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Civilization Industry: An Eastern Perspective on the Culture Industry

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 103 - 121, 22.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.52539/mad.726610

Öz

The concept of the culture industry, which was raised by the Frankfurt School, is based on the critique of consumer society. Many authors contributed to this critique, but almost all handled the subject from the Western perspective. Numerous amounts of works have dealt with the concept of the culture industry and related topics, like modernism, consumer society, capitalism, etc. by non-western authors, but few of those have studied the issue academically and comparatively. This paper aims to analyze the concept of the culture industry and its effects on the Eastern civilizations, from the Eastern perspective. The paper reveals that although both dwell on the concept from a critical perspective, the Eastern and the Western thinkers do not share the same concerns. While Western thinkers focus on individuals and consider the issue in the context of freedom, Eastern thinkers pay more attention to national and religious ties and highlight the importance of identity. The paper also conceptualizes the latter approach as the civilization industry.

Kaynakça

  • Abercrombie N., Hill S. & Turner B. S. (2015). The dominant ideology thesis. London: Routledge.
  • Adorno, T. (2001). The culture industry. New York: Routledge Classics.
  • Adorno, T. & Horkheimer Max (2002). Dialectic of enlightenment. Standford University Press.
  • Alison, A. (2006). New-Age fetishes, monsters, and friends: Pokémon capitalism at the millenium. In Tomiko Y. & Harry H. (Eds.), .Japan after Japan. Duke University Press.
  • Baudrillard, J. (1981). For a critique of the political economy of the Sign. Telos Press.
  • Baudrillard, J. (2007). Forget Foucault. (N. Dufresne, Trans.). Los Angelos: Semiotex.
  • Benjamin, W. (2015). Capitalism as religion. In E. Mendieta (Ed.), The Frankfurt school on religion. New York: Routledge
  • Blaut, J. M. (1993). The colonizer’s model of the world, geographical diffusionism and eurocentric history. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Bloomberg. (2018.) China will overtake the U.S. in less Than 15 years, HSBC says [Press Release]. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-09-25/hsbc-sees-china-economy-set-to-pass-u-s-as-number-one-by-2030
  • Braudel, F. (1979). Afterthoughts on material civilization and capitalism. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Braudel, F. (1983). Civilization and capitalism, 15th – 18th century. Vol. II: The wheels of commerce. (S. Reynolds, Trans.). London: Book Club Associates.
  • Baykara, T. (1992). Osmanlılarda medeniyet kavramı. Istanbul: Akademi Kitabevi. [The Concept of Civilization in the Ottoman Empire and Studies on the Nineteenth Century]
  • Bocock, R. (1993). Consumption. New York: Routledge.
  • Connerton, P. (2009). How modernity forgets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Debord, G. (1970). Society of the spectacle. Detroit: Black & Red.
  • Erdoğan, Recep T. (2017). Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, 2017-2018 Akademik Yılı Açılış Töreni’nde konuştu. [President Erdogan’s Speech at the Opening Ceremony of 2017-2018 Academic Year] Retrieved 14 February, 2019 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARJU-2RA-jE
  • Frank, A. G. (1978). World accumulation, 1492-1789. New York: Algora Publishing.
  • Fromm, E. (2008). To have or to be. London: Continuum
  • Fromm, E. (1986). For the love of life. Free Press.
  • Gökalp, Z. (1968). The Principles of Turkism. (R. Devereux, Trans.). Leiden: E.J. Brill.
  • Hall, J. (1985). Powers and liberties: the causes and consequences of the rise of the west. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Hamilton, E. J. (1929). American treasure and the rise of capitalism. Economica, 27, 338-357.
  • Hanafi, H. (1991). Muqaddima fi ‘ilm al-istighrab. Beirut: Al Muassasah Al- Jami’iyyah li Al- Dirasat wa Al-Nashr wa Al-Tavzi
