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Terörizm ve Medya Çerçevelemesi Üzerine Bir Analiz: YPJ Örneği

Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 102, 241 - 256, 18.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.36484/liberal.938217

Öz

2011 yılından bu yana devam eden Suriye İç Savaşı, pek çok bölgesel ve küresel aktörün müdahalelerine maruz kalmıştır. Bazı terör örgütleri, bu dönemde ortaya çıkan otorite boşluğu ve kaos ortamından faydalanarak Suriye’de etkin hale gelmiş ve önemli toprak kazanımları elde etmiştir. Bunların başında PKK/YPG terör örgütü gelmektedir. YPG ve özellikle de onun kadınlardan oluşan birimi YPJ, ana akım Batı medyasında gayet olumlu bir şekilde tasvir edilmiştir. YPJ bir taraftan terör örgütü DEAŞ’ın antitezi olarak yüceltilmiş; diğer taraftan ütopik bir feminizm kurgusu üzerinden kahramanlaştırılmıştır. Olumlu ve övgü dolu medya çerçevelemesi Batılı aktörlerin YPJ’yle ve onun ana çatısını oluşturan YPG terör örgütüyle iş birliği yapmasını meşrulaştırmıştır. Bu medya çerçevelemesi, aynı zamanda Batı toplumlarının farklı kesimlerinin değişen derecelerde radikalleşmesinde rol oynamıştır. Bazı kesimler sempatizan haline gelmiş; bazıları siyasi ve mali olarak destek vermiş; bazıları ise YPJ’ye gönüllü militan olarak katılacak kadar ileri gidebilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Akyol, Z. (Yönetmen). (2016). Gulistan, Land of Roses [Belgesel]. Kanada: Peripheria Productions.
  • Alptekin, H. and Eliaçık, Z. (2021, 3 February). Exploiting the Female Body: The YPG Case. Politics Today.
  • Amnesty International. (2015, October). ‘We Had Nowhere Else to Go’ Forced Displacement and Demolitions in Northern Syria. London.
  • Anadolu Ajansı. (2018, 7 Mart). Hafıza kartlarından YPG/PKK'nın 'çocuk savaşçıları' çıktı.
  • Anadolu Ajansı. (2021, 2 Mayıs). Jandarmanın raporu, kandırılarak PKK'ya katılan kadınlara HDP'nin aracılık ettiğini ortaya koydu.
  • Argentieri, B. (2017, 18 August). Meet the female soldiers in Syria and Iraq fighting for gender equality as much as freedom, The Telegraph.
  • Avrupa Konseyi. (1950, 4 Kasım). İnsan Hakları ve Temel Özgürlüklerin Korunmasına İlişkin Sözleşme. Roma.
  • Bayraklı, E. ve Alkanat, A. (2021). PKK’da Kadın Teröristlerin Rolü ve Örgüt İçi Cinsel İstismar. Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, 17(37),119-156.
  • Birleşmiş Milletler. (1948, 10 Aralık). İnsan Hakları Evrensel Beyannamesi. Paris.
  • Birleşmiş Milletler. (1998, 17 Temmuz). Uluslararası Ceza Mahkemesi’nin Roma Statüsü. Roma
  • Birleşmiş Milletler. (2000, 20 Mayıs). BM Çocuk Haklarına Dair Sözleşme’ye Ek Çocukların Silahlı Çatışmalara Dâhil Olmaları Konusundaki İhtiyari Protokol. New York.
  • Burke, J. (2003, 11 May). Daughters of the revolution, The Guardian.
  • CNN. (2014, 22 December). The women of the year.
  • Darg, D. (Yönetmen). (2017). Fear Us Women [Belgesel]. ABD: RYOT Films.
  • Dean, V. (2019). Kurdish Female Fighters: The Western Depiction of YPJ Combatants in Rojava, Glocalism: Journal of Culture, Politics and Innovation, 1, 1-29,
  • Entman, R. (1993). Framing toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58.
  • Ervan, A. (2019, 25 March). I eradicated Isis with my women comrades – now our aim is to spread feminism across the Middle East. The Independent.
  • Fourest, C. (2019). Soeurs d'armes [Sinema Filmi]. Fransa: Place du Marché Productions.
  • Griffin, E. (2014, 1 October). These Remarkable Women Are Fighting ISIS. It's Time You Know Who They Are. Marie Claire.
  • Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Hürriyet Daily News. (2012, 11 August). Syria must not become a haven for PKK: Clinton.
