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COVID-19 Sonrası Yerleşik İktisadi Anlayışın Değişimine İlişkin Beklentilere Eleştirel Bir Yaklaşım

Yıl 2020, Cilt 25, Sayı 98, 7 - 17, 26.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.36484/liberal.737720

Öz

2020 yılı başlarından itibaren tüm dünyayı etkisi altına alan Covid19 pandemisinin toplumsal ve ekonomik olarak getirdiği maliyetlerin artması bir dizi sistemik tartışmayı da beraberinde getirmiştir. Pek çok ülkenin sağlık altyapısının yetersizliği ve sosyal güvenlik sistemlerinin kapsayıcılık sorunu kamu otoritelerine olan güveni sarsmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra özellikle salgının kontrol altına alınabilmesi için uygulanan tedbirlerin ekonomileri ve küresel ticareti durma noktasına getirmesi, artan işsizlik rakamları ve yaşanan gelir kayıpları yerleşik iktisadi anlayışa ilişkin eleştirilerin dozunu artırmıştır. Öte yandan salgın süresince oluşan dünya düzenindeki değişim beklentisinden yerleşik iktisadi anlayış da etkilenmektedir. Özellikle artan korumacı politikalar ve uygulanan sınır kapatmaları küreselleşmeyi tartışmaya açarken, devletin piyasalardaki müdahaleleri ve kurtarma paketlerinin içerikleri liberal ekonomi politikalarının sorgulanmasına neden olmaktadır. Bazı düşünür ve bilim insanlarının küreselleşmenin ve liberal devlet anlayışının sonuna gelindiğine ilişkin görüşleri literatürde yer almaya başlamıştır. Bu çalışmada bahsedilen görüşlerin temellerinin sağlam olup olmadığı sorgulanarak söz konusu değişim beklentilerine ilişkin eleştiriler belirtilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Akalın, Uğur Selçuk, (2012), “Genel Teori Üzerine Genel Bir Değerlendirme”, Uğur Selçuk Akalın, Ahmet İncekara ve Gülsüm Akalın (Ed.), Keynes’in Genel Teorisi Üzerine, Kalkedon Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • Baldwin, Richard ve Evenett, Simon, J., (2020), COVID-19 and Trade Policy: Why Turning Inward Won’t Work, a VoxEU.org eBook, CEPR Press.
  • Bloomberg/Quint. (2020), France Ready to Nationalize as EU Heavyweights Take Charge, 17th of March. https://www.bloombergquint.com/global-economics/france-ready-to-protect-big-companies-through-nationalization (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • CNBC (2020), Lufthansa to apply for German state aid. 13th of March. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/13/lufthansa-to-apply-for-german-state-aid.html (E.T: 10 Mayıs 2020).
  • Cohen, Raphael, S., (2020), The Coronavirus Will Not Stop Globalization, Rand Corporation.. 13th of April, https://www.rand.org/blog/2020/04/why-covid-19-will-not-stop-globalization.html (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Duran, Burhanettin, (2020), “Koronavirüs Sonrası Yeni Bir Dünya Düzeni Mi, Düzensizliği Mi?”. Ufuk Ulutaş (Ed.), COVID-19 Sonrası Küresel Sistem: Eski Sorunlar, Yeni Trendler, Ankara: Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Yayınları. ss. 29-34.
  • Farrell, Henry ve Newman, Abraham, (2020), “Will the Coronavirus End Globalization as We Know It?” Foreign Affairs, 16th of March. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2020-03-16/will-coronavirus-end-globalization-we-know-it (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Garrett, Laurie, (2020), “A Dramatic New Stage in Global Capitalism”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Haass, Richard, N., (2020), “The Pandemic Will Accelerate History Rather Than Reshape It”, Foreign Affairs, 7th of April, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2020-04-07/pandemic-will-accelerate-history-rather-reshape-it (E.T:10 Mayıs 2020).
  • Hanioğlu, M., Şükrü, (2020), “Covid-19 Sonrası Küresel Düzen”, Ufuk. Ulutaş (Ed.), COVID-19 Sonrası Küresel Sistem: Eski Sorunlar, Yeni Trendler, Ankara: Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Yayınları. ss. 24-29.
  • Irwin, Douglas, “(2020). “The pandemic adds momentum to the deglobalisation trend”, VOX CEPR Policy Portal, 5th of May, https://voxeu.org/article/pandemic-adds-momentum-deglobalisation-trend (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Keynes, John Maynard, Am I a Liberal?, In: Essays in Persuasion. Palgrave Macmillan, London
