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Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A

Yıl 2018, Cilt 30, Sayı 1, 71 - 76, 31.03.2018
https://doi.org/10.7240/marufbd.337686

Öz

Teknoloji ve bilimin ilerlemesi, insan hayatını önemli ölçüde kolaylaştırmış ancak çeşitli olumsuzlukları da beraberinde getirmiştir. Çevrede mevcut olan kimyasallar canlılığı olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Bu maddeler gıda katkı maddeleri, kozmetik ve ilaç sanayide kullanılan kimyasallar, pestisitler, herbisitler, sigara dumanı ve alkoller gibi bileşiklerdir. Kirleticilerin canlıların sağlığı üzerindeki olası olumsuz etkileri giderek artmakta özellikle de canlıların endokrin sistemini etkilemektedir. Endokrin çevre bozucu kimyasalların başında çoğu endüstride kullanılan nonilfenol (NF) ve bisfenol A (BFA) gibi bileşikler yer almaktadır. Genelde parçalanabilir olan bu maddeler arıtma tesislerinde uzaklaştırılabilmelerine rağmen, indirgenmiş konsantrasyonlarda atık sularla nehir ve çaylara (akarsulara) verilmektedir. Bu şekilde de biyolojik döngüye katılarak biyokütle tarafından depolanmaktadır. Ksenoöstrojenik olarak adlandırılan bu kimyasallar, endüstride ve evlerdeki çeