Libya’s Endless War Is What Happens If the U.S. Won’t Lead. Bloomberg. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-01-14/libya-s-endless-war-is-what-happens-if-the-u-s-won-t-lead
  • BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019. (2019). BP. Retrieved from https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019-full-report.pdf
  • Business Insider. (2019). Greece to expel Libyan ambassador over Turkey-Libya Accord. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/greece-to-expel-libyan-ambassador-over-turkey-libya-accord-2019-12
  • CNN. (2004). Key facts: Libya sanctions. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/africa/02/10/libya.sanctions.facts/
  • Cohen, A. (2020). Turkey-Libya Maritime Deal Upsets Mediterranean Energy Plan. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2020/01/08/turkey-libya-maritime-deal-upsets-mediterranean-energy-plan/#6209c3ff6bee
  • Cristiani, D. (2020). A Piece of a Greater Puzzle: The Libyan Civil War, External Influences and Regional Trends. GMFUS. Retrieved from http://www.gmfus.org/commentary/piece-greater-puzzle-libyan-civil-war-external-influences-and-regional-trends
  • Cyprus Mail. (2019). Our View: Reckless energy game Cyprus can never win must end. Retrieved from https://cyprus-mail.com/2019/12/15/our-view-reckless-energy-game-cyprus-can-never-win-must-end/
  • Delek Drilling. (2020). Aphrodite Gas Field. Retrieved from https://www.delekdrilling.com/project/aphrodite-gas-field
  • Demirtaş, S. (2019). Turkey-Libya deal seen as a game-changer in east Med. Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved from https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/opinion/serkan-demirtas/turkey-libya-deal-seen-as-a-game-changer-in-east-med-149285
  • Doğu Akdeniz’de Enerji Keşifleri ve Türkiye. (2013) Bilgesam. İstanbul. Retrieved from http://www.bilgesam.org/Images/Dokumanlar/3-2- 2014011746dogu_akdeniz.pdf
  • Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas Pipeline – Pre-FEED Studies. (2020). European Union European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/inea/en/connecting-europe-facility/cef-energy/7.3.1-0025-elcy-s-m-15 Erdağ, R. (2017). Libya in the Arab Spring: from revolution to insecurity. Springer.
  • Erlanger, S. & Griedneff, M. (2020). Why Europe in finally getting attention to Libya. NY Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/17/world/europe/libya-eu-russia-turkey.html
  • Financial Times. (2020). Libya: how regional rivalries fuel the civil war. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/c113d340-51b1-11ea-90ad-25e377c0ee1f Fraihat, I. (2016). Unfinished revolutions: Yemen, Libya, and Tunisia after the Arab spring. Yale University Press.
  • France 24. (2011). Turkey reluctantly joins NATO operations against Libya. Retrieved from https://www.france24.com/en/20110324-turkey-allows-nato-command-libya-military-operations-vote
  • France 24. (2019). France joins Cyprus for naval manoeuvres amid Turkey gas dispute. Retrieved from https://www.france24.com/en/20191012-france-joins-cyprus-for-naval-manoeuvres-amid-turkey-gas-dispute
  • France 24. (2020). Libya strongman Haftar in Greece for talks ahead of Berlin peace conference. Retrieved from https://www.france24.com/en/20200117-libya-libyan-khalifa-haftar-al-sarraj-athens-gna-un-united-nations-berlin-peace-conference-talks-tripoli-pompeo-mitsotakis-dendias-greece-turkey
  • Gürdeniz,C. (2019). Anavatan, Yavru Vatan ve Mavi Vatan bir bütündür, ayrılamaz. Retrieved from https://www.aydinlik.com.tr/anavatan-yavru-vatan-ve-mavi-vatan-bir-butundur-ayrilamaz-cem-gurdeniz-kose-yazilari-nisan-2019
  • Hürriyet. (2005). Libya'da 2 Türk idam edildi. Retrieved from https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/libyada-2-turk-idam-edildi-335012
  • Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2020). EastMed Gas pipeline agreement signed at trilateral summit. Retrieved from https://mfa.gov.il/MFA/PressRoom/2020/Pages/EastMed-Gas-pipeline-agreement-signed-at-trilateral-summit-2-January-2019.aspx
  • Johnson, K. (2019). Newly Aggressive Turkey Forges Alliance With Libya. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/12/23/turkey-libya-alliance-aggressive-mideterranean/
  • Johnson, K. (2019). Turkey’s Big Energy Grab. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/07/25/turkeys-big-energy-grab-cyprus-gas-aphrodite-calypso-eni-exxon/
  • Kansu, Z . (2019). Enerji Arz Güvenliği Bağlamında Avrupa Birliği’nin Güney Gaz Koridoru ve Türkiye’nin Konumu. Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 3-3. 288-306. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kusbder/issue/51331/643459
  • Karan, C. (2019). Müslüman Kardeşler odaklı politika, Doğu Akdeniz'de hareket alanını kısıtlıyor. Sputnik. Retrieved from https://tr.sputniknews.com/ceyda_karan_eksen/201912131040840916-akpnin-yuruttugu-musluman-kardesler-odakli-politika-dogu-akdenizde-hareket-alanini-kisitliyor/
  • Kassidiaris, A. (2020). Greece worried about UN plan to publish Turkish-Libyan MoU Map. Inside Over. Retrieved from https://www.insideover.com/politics/greece-worried-about-un-plan-to-publish-turkish-libyan-mou-map.html
  • Kaya, İ.S. (2016) Uluslararası Deniz Hukuku Çerçevesinde Doğu Akdeniz’deki Petrol ve Doğalgaz Kaynakları. Ankara : Adalet Yayınevi. 2. Baskı. Kuran, S. (2006). Uluslararası deniz hukuku. İstanbul: Arıkan Basım Yayın Dağıtım Limited Şti.
  • Lacher, W. (2011). Families, Tribes and Cities in the Libyan Revolution. MEPC. Retrieved from https://mepc.org/families-tribes-and-cities-libyan-revolution
  • Nedos, V. (2020). UN to post EEZ maps of Libya, Turkey deal. Ekathimerini. Retrieved from http://www.ekathimerini.com/249608/article/ekathimerini/news/un-to-post-eez-maps-of-libya-turkey-deal ( Oyeniyi, B. A. (2019). The history of Libya. Santa Barbara, California : Greenwood.
  • Pamir, N. (2015). Enerjinin İktidarı. Istanbul: hayykitap.
  • Pamir, N. (2019). Doğu Akdeniz ve Kıbrıs Ekseninde Enerji ve Jeopolitik. TMOOB. Retrieved from https://pmo.org.tr/dogu-akdeniz-ve-kibris-ekseninde-enerji-ve-jeopolitik-makalesi/
  • Pamir, N. (2020). Libya, Oil, the Eastern Mediterranean and Turkey. Sigma Turkey. Retrieved from https://www.sigmaturkey.com/libya-oil-the-eastern-mediterranean-and-turkey/
  • Permanent Mission of Greece to the UN. (2019). Ref No. 90.2.2/3065. Retrieved from https://www.skai.gr/sites/default/files/attachments/2019-12/3065%20Letter%20SC%20Libya%203.pdf
  • Reuters. (2014). Libya faces chaos as top court rejects elected assembly. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-security-parliament/libya-faces-chaos-as-top-court-rejects-elected-assembly-idUSKBN0IQ0YF20141106
  • Reuters. (2020). EU leaders to reject Turkey-Libya deal - draft statement. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-summit-greece-turkey/eu-leaders-to-reject-turkey-libya-deal-draft-statement-idUSKBN1YF228
  • Reuters. (2020). France asks to join Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-egypt-gas/france-asks-to-join-eastern-mediterranean-gas-forum-idUSKBN1ZF1V2
  • Reuters. (2020). Israel opposes Turkey-Libya maritime border Accord. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-israel-turkey-greece/israel-opposes-turkey-libya-maritime-border-accord-idUSKBN1YR1VN
  • Saidel, N. (2020). The Middle East Conflict You Haven’t Heard About. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-middle-east-conflict-you-havent-heard-about-11581277914
  • Smith, H. (2020). France to send warships to support Greece in Turkish standoff. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/29/greece-turkey-standoff-france-send-warships-east-mediterranean St. John, R. B., & St. John, N. (2017). Libya : from colony to revolution Oneworld Publications.