  • Human Rights Watch. (2014, 19 June). Under Kurdish Rule: Abuses in PYD-run Enclaves of Syria. New York.
  • Human Rights Watch. (2015, 15 July). Syria: Kurdish Forces Violating Child Soldier Ban. New York.
  • Insider. (2015, 11 December). ISIS is afraid of girls. Erişim adresi: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_Bx20bYDCg
  • İçişleri Bakanlığı. (2017a, Şubat). PKK/KCK Terör Örgütünün Çocukları ve Kadınları İstismarı. Ankara.
  • İçişleri Bakanlığı. (2017b, Mayıs). PKK/KCK Terör Örgütünün Suriye Kolu: PYD-YPG. Ankara.
  • MacDonald, A. (2021, 26 January). Hillary Clinton set to produce TV show about female Kurdish fighters. Middle East Eye.
  • Mahmood, M. (2015, 30 January). We are so proud – the women who died defending Kobani against Isis, The Guardian.
  • O’Malley, K. (2017, 20 December). Meet The Canadian Who Fights ISIS Alongside 10,000 Women. Elle.
  • O’Malley, K. (2018, 19 March). Anna Campbell Becomes First British Woman to Be Killed Fighting With Kurdish YPJ Unit. Elle.
  • Reese, S. D. (2001). Prologue—Framing Public Life: A Bridging Model for Media Research. Stephen D. Reese, Oscar H. Gandy and August E. Grant (Eds). in Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World (pp. 7-31). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
  • Reuters. (2017, 23 October). YPG fighters credit Ocalan with Syria victory.
  • Ross, C. (2017, 24 July). The Most Feminist Revolution the World Has Ever Witnessed. Vice.
  • Schmid, A. (1989). Terrorism and the Media: The ethics of Publicity. Terrorism and Political Violence, 1(4), 539-565.
  • Security Council. (2015, 5 June). Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. General Assembly. Sixty-ninth session. Agenda item 64.
  • Spencer, A. (2012). Lessons Learnt: Terrorism and the Media. Arts and Humanities Research Council. Swindon. Syrian Network for Human Rights. (2019, 10 September). Nearly 3,000 Individuals Are Still Detained or Forcibly Disappeared by Syrian Democratic Forces.
  • Tank, P. (2017). Kurdish Women in Rojava: From Resistance to Reconstruction. Die Welt Des Islams, 57, 404-428.
  • Tankard, J. (2001). The Empirical Approach to the Study of Media Framing. Stephen D. Reese, Oscar H. Gandy and August E. Grant (Eds). in Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World (pp. 95-105). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
  • Tankard, J., Hendrickson, L., Silberman, J., Bliss, K. and Ghanem, S. (1991). Media frames: Approaches to conceptualization and measurement. Paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Boston.
  • Tatcher, M. (1985, 15 July). Speech to American Bar Association. Erişim adresi: https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/106096
  • U.S. Central Command. (2014, 28 February). Ready for the fight. https://twitter.com/CENTCOM/status/836574056468082688. By popular demand, more photos of the female fighters. https://twitter.com/CENTCOM/status/836573860669571072
  • U.S. Department of State. (2016, June). Trafficking in Person Report. Washington.
  • Webster, E. S. (2015, 14 December). ISIS's Biggest Fear Is Being Killed by Girls, Teen Vogue.
  • Woods, J. (2007). What We Talk about When We Talk about Terrorism: Elite Press Coverage of Terrorism Risk from 1997-2005. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 12(3), 3-20.
  • Wyke, T. (2014, 6 October). H&M apologises after being accused of modelling £15 khaki outfit on uniform worn by Kurdish female fighters battling ISIS, Daily Mail.
  • Yanarışık, O. (2015). Turkey-EU Relations and the Representation of AK Party in the Western Political and Media Discourse (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Warwick Department of Politics and International Studies, Coventry.

An Analysis on Terrorism and Media Framing: the Case of YPJ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 102, 241 - 256, 18.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.36484/liberal.938217

Öz

The Syrian Civil War, which has been going on since 2011, has been subject to interventions of many regional and global actors. Some terrorist organizations took advantage of the authority vacuum and chaos environment that emerged during this period and became active in Syria and achieved significant land gains. PKK/YPG terrorist organization comes first among these. The YPG, and especially its women’s unit, the YPJ, have been portrayed in a positive way by the mainstream Western media. On the one hand, the YPJ has been glorified as the antithesis of the terrorist organization DAESH. On the other hand, it has been heroized over a utopian feminism fiction. The positive and laudatory media framing has legitimized the cooperation of Western actors with the YPJ and its main body, the YPG terrorist organization. This media framing has also played a role in radicalisation of different segments of Western societies to varying degrees. Some segments have become sympathizers; some of them gave political and financial support; while some went so far as to join the YPJ as volunteer militants.

Kaynakça

  • Akyol, Z. (Yönetmen). (2016). Gulistan, Land of Roses [Belgesel]. Kanada: Peripheria Productions.
  • Alptekin, H. and Eliaçık, Z. (2021, 3 February). Exploiting the Female Body: The YPG Case. Politics Today.
  • Amnesty International. (2015, October). ‘We Had Nowhere Else to Go’ Forced Displacement and Demolitions in Northern Syria. London.
  • Anadolu Ajansı. (2018, 7 Mart). Hafıza kartlarından YPG/PKK'nın 'çocuk savaşçıları' çıktı.
  • Anadolu Ajansı. (2021, 2 Mayıs). Jandarmanın raporu, kandırılarak PKK'ya katılan kadınlara HDP'nin aracılık ettiğini ortaya koydu.
  • Argentieri, B. (2017, 18 August). Meet the female soldiers in Syria and Iraq fighting for gender equality as much as freedom, The Telegraph.
  • Avrupa Konseyi. (1950, 4 Kasım). İnsan Hakları ve Temel Özgürlüklerin Korunmasına İlişkin Sözleşme. Roma.
  • Bayraklı, E. ve Alkanat, A. (2021). PKK’da Kadın Teröristlerin Rolü ve Örgüt İçi Cinsel İstismar. Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, 17(37),119-156.
  • Birleşmiş Milletler. (1948, 10 Aralık). İnsan Hakları Evrensel Beyannamesi. Paris.
  • Birleşmiş Milletler. (1998, 17 Temmuz). Uluslararası Ceza Mahkemesi’nin Roma Statüsü. Roma
  • Birleşmiş Milletler. (2000, 20 Mayıs). BM Çocuk Haklarına Dair Sözleşme’ye Ek Çocukların Silahlı Çatışmalara Dâhil Olmaları Konusundaki İhtiyari Protokol. New York.
  • Burke, J. (2003, 11 May). Daughters of the revolution, The Guardian.
  • CNN. (2014, 22 December). The women of the year.
  • Darg, D. (Yönetmen). (2017). Fear Us Women [Belgesel]. ABD: RYOT Films.
  • Dean, V. (2019). Kurdish Female Fighters: The Western Depiction of YPJ Combatants in Rojava, Glocalism: Journal of Culture, Politics and Innovation, 1, 1-29,
  • Entman, R. (1993). Framing toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58.
  • Ervan, A. (2019, 25 March). I eradicated Isis with my women comrades – now our aim is to spread feminism across the Middle East. The Independent.
  • Fourest, C. (2019). Soeurs d'armes [Sinema Filmi]. Fransa: Place du Marché Productions.
  • Griffin, E. (2014, 1 October). These Remarkable Women Are Fighting ISIS. It's Time You Know Who They Are. Marie Claire.
  • Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Hürriyet Daily News. (2012, 11 August). Syria must not become a haven for PKK: Clinton.
  • Human Rights Watch. (2014, 19 June). Under Kurdish Rule: Abuses in PYD-run Enclaves of Syria. New York.
  • Human Rights Watch. (2015, 15 July). Syria: Kurdish Forces Violating Child Soldier Ban. New York.
  • Insider. (2015, 11 December). ISIS is afraid of girls. Erişim adresi: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_Bx20bYDCg