  • Kissenger, Henry, (2016), Dünya Düzeni, Boyner Yayınları. İstanbul.
  • Lent, Jeremy, (2020), “Coronavirus spells the end of the neoliberal era. What’s next?”, Open Democracy, https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/transformation/coronavirus-spells-the-end-of-the-neoliberal-era-whats-next/ (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Mahbubani, Kishore, (2020), “A More China-Centric Globalization”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T. 6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Müftüler-Baç, Meltem, (2020), “Küresel Salgın Tehdidi Altında Küresel Sistem”, Ufuk. Ulutaş (Ed.), COVID-19 Sonrası Küresel Sistem: Eski Sorunlar, Yeni Trendler, Ankara: Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Yayınları. ss. 20-23.
  • Niblett, Robin, (2020), “The End of Globalization as We Know It”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Nye, Joseph, S., (2020), “American Power Will Need a New Strategy”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Oba, Mie, (2020), “Coronavirus and the Future of Globalization”, The Diplomat, 18th of March. https://thediplomat.com/2020/03/coronavirus-and-the-future-of-globalization/ (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Oxfam (2020), World’s billionaires have more wealth than 4.6 billion people, Press releases, 20th of January, https://www.oxfam.org/en/press-releases/worlds-billionaires-have-more-wealth-46-billion-people (E.T:10 Mayıs 2020).
  • Palacio, Ana, (2020), “Can Liberal Democracy Survive COVID-19?”, Project Syndicate. 3th of April. https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/covid19-crisis-pits-liberal-democracy-against-china-by-ana-palacio-2020-04 (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Quah, Danny, (2011), “The Global Economy’s Shifting Center of Gravity”, Global Policy Volume 2 . Issue 1, January, s.3.
  • Reuters (2020), “Germany tightens rules on foreign takeovers”, 8th of April. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-mergers/germany-tightens-rules-on-foreign-takeovers-idUSKBN21Q0VI (E.T:10 Mayıs 2020).
  • Rosling, Hans; Rosling, Ola ve Rönnlund, Rosling, Anna, (2019), Factfulness. Pegasus Yayınevi, İstanbul.
  • Stiglitz, Joseph, E., (2020), “We Need a Better Balance Between Globalization and Self- Reliance”, How the Economy Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy. 15th of April. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/04/15/how-the-economy-will-look-after-the-coronavirus-pandemic/ (E.T: 7 Mayıs 2020).
  • The Economist (2019), “Slowbalisation, The steam has gone out of globalisation”, January 24th Edition,i https://www.economist.com/leaders/2019/01/24/the-steam-has-gone-out-of-globalisation (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Ullah, Asad, (2020), “COVID-19: Is this the End of Western Liberalism?” Modern Diplomacy. https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2020/05/07/covid-19-is-this-the-end-of-western-liberalism/ (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Ulutaş, Ufuk, (2020), “Koronavirüs Sonrası Küresel Trendler”, Ufuk. Ulutaş (Ed.), COVID-19 Sonrası Küresel Sistem: Eski Sorunlar, Yeni Trendler, Ankara: Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Yayınları. ss. 9-10.
  • Walt, Stephen, M., (2020), “A World Less Open, Prosperous, and Free”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T: 6 Mayıs 2020).
  • WHO (2020b). WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19. World Health Organization (Press Release). 11 March 2020. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---20-april-2020 (E.T: 12Mayıs 2020).
  • WHO. (2020a). Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it (E.T:12 Mayıs 2020).
  • Yılmaz, Mehmet Levent, (2020), Kovid-19 Salgını ve Sonrası: Ekonomi Boyutu ile İlgili Değerlendirmeler, Polis Akademisi Yayınları, Mayıs, Ankara.