  • Hanafi, H. (2007). Cultures and civilizations: meridian thought. Book Center for Publishing.
  • Harootunian, H. (2000). Overcome by modernity: history, culture and community in interwar Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Hudgson, M. (1974). The venture of Islam. (vol. 1). The University of Chicago Press.
  • Huntington, S. (1991). The third wave, democratization in tke late twentieth century. University of Oklahoma Press.
  • İlhan, A. (1976). Hangi batı. (2nd ed.). Ankara: Bilgi. [Which West]
  • Jones, E. (2003). The European miracle: environment, economies and geopolitics in the history of Europe and Asia. (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kuisel, R. (1996). Seducing the French: The dilemma of Americanization. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Landes, D. (1998). The wealth and poverty of nations, why some are so rich and some so poor. New York: W. W. Norton &Company.
  • LaFeber, W. (1999). Michael Jordan and the new global capitalism. New York: W. W. Norton.
  • Lodziak, C. (1995). Manipulating needs: capitalism and culture. Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Marcuse, H. (1968). Negations. (J. J. Shapiro, Trans.). Penguin Books.
  • Marcuse, H. (2007). One-dimensional man. New York: Routledge Classics.
  • Mann, M. (2005). The sources of social power. Vol. 1: A History of Power from the Beginning to A.D. 1760. (13th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • McAlister, L. N. (1987). Spain and Portugal in the new world 1492-1700. (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • McLuhan, M. (1967). The medium is the massage, an inventory of effects. Penguin Books
  • Moghaddam, F. (2017). An analysis of trinities in Ali Shariati’s speeches. (Master’s thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur).
  • Orwell, G. (1945). Animal farm, a fairy story. London: Secker & Warburg
  • Özel, İ. (2006). Üç mesele: teknik, medeniyet, yabancılaşma. (13th ed.). Istanbul: Şûle Yayınları. [Three Issues: Technics, Civilization, Alienation]
  • Payne, D. (2003). The challenge of Western globalization to Orthodox Christianity. In J. Sutton V. Bercken (Eds.). Orthodox Christianity and contemporary Europe. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters.
  • Shayegan, D. (1997). Cultural schizophrenia: Islamic societies confronting the West. (J. Howe, Trans.). Syracuse University Press.
  • Sayer, D. (1991). Capitalism and modernity: An excursus on Marx and Weber. London: Routledge.
  • Shariati, A. (2019a). Reflections of humanity. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from http://shariati.com/english/machine.html
  • Shariati, A. (2019b). Jihad and Martyrdom. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from http://shariati.com/english/jihadand.html
  • Shariati, A. (2019c). Extraction and Refinement of Cultural Resources. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from http://shariati.com/english/culture.html
  • Shariati, A. (1980). Medeniyet ve modernizm. (F. Selim & A. Arslan, Trans.). İstanbul: Düşünce Yayınları. [Civilization and Modernism]
  • Shariati A. (2007). Öze Dönüş. Ankara: Fecr Yayınevi [Returning to the Self]
  • Sombart, W. (1967). Luxury and capitalism. University of Michigan Press.
  • Toynbee, A. (1953). The world and the West. Oxford University Press.
  • Tanpınar, A. H. (2010). XIX. asır Türk edebiyatı tarihi. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi.
  • Wagner, P. (2001). Modernity, capitalism and critique. Sage Publications, 66, 1-31.
  • Wallerstein, I. (1996). Historical capitalism with capitalist civilization. London: Verso.
  • Weisskopf, W. (1971). Alienation and economics. New York: Dutton.
  • White, L. (1982). Machina ex deo: essays in the dynamism of Western culture. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Worldbank, (2019). https://data.worldbank.org/

Medeniyet Endüstisi: Kültür Endüstrisine Doğulu Bir Bakış

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 103 - 121, 22.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.52539/mad.726610