  • T.C. Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı. (2015). Akdeniz Kalkanı Harekatı. Retrieved from https://www.dzkk.tsk.tr/icerik.php?dil=1&icerik_id=28
  • T.C. Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı. (2019). Mavi Vatan Tatbikatı. Retrieved from https://www.dzkk.tsk.tr/Basinda_Deniz_Kuvvetleri/CNN_Turk_En_Buyuk_Deniz_Tatbikati.mp4
  • T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı. (2011b). Sayın Başbakanımızın Libya’ya İlişkin olarak Yaptıkları Açıklama. Retrieved from http://www.mfa.gov.tr/sayin-basbakanimizin-libya_ya-iliskin-olarak-yaptiklari-aciklama_-3-mayis-2011.tr.mfa
  • T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı. (2020). Türkiye- Libya Siyasi İlişkileri. Retrieved from http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-libya-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa
  • T.C. Resmi Gazete. (2019). Milletlerarası Andlaşma, Sayı: 30971, Karar Sayısı: 1815. Retrieved from https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2019/12/20191207-3.pdf
  • T.C. Ticaret Bakanlığı. (2020). Türkiye ile Ticaret. Retrieved from https://ticaret.gov.tr/yurtdisi-teskilati/afrika/libya/ulke-profili/turkiye-ile-ticaret
  • The Economist. (2020). Turkey is set to send troops to Libya. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/2020/01/11/turkey-is-set-to-send-troops-to-libya
  • TPAO. (2020). Retrieved from http://www.tpao.gov.tr/?mod=projeler&contID=48 80 Kansu
  • Turak, N. (2020). Russian mercenaries, a CIA-linked general and lots of oil: Explaining Libya’s war. CNBC. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2020/01/29/libyas-war-explained-khalifa-haftar-oil-cuts-uae-airstrikes-and-russian-mercenaries.html
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (TUIK). (2020). Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri. Retrieved from http://tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1046
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/628. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/a/74/ 628
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/634. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/A/74/ 634
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/706. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/A/74/ 706
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/710. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/A/74/ 710
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/758. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/A/74/ 758
  • UN Security Council. (2011). S/RES/1970(2011). Retrieved from https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N11/245/58/pdf/N1124558.pdf?OpenElement
  • UN Security Council. (2011). S/RES/1973(2011). Retrieved from https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N11/268/39/pdf/N1126839.pdf?OpenElement
  • UN Treaty Collection. (2020). 4. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty New York, 10 September 1996. Retrieved from https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails. aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XXVI-4&chapter=26
  • United Nations General Assembly. (10 Aralık 1982). United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/depts/los/convention _agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf
  • United Nations Oceans and Law of the Sea. (2009). General People’s Committee Decision No. 260 of A.J. 1377. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/Depts/los/ LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/PDFFILES/lby_2009_declaration_e.pdf
  • United Nations Oceans and Law of the Sea. (2020). Cyprus. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/Depts/los/LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/STATEFILES/CYP.htm
  • United Nations Oceans and Law of the Sea. (2020). Turkey. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/Depts/los/LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/STATEFILES/TUR.htm
  • USGS. (2010). Assesment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean. Retrieved from https://pubs.usgs. gov/fs/2010/3014/pdf/FS10-3014.pdf Vandewalle, D. (2012). A history of modern Libya. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wehrey, F. (2020). Our Hearts Are Dead.’ After 9 Years of Civil War, Libyans Are Tired of Being Pawns in a Geopolitical Game of Chess. TIME. Retrieved from https://time.com/5779348/war-libya-global-conflict/
  • Weise, Z. (2020). The Libyan conflict explained. Politico. Retrieved from https://www.politico.eu/article/the-libyan-conflict-explained/
  • Yackley, Ayla J. (2011). Turkey opposes any NATO operation in Libya. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-turkey-idUSTRE72D 49D20110314
  • Yaycı, C . (2011). Doğu Akdeniz'de Deniz Yetki Alanlarının Sınırlandırılmasında Libya'nın Rolü ve Etkisi. Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi. 7-14. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/guvenlikstrtj/issue/7529/99176
  • Yaycı, C. (2019). Libya Türkiye’nin Denizden Komşusudur. İstanbul: ASAM Yayınları. Yaycı, C. (2019). Sorular ve Cevaplar ile Münhasır Ekonomik Bölge (MEB) Kavramı. Deniz Kuvvetlerti Komutanlığı. İstanbul.
  • Yaycı, C. (2020). Doğu Akdeniz’in Paylaşım Mücadelesi ve Türkiye. İstanbul: Kırmızı Kedi.

Doğu Akdeniz Türkiye-Libya Deniz Yetki Alanı Sınırlandırma Anlaşmasına İlişkin bir Değerlendirme

Yıl 2020, Cilt 30, Sayı 1, 51 - 84, 30.06.2020

Öz

Doğu Akdeniz hidrokarbon keşifleri, son yılların en önemli konularından birisidir. Doğu Akdeniz’de, hidrokarbon kaynaklarına ilişkin, deniz yetki alanı uyuşmazlıkları yaşanmaktadır. Bu uyuşmazlıkların başında Türkiye-Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti (KKTC) ve Güney Kıbrıs Rum Yönetimi (GKRY) deniz yetki alanı çatışması gelmektedir. Türkiye, bölgede devam eden çatışmaya ve buna ilişkin faaliyetlere karşın Kasım 2019’da Libya ile MEB anlaşması imzalamıştır. Anlaşma ile, Türkiye ve Libya denizden komşu olarak, iki kıyıdaş devlet haline gelmiştir. Anlaşma, Doğu Akdeniz’deki bütün, politik ve ekonomik denklemi değiştirecek potansiyele sahiptir. Özellikle enerji kaynakları ekseninde bölgede şekillenen bölgesel ve küresel güçlerin rekabeti, anlaşmadan etkilenecektir. Bölgede, ABD, Rusya, AB gibi küresel güçlerin ve yürüttükleri vekalet savaşlarına ilişkin dengelerin de değişeceği açıktır. Devrim sonrası Libya’da devam eden İç Savaş, anlaşmanın etkeni ve edilgeni konumundadır. Anlaşmaya büyük tepki gösteren GKRY, Yunanistan, Fransa, Mısır ile ABD, Rusya, İsrail gibi ülkelerin de bölgedeki çıkarlarının zedelendiği ve planlarının bozulduğu görülmektedir. Çalışma, Türkiye-Libya Deniz Yetki Alanlarının Sınırlandırılmasına İlişkin Mutabakat Muhtırası’nın, bölgesel ve küresel aktörler ve dinamiklere etkisini öngörülerle birlikte ele almaktadır. Anlaşmanın, Doğu Akdeniz hidrokarbon faaliyetlerine, Libya İç Savaşı’na, EastMed Boru Hattı projesine ve Türkiye-GKRY-KKTC-Yunanistan deniz yetki alanları çatışmasına etkisini incelemektedir. Araştırmada, anlaşmanın hukuki açıdan geçerliliği, Libya’nın siyasi konjonktürü ve Türkiye ile ilişkileri de ele alınmakla birlikte, Türkiye’nin Doğu Akdeniz’deki önemi ve konumu, anlaşmanın önemi ortaya konularak değerlendirilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Aksu, Z, Eminoğlu, A. (2019). Bm İnsani Müdahale Kararları ve Nato’nun Libya Müdahalesi. ASSAM Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi. 322-330. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/assam/issue/48907/578818
  • Alhas, Murat A. (2019). Turkish-Libyan maritime pact a game changer in E.Med. Anadolu Ajansı. Retrieved from https://www.aa.com.tr/en/politics/turkish-libyan-maritime-pact-a-game-changer-in-emed/1671447
  • Aliriza, B. (2020). Erdogan's Libyan Gambit. CSIS. Retrieved from https://www.csis.org/analysis/erdogans-libyan-gambit
  • AlJazeera. (2020). Four Mediterranean countries call Turkey-GNA deals 'void'. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/mediterranean-countries-call-turkey-gna-deals-void-200109062417867.html
  • AlJazeera. (2020). Libya's Haftar secretly flies to Greece ahead of Berlin summit. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/libya-haftar-secretly-flies-greece-berlin-summit-200116212706542.html
  • Anadolu Ajansı. (2019). Paylaşılamayan deniz: Doğu Akdeniz'de Türkiye'siz denklem mümkün mü?. Retrieved from https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/dunya/paylasilamayan-deniz-dogu-akdenizde-turkiyesiz-denklem-mumkun-mu/1677295
  • Anadolu Ajansı. (2019). Turkey’s stance in the Eastern Mediterranean is clear. Retrieved from https://www.aa.com.tr/en/info/infographic/14896#!
  • Bag, M. (2020). Libya'da kim kiminle savaşıyor? Türkiye ve uluslararası güçler hangi tarafı destekliyor?. Euro News. Retrieved from https://tr.euronews.com/2020/01/02/libya-da-neler-oluyor-kim-kiminle-neden-savasiyor
  • Barltrop, R. (2019). Oil and Gas in a New Libyan Era. OIES. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Oil-and-Gas-in-a-New-Libyan-Era-Conflict-and-Continuity-MEP-22.pdf?v=ebe021079e5a Başeren, S. H. (2011). Doğu Akdeniz Yetki Alanları Uyuşmazlığı. TÜDAV İstanbul.
  • Başpınar, H . (2017). Libya: Politics & Energy. Energy Policy Turkey , (4) , 47-57 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ept/issue/31249/340276
  • BBC. (2018). Doğu Akdeniz - Kıbrıs'taki Doğalgaz Gerginliği Hakkında Bilinmesi Gerekenler. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-turkiye-43061162
  • BBC. (2019). Libya country profile. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13754897
  • BBC. (2020a). Why is Libya so lawless?. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-24472322
  • BBC. (2020b). Libya conflict: Turkey confirms first soldiers killed. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-51626743
  • BBC. (2020c). Libya conflict: Turkey sends troops to shore up UN-backed government. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-51003034
  • Bershidsky, L. (2020). Libya’s Endless War Is What Happens If the U.S. Won’t Lead. Bloomberg. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-01-14/libya-s-endless-war-is-what-happens-if-the-u-s-won-t-lead
  • BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2019. (2019). BP. Retrieved from https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019-full-report.pdf
  • Business Insider. (2019). Greece to expel Libyan ambassador over Turkey-Libya Accord. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/greece-to-expel-libyan-ambassador-over-turkey-libya-accord-2019-12
  • CNN. (2004). Key facts: Libya sanctions. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/africa/02/10/libya.sanctions.facts/
  • Cohen, A. (2020). Turkey-Libya Maritime Deal Upsets Mediterranean Energy Plan. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2020/01/08/turkey-libya-maritime-deal-upsets-mediterranean-energy-plan/#6209c3ff6bee
  • Cristiani, D. (2020). A Piece of a Greater Puzzle: The Libyan Civil War, External Influences and Regional Trends. GMFUS. Retrieved from http://www.gmfus.org/commentary/piece-greater-puzzle-libyan-civil-war-external-influences-and-regional-trends
  • Cyprus Mail. (2019). Our View: Reckless energy game Cyprus can never win must end. Retrieved from https://cyprus-mail.com/2019/12/15/our-view-reckless-energy-game-cyprus-can-never-win-must-end/
  • Delek Drilling. (2020). Aphrodite Gas Field. Retrieved from https://www.delekdrilling.com/project/aphrodite-gas-field
  • Demirtaş, S. (2019). Turkey-Libya deal seen as a game-changer in east Med. Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved from https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/opinion/serkan-demirtas/turkey-libya-deal-seen-as-a-game-changer-in-east-med-149285
  • Doğu Akdeniz’de Enerji Keşifleri ve Türkiye. (2013) Bilgesam. İstanbul. Retrieved from http://www.bilgesam.org/Images/Dokumanlar/3-2- 2014011746dogu_akdeniz.pdf
  • Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas Pipeline – Pre-FEED Studies. (2020). European Union European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/inea/en/connecting-europe-facility/cef-energy/7.3.1-0025-elcy-s-m-15 Erdağ, R. (2017). Libya in the Arab Spring: from revolution to insecurity. Springer.
  • Erlanger, S. & Griedneff, M. (2020). Why Europe in finally getting attention to Libya. NY Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/17/world/europe/libya-eu-russia-turkey.html
  • Financial Times. (2020). Libya: how regional rivalries fuel the civil war. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/c113d340-51b1-11ea-90ad-25e377c0ee1f Fraihat, I. (2016). Unfinished revolutions: Yemen, Libya, and Tunisia after the Arab spring. Yale University Press.
  • France 24. (2011). Turkey reluctantly joins NATO operations against Libya. Retrieved from https://www.france24.com/en/20110324-turkey-allows-nato-command-libya-military-operations-vote
  • France 24. (2019). France joins Cyprus for naval manoeuvres amid Turkey gas dispute. Retrieved from https://www.france24.com/en/20191012-france-joins-cyprus-for-naval-manoeuvres-amid-turkey-gas-dispute
  • France 24. (2020). Libya strongman Haftar in Greece for talks ahead of Berlin peace conference. Retrieved from https://www.france24.com/en/20200117-libya-libyan-khalifa-haftar-al-sarraj-athens-gna-un-united-nations-berlin-peace-conference-talks-tripoli-pompeo-mitsotakis-dendias-greece-turkey
  • Gürdeniz,C. (2019). Anavatan, Yavru Vatan ve Mavi Vatan bir bütündür, ayrılamaz. Retrieved from https://www.aydinlik.com.tr/anavatan-yavru-vatan-ve-mavi-vatan-bir-butundur-ayrilamaz-cem-gurdeniz-kose-yazilari-nisan-2019
  • Hürriyet. (2005). Libya'da 2 Türk idam edildi. Retrieved from https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/libyada-2-turk-idam-edildi-335012
  • Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2020). EastMed Gas pipeline agreement signed at trilateral summit. Retrieved from https://mfa.gov.il/MFA/PressRoom/2020/Pages/EastMed-Gas-pipeline-agreement-signed-at-trilateral-summit-2-January-2019.aspx
  • Johnson, K. (2019). Newly Aggressive Turkey Forges Alliance With Libya. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/12/23/turkey-libya-alliance-aggressive-mideterranean/
  • Johnson, K. (2019). Turkey’s Big Energy Grab. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/07/25/turkeys-big-energy-grab-cyprus-gas-aphrodite-calypso-eni-exxon/
  • Kansu, Z . (2019). Enerji Arz Güvenliği Bağlamında Avrupa Birliği’nin Güney Gaz Koridoru ve Türkiye’nin Konumu. Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 3-3. 288-306. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kusbder/issue/51331/643459
  • Karan, C. (2019). Müslüman Kardeşler odaklı politika, Doğu Akdeniz'de hareket alanını kısıtlıyor. Sputnik. Retrieved from https://tr.sputniknews.com/ceyda_karan_eksen/201912131040840916-akpnin-yuruttugu-musluman-kardesler-odakli-politika-dogu-akdenizde-hareket-alanini-kisitliyor/
  • Kassidiaris, A. (2020). Greece worried about UN plan to publish Turkish-Libyan MoU Map. Inside Over. Retrieved from https://www.insideover.com/politics/greece-worried-about-un-plan-to-publish-turkish-libyan-mou-map.html
  • Kaya, İ.S. (2016) Uluslararası Deniz Hukuku Çerçevesinde Doğu Akdeniz’deki Petrol ve Doğalgaz Kaynakları. Ankara : Adalet Yayınevi. 2. Baskı. Kuran, S. (2006). Uluslararası deniz hukuku. İstanbul: Arıkan Basım Yayın Dağıtım Limited Şti.