A Critical Approach to the Expectations on the Change of the Conventional Economic Understanding after the COVID-19 Outbreak

Yıl 2020, Cilt 25, Sayı 98, 7 - 17, 26.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.36484/liberal.737720

Öz

The increasing the social and economic costs of the Covid19 pandemic, which has influenced the whole world economy since the beginning of 2020, has brought many systemic discussions with it. The inadequacy of the health infrastructure of many countries and the lack of inclusiveness of social security systems have shaken trust in public authorities. In addition, the measures applied to control the pandemic brought economies and global trade to a halt, increasing unemployment figures and income loss, increased criticisms of the established economic understanding. Alternatively, the established economic understanding is affected by the expectation of change in the world order during the pandemic. Especially the increasing protectionist policies and applied border closures questions the state of globalization, while the interventions of the state in the markets and the content of the recovery packages cause the liberal economic policies to be questioned. The opinions of some scientists about the end of globalization and liberal state understanding have started to take place in the literature. This study questions whether the basis of these opinions were sound or not and provides criticisms on the expectations on the change in the world order.

Kaynakça

  • Akalın, Uğur Selçuk, (2012), “Genel Teori Üzerine Genel Bir Değerlendirme”, Uğur Selçuk Akalın, Ahmet İncekara ve Gülsüm Akalın (Ed.), Keynes’in Genel Teorisi Üzerine, Kalkedon Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • Baldwin, Richard ve Evenett, Simon, J., (2020), COVID-19 and Trade Policy: Why Turning Inward Won’t Work, a VoxEU.org eBook, CEPR Press.
  • Bloomberg/Quint. (2020), France Ready to Nationalize as EU Heavyweights Take Charge, 17th of March. https://www.bloombergquint.com/global-economics/france-ready-to-protect-big-companies-through-nationalization (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • CNBC (2020), Lufthansa to apply for German state aid. 13th of March. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/13/lufthansa-to-apply-for-german-state-aid.html (E.T: 10 Mayıs 2020).
  • Cohen, Raphael, S., (2020), The Coronavirus Will Not Stop Globalization, Rand Corporation.. 13th of April, https://www.rand.org/blog/2020/04/why-covid-19-will-not-stop-globalization.html (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Duran, Burhanettin, (2020), “Koronavirüs Sonrası Yeni Bir Dünya Düzeni Mi, Düzensizliği Mi?”. Ufuk Ulutaş (Ed.), COVID-19 Sonrası Küresel Sistem: Eski Sorunlar, Yeni Trendler, Ankara: Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Yayınları. ss. 29-34.
  • Farrell, Henry ve Newman, Abraham, (2020), “Will the Coronavirus End Globalization as We Know It?” Foreign Affairs, 16th of March. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2020-03-16/will-coronavirus-end-globalization-we-know-it (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Garrett, Laurie, (2020), “A Dramatic New Stage in Global Capitalism”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Haass, Richard, N., (2020), “The Pandemic Will Accelerate History Rather Than Reshape It”, Foreign Affairs, 7th of April, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2020-04-07/pandemic-will-accelerate-history-rather-reshape-it (E.T:10 Mayıs 2020).
  • Hanioğlu, M., Şükrü, (2020), “Covid-19 Sonrası Küresel Düzen”, Ufuk. Ulutaş (Ed.), COVID-19 Sonrası Küresel Sistem: Eski Sorunlar, Yeni Trendler, Ankara: Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Yayınları. ss. 24-29.
  • Irwin, Douglas, “(2020). “The pandemic adds momentum to the deglobalisation trend”, VOX CEPR Policy Portal, 5th of May, https://voxeu.org/article/pandemic-adds-momentum-deglobalisation-trend (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Keynes, John Maynard, Am I a Liberal?, In: Essays in Persuasion. Palgrave Macmillan, London
  • Kissenger, Henry, (2016), Dünya Düzeni, Boyner Yayınları. İstanbul.