Öz

Frankfurt Okulu tarafından geliştirilen kültür endüstrisi kavramı tüketim toplumunun eleştirisine dayanır. Bu eleştiriye katkı sağlayan hemen her yazar meseleyi Batılı bir bakış açısından ele almıştır. Kültür endüstrisi ve onunla ilişkili modernizm, tüketim toplumu, kapitalizm gibi konularda Batılı olmayan yazarlar tarafından sayısız eser üretilmesine rağmen, çok azı akademik hassasiyetleri gözeterek karşılaştırmalı çalışılmıştır. Bu makale, Doğulu bir bakış açısıyla, kültür endüstrisinin Doğu üzerindeki etkisini analiz etmeyi amaçlamıştır. Analiz sonucunda-her ikisi de kültür endüstrisine eleştirel yaklaşmakla birlikte- Doğulu ve Batılı yazarların endişelerinin aynı olmadığı görülmüştür. Öyle ki, Batılı yazarlar bireye odaklanmakta ve konuyu bireyin özgürlüğü ekseninde ele almaktadırlar. Doğulu yazarlar ise dini ve milli bağlara daha fazla önem atfetmekte ve konuyu kimlik bağlamında değerlendirmektedirler. Bu makale, ikinci yaklaşımı medeniyet endüstrisi şeklinde kavramsallaştırmayı önermektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Abercrombie N., Hill S. & Turner B. S. (2015). The dominant ideology thesis. London: Routledge.
  • Adorno, T. (2001). The culture industry. New York: Routledge Classics.
  • Adorno, T. & Horkheimer Max (2002). Dialectic of enlightenment. Standford University Press.
  • Alison, A. (2006). New-Age fetishes, monsters, and friends: Pokémon capitalism at the millenium. In Tomiko Y. & Harry H. (Eds.), .Japan after Japan. Duke University Press.
  • Baudrillard, J. (1981). For a critique of the political economy of the Sign. Telos Press.
  • Baudrillard, J. (2007). Forget Foucault. (N. Dufresne, Trans.). Los Angelos: Semiotex.
  • Benjamin, W. (2015). Capitalism as religion. In E. Mendieta (Ed.), The Frankfurt school on religion. New York: Routledge
  • Blaut, J. M. (1993). The colonizer’s model of the world, geographical diffusionism and eurocentric history. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Bloomberg. (2018.) China will overtake the U.S. in less Than 15 years, HSBC says [Press Release]. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-09-25/hsbc-sees-china-economy-set-to-pass-u-s-as-number-one-by-2030
  • Braudel, F. (1979). Afterthoughts on material civilization and capitalism. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Braudel, F. (1983). Civilization and capitalism, 15th – 18th century. Vol. II: The wheels of commerce. (S. Reynolds, Trans.). London: Book Club Associates.
  • Baykara, T. (1992). Osmanlılarda medeniyet kavramı. Istanbul: Akademi Kitabevi. [The Concept of Civilization in the Ottoman Empire and Studies on the Nineteenth Century]
  • Bocock, R. (1993). Consumption. New York: Routledge.
  • Connerton, P. (2009). How modernity forgets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Debord, G. (1970). Society of the spectacle. Detroit: Black & Red.
  • Erdoğan, Recep T. (2017). Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, 2017-2018 Akademik Yılı Açılış Töreni’nde konuştu. [President Erdogan’s Speech at the Opening Ceremony of 2017-2018 Academic Year] Retrieved 14 February, 2019 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARJU-2RA-jE
  • Frank, A. G. (1978). World accumulation, 1492-1789. New York: Algora Publishing.
  • Fromm, E. (2008). To have or to be. London: Continuum
  • Fromm, E. (1986). For the love of life. Free Press.
  • Gökalp, Z. (1968). The Principles of Turkism. (R. Devereux, Trans.). Leiden: E.J. Brill.
  • Hall, J. (1985). Powers and liberties: the causes and consequences of the rise of the west. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Hamilton, E. J. (1929). American treasure and the rise of capitalism. Economica, 27, 338-357.
  • Hanafi, H. (1991). Muqaddima fi ‘ilm al-istighrab. Beirut: Al Muassasah Al- Jami’iyyah li Al- Dirasat wa Al-Nashr wa Al-Tavzi
  • Hanafi, H. (2007). Cultures and civilizations: meridian thought. Book Center for Publishing.
  • Harootunian, H. (2000). Overcome by modernity: history, culture and community in interwar Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Hudgson, M. (1974). The venture of Islam. (vol. 1). The University of Chicago Press.
  • Huntington, S. (1991). The third wave, democratization in tke late twentieth century. University of Oklahoma Press.
  • İlhan, A. (1976). Hangi batı. (2nd ed.). Ankara: Bilgi. [Which West]
  • Jones, E. (2003). The European miracle: environment, economies and geopolitics in the history of Europe and Asia. (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kuisel, R. (1996). Seducing the French: The dilemma of Americanization. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Landes, D. (1998). The wealth and poverty of nations, why some are so rich and some so poor. New York: W. W. Norton &Company.
  • LaFeber, W. (1999). Michael Jordan and the new global capitalism. New York: W. W. Norton.
  • Lodziak, C. (1995). Manipulating needs: capitalism and culture. Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Marcuse, H. (1968). Negations. (J. J. Shapiro, Trans.). Penguin Books.
  • Marcuse, H. (2007). One-dimensional man. New York: Routledge Classics.
  • Mann, M. (2005). The sources of social power. Vol. 1: A History of Power from the Beginning to A.D. 1760. (13th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • McAlister, L. N. (1987). Spain and Portugal in the new world 1492-1700. (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • McLuhan, M. (1967). The medium is the massage, an inventory of effects. Penguin Books
  • Moghaddam, F. (2017). An analysis of trinities in Ali Shariati’s speeches. (Master’s thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur).
  • Orwell, G. (1945). Animal farm, a fairy story. London: Secker & Warburg
  • Özel, İ. (2006). Üç mesele: teknik, medeniyet, yabancılaşma. (13th ed.). Istanbul: Şûle Yayınları. [Three Issues: Technics, Civilization, Alienation]
  • Payne, D. (2003). The challenge of Western globalization to Orthodox Christianity. In J. Sutton V. Bercken (Eds.). Orthodox Christianity and contemporary Europe. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters.
  • Shayegan, D. (1997). Cultural schizophrenia: Islamic societies confronting the West. (J. Howe, Trans.). Syracuse University Press.
  • Sayer, D. (1991). Capitalism and modernity: An excursus on Marx and Weber. London: Routledge.
  • Shariati, A. (2019a). Reflections of humanity. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from http://shariati.com/english/machine.html
  • Shariati, A. (2019b). Jihad and Martyrdom. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from http://shariati.com/english/jihadand.html
  • Shariati, A. (2019c). Extraction and Refinement of Cultural Resources. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from http://shariati.com/english/culture.html
  • Shariati, A. (1980). Medeniyet ve modernizm. (F. Selim & A. Arslan, Trans.). İstanbul: Düşünce Yayınları. [Civilization and Modernism]
  • Shariati A. (2007). Öze Dönüş. Ankara: Fecr Yayınevi [Returning to the Self]
  • Sombart, W. (1967). Luxury and capitalism. University of Michigan Press.
  • Toynbee, A. (1953). The world and the West. Oxford University Press.
  • Tanpınar, A. H. (2010). XIX. asır Türk edebiyatı tarihi. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi.
  • Wagner, P. (2001). Modernity, capitalism and critique. Sage Publications, 66, 1-31.
  • Wallerstein, I. (1996). Historical capitalism with capitalist civilization. London: Verso.
  • Weisskopf, W. (1971). Alienation and economics. New York: Dutton.
  • White, L. (1982). Machina ex deo: essays in the dynamism of Western culture. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Worldbank, (2019). https://data.worldbank.org/

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Siyasi Bilimler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Abdullah METİN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ÇANKIRI KARATEKİN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4426-6380
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 22 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Metin, A. (2021). Medeniyet Endüstisi: Kültür Endüstrisine Doğulu Bir Bakış . Medeniyet Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (1) , 103-121 . DOI: 10.52539/mad.726610

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