  • Lacher, W. (2011). Families, Tribes and Cities in the Libyan Revolution. MEPC. Retrieved from https://mepc.org/families-tribes-and-cities-libyan-revolution
  • Nedos, V. (2020). UN to post EEZ maps of Libya, Turkey deal. Ekathimerini. Retrieved from http://www.ekathimerini.com/249608/article/ekathimerini/news/un-to-post-eez-maps-of-libya-turkey-deal ( Oyeniyi, B. A. (2019). The history of Libya. Santa Barbara, California : Greenwood.
  • Pamir, N. (2015). Enerjinin İktidarı. Istanbul: hayykitap.
  • Pamir, N. (2019). Doğu Akdeniz ve Kıbrıs Ekseninde Enerji ve Jeopolitik. TMOOB. Retrieved from https://pmo.org.tr/dogu-akdeniz-ve-kibris-ekseninde-enerji-ve-jeopolitik-makalesi/
  • Pamir, N. (2020). Libya, Oil, the Eastern Mediterranean and Turkey. Sigma Turkey. Retrieved from https://www.sigmaturkey.com/libya-oil-the-eastern-mediterranean-and-turkey/
  • Permanent Mission of Greece to the UN. (2019). Ref No. 90.2.2/3065. Retrieved from https://www.skai.gr/sites/default/files/attachments/2019-12/3065%20Letter%20SC%20Libya%203.pdf
  • Reuters. (2014). Libya faces chaos as top court rejects elected assembly. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-security-parliament/libya-faces-chaos-as-top-court-rejects-elected-assembly-idUSKBN0IQ0YF20141106
  • Reuters. (2020). EU leaders to reject Turkey-Libya deal - draft statement. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-summit-greece-turkey/eu-leaders-to-reject-turkey-libya-deal-draft-statement-idUSKBN1YF228
  • Reuters. (2020). France asks to join Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-egypt-gas/france-asks-to-join-eastern-mediterranean-gas-forum-idUSKBN1ZF1V2
  • Reuters. (2020). Israel opposes Turkey-Libya maritime border Accord. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-israel-turkey-greece/israel-opposes-turkey-libya-maritime-border-accord-idUSKBN1YR1VN
  • Saidel, N. (2020). The Middle East Conflict You Haven’t Heard About. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-middle-east-conflict-you-havent-heard-about-11581277914
  • Smith, H. (2020). France to send warships to support Greece in Turkish standoff. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/29/greece-turkey-standoff-france-send-warships-east-mediterranean St. John, R. B., & St. John, N. (2017). Libya : from colony to revolution Oneworld Publications.