  • Lent, Jeremy, (2020), “Coronavirus spells the end of the neoliberal era. What’s next?”, Open Democracy, https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/transformation/coronavirus-spells-the-end-of-the-neoliberal-era-whats-next/ (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Mahbubani, Kishore, (2020), “A More China-Centric Globalization”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T. 6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Müftüler-Baç, Meltem, (2020), “Küresel Salgın Tehdidi Altında Küresel Sistem”, Ufuk. Ulutaş (Ed.), COVID-19 Sonrası Küresel Sistem: Eski Sorunlar, Yeni Trendler, Ankara: Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Yayınları. ss. 20-23.
  • Niblett, Robin, (2020), “The End of Globalization as We Know It”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Nye, Joseph, S., (2020), “American Power Will Need a New Strategy”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Oba, Mie, (2020), “Coronavirus and the Future of Globalization”, The Diplomat, 18th of March. https://thediplomat.com/2020/03/coronavirus-and-the-future-of-globalization/ (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Oxfam (2020), World’s billionaires have more wealth than 4.6 billion people, Press releases, 20th of January, https://www.oxfam.org/en/press-releases/worlds-billionaires-have-more-wealth-46-billion-people (E.T:10 Mayıs 2020).
  • Palacio, Ana, (2020), “Can Liberal Democracy Survive COVID-19?”, Project Syndicate. 3th of April. https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/covid19-crisis-pits-liberal-democracy-against-china-by-ana-palacio-2020-04 (E.T:6 Mayıs 2020).
  • Quah, Danny, (2011), “The Global Economy’s Shifting Center of Gravity”, Global Policy Volume 2 . Issue 1, January, s.3.
  • Reuters (2020), “Germany tightens rules on foreign takeovers”, 8th of April. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-mergers/germany-tightens-rules-on-foreign-takeovers-idUSKBN21Q0VI (E.T:10 Mayıs 2020).
  • Rosling, Hans; Rosling, Ola ve Rönnlund, Rosling, Anna, (2019), Factfulness. Pegasus Yayınevi, İstanbul.
  • Stiglitz, Joseph, E., (2020), “We Need a Better Balance Between Globalization and Self- Reliance”, How the Economy Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy. 15th of April. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/04/15/how-the-economy-will-look-after-the-coronavirus-pandemic/ (E.T: 7 Mayıs 2020).
  • The Economist (2019), “Slowbalisation, The steam has gone out of globalisation”, January 24th Edition,i https://www.economist.com/leaders/2019/01/24/the-steam-has-gone-out-of-globalisation (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Ullah, Asad, (2020), “COVID-19: Is this the End of Western Liberalism?” Modern Diplomacy. https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2020/05/07/covid-19-is-this-the-end-of-western-liberalism/ (E.T:7 Mayıs 2020).
  • Ulutaş, Ufuk, (2020), “Koronavirüs Sonrası Küresel Trendler”, Ufuk. Ulutaş (Ed.), COVID-19 Sonrası Küresel Sistem: Eski Sorunlar, Yeni Trendler, Ankara: Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Yayınları. ss. 9-10.
  • Walt, Stephen, M., (2020), “A World Less Open, Prosperous, and Free”, How the World Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic. Foreign Policy, 20th of March. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/20/world-order-after-coroanvirus-pandemic/ (E.T: 6 Mayıs 2020).
  • WHO (2020b). WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19. World Health Organization (Press Release). 11 March 2020. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---20-april-2020 (E.T: 12Mayıs 2020).
  • WHO. (2020a). Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it (E.T:12 Mayıs 2020).
  • Yılmaz, Mehmet Levent, (2020), Kovid-19 Salgını ve Sonrası: Ekonomi Boyutu ile İlgili Değerlendirmeler, Polis Akademisi Yayınları, Mayıs, Ankara.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İktisat
Yayınlanma Tarihi Bahar
Bölüm Araştırma
Yazarlar

Mehmet Levent YILMAZ (Sorumlu Yazar)
POLİS AKADEMİSİ, GÜVENLİK BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ
0000-0001-5326-4198
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Haziran 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 15 Mayıs 2020
Kabul Tarihi 29 Haziran 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 25, Sayı 98

Kaynak Göster

APA Yılmaz, M. L. (2020). COVID-19 Sonrası Yerleşik İktisadi Anlayışın Değişimine İlişkin Beklentilere Eleştirel Bir Yaklaşım . Liberal Düşünce Dergisi , 25 (98) , 7-17 . DOI: 10.36484/liberal.737720