  • İçişleri Bakanlığı. (2017a, Şubat). PKK/KCK Terör Örgütünün Çocukları ve Kadınları İstismarı. Ankara.
  • İçişleri Bakanlığı. (2017b, Mayıs). PKK/KCK Terör Örgütünün Suriye Kolu: PYD-YPG. Ankara.
  • MacDonald, A. (2021, 26 January). Hillary Clinton set to produce TV show about female Kurdish fighters. Middle East Eye.
  • Mahmood, M. (2015, 30 January). We are so proud – the women who died defending Kobani against Isis, The Guardian.
  • O’Malley, K. (2017, 20 December). Meet The Canadian Who Fights ISIS Alongside 10,000 Women. Elle.
  • O’Malley, K. (2018, 19 March). Anna Campbell Becomes First British Woman to Be Killed Fighting With Kurdish YPJ Unit. Elle.
  • Reese, S. D. (2001). Prologue—Framing Public Life: A Bridging Model for Media Research. Stephen D. Reese, Oscar H. Gandy and August E. Grant (Eds). in Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World (pp. 7-31). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
  • Reuters. (2017, 23 October). YPG fighters credit Ocalan with Syria victory.
  • Ross, C. (2017, 24 July). The Most Feminist Revolution the World Has Ever Witnessed. Vice.
  • Schmid, A. (1989). Terrorism and the Media: The ethics of Publicity. Terrorism and Political Violence, 1(4), 539-565.
  • Security Council. (2015, 5 June). Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. General Assembly. Sixty-ninth session. Agenda item 64.
  • Spencer, A. (2012). Lessons Learnt: Terrorism and the Media. Arts and Humanities Research Council. Swindon. Syrian Network for Human Rights. (2019, 10 September). Nearly 3,000 Individuals Are Still Detained or Forcibly Disappeared by Syrian Democratic Forces.
  • Tank, P. (2017). Kurdish Women in Rojava: From Resistance to Reconstruction. Die Welt Des Islams, 57, 404-428.
  • Tankard, J. (2001). The Empirical Approach to the Study of Media Framing. Stephen D. Reese, Oscar H. Gandy and August E. Grant (Eds). in Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World (pp. 95-105). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
  • Tankard, J., Hendrickson, L., Silberman, J., Bliss, K. and Ghanem, S. (1991). Media frames: Approaches to conceptualization and measurement. Paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Boston.
  • Tatcher, M. (1985, 15 July). Speech to American Bar Association. Erişim adresi: https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/106096
  • U.S. Central Command. (2014, 28 February). Ready for the fight. https://twitter.com/CENTCOM/status/836574056468082688. By popular demand, more photos of the female fighters. https://twitter.com/CENTCOM/status/836573860669571072
  • U.S. Department of State. (2016, June). Trafficking in Person Report. Washington.
  • Webster, E. S. (2015, 14 December). ISIS's Biggest Fear Is Being Killed by Girls, Teen Vogue.
  • Woods, J. (2007). What We Talk about When We Talk about Terrorism: Elite Press Coverage of Terrorism Risk from 1997-2005. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 12(3), 3-20.
  • Wyke, T. (2014, 6 October). H&M apologises after being accused of modelling £15 khaki outfit on uniform worn by Kurdish female fighters battling ISIS, Daily Mail.
  • Yanarışık, O. (2015). Turkey-EU Relations and the Representation of AK Party in the Western Political and Media Discourse (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Warwick Department of Politics and International Studies, Coventry.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Siyasi Bilimler
Bölüm Araştırma
Yazarlar

Oğuzhan YANARIŞIK (Sorumlu Yazar)
POLİS AKADEMİSİ, GÜVENLİK BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ
0000-0003-3442-4779
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 18 Haziran 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 17 Mayıs 2021
Kabul Tarihi 15 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 102

Kaynak Göster

APA Yanarışık, O. (2021). Terörizm ve Medya Çerçevelemesi Üzerine Bir Analiz: YPJ Örneği . Liberal Düşünce Dergisi , 26 (102) , 241-256 . DOI: 10.36484/liberal.938217