  • T.C. Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı. (2015). Akdeniz Kalkanı Harekatı. Retrieved from https://www.dzkk.tsk.tr/icerik.php?dil=1&icerik_id=28
  • T.C. Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı. (2019). Mavi Vatan Tatbikatı. Retrieved from https://www.dzkk.tsk.tr/Basinda_Deniz_Kuvvetleri/CNN_Turk_En_Buyuk_Deniz_Tatbikati.mp4
  • T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı. (2011b). Sayın Başbakanımızın Libya’ya İlişkin olarak Yaptıkları Açıklama. Retrieved from http://www.mfa.gov.tr/sayin-basbakanimizin-libya_ya-iliskin-olarak-yaptiklari-aciklama_-3-mayis-2011.tr.mfa
  • T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı. (2020). Türkiye- Libya Siyasi İlişkileri. Retrieved from http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-libya-siyasi-iliskileri.tr.mfa
  • T.C. Resmi Gazete. (2019). Milletlerarası Andlaşma, Sayı: 30971, Karar Sayısı: 1815. Retrieved from https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2019/12/20191207-3.pdf
  • T.C. Ticaret Bakanlığı. (2020). Türkiye ile Ticaret. Retrieved from https://ticaret.gov.tr/yurtdisi-teskilati/afrika/libya/ulke-profili/turkiye-ile-ticaret
  • The Economist. (2020). Turkey is set to send troops to Libya. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/2020/01/11/turkey-is-set-to-send-troops-to-libya
  • TPAO. (2020). Retrieved from http://www.tpao.gov.tr/?mod=projeler&contID=48 80 Kansu
  • Turak, N. (2020). Russian mercenaries, a CIA-linked general and lots of oil: Explaining Libya’s war. CNBC. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2020/01/29/libyas-war-explained-khalifa-haftar-oil-cuts-uae-airstrikes-and-russian-mercenaries.html
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (TUIK). (2020). Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri. Retrieved from http://tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1046
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/628. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/a/74/ 628
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/634. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/A/74/ 634
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/706. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/A/74/ 706
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/710. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/A/74/ 710
  • UN General Assembly. (2019). Res. A/74/758. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/A/74/ 758
  • UN Security Council. (2011). S/RES/1970(2011). Retrieved from https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N11/245/58/pdf/N1124558.pdf?OpenElement
  • UN Security Council. (2011). S/RES/1973(2011). Retrieved from https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N11/268/39/pdf/N1126839.pdf?OpenElement
  • UN Treaty Collection. (2020). 4. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty New York, 10 September 1996. Retrieved from https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails. aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XXVI-4&chapter=26
  • United Nations General Assembly. (10 Aralık 1982). United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/depts/los/convention _agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf
  • United Nations Oceans and Law of the Sea. (2009). General People’s Committee Decision No. 260 of A.J. 1377. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/Depts/los/ LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/PDFFILES/lby_2009_declaration_e.pdf
  • United Nations Oceans and Law of the Sea. (2020). Cyprus. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/Depts/los/LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/STATEFILES/CYP.htm
  • United Nations Oceans and Law of the Sea. (2020). Turkey. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/Depts/los/LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/STATEFILES/TUR.htm
  • USGS. (2010). Assesment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean. Retrieved from https://pubs.usgs. gov/fs/2010/3014/pdf/FS10-3014.pdf Vandewalle, D. (2012). A history of modern Libya. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wehrey, F. (2020). Our Hearts Are Dead.’ After 9 Years of Civil War, Libyans Are Tired of Being Pawns in a Geopolitical Game of Chess. TIME. Retrieved from https://time.com/5779348/war-libya-global-conflict/
  • Weise, Z. (2020). The Libyan conflict explained. Politico. Retrieved from https://www.politico.eu/article/the-libyan-conflict-explained/
  • Yackley, Ayla J. (2011). Turkey opposes any NATO operation in Libya. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-turkey-idUSTRE72D 49D20110314
  • Yaycı, C . (2011). Doğu Akdeniz'de Deniz Yetki Alanlarının Sınırlandırılmasında Libya'nın Rolü ve Etkisi. Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi. 7-14. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/guvenlikstrtj/issue/7529/99176
  • Yaycı, C. (2019). Libya Türkiye’nin Denizden Komşusudur. İstanbul: ASAM Yayınları. Yaycı, C. (2019). Sorular ve Cevaplar ile Münhasır Ekonomik Bölge (MEB) Kavramı. Deniz Kuvvetlerti Komutanlığı. İstanbul.
  • Yaycı, C. (2020). Doğu Akdeniz’in Paylaşım Mücadelesi ve Türkiye. İstanbul: Kırmızı Kedi.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Zekiye Nazlı KANSU> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Marmara Üniversitesi, Ortadoğu ve İslam Ülkeleri Araştırmaları Enstitüsü, Ortadoğu Ekonomi Politiği Bölümü,
0000-0003-1165-3720
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 30, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Kansu, Z. N. (2020). AN ASSESMENT OF EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN MARITIME BOUNDARY DELIMITATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN TURKEY AND LIBYA . Kara Harp Okulu Bilim Dergisi , 30 (1) , 51-84 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/khobilim/issue/55353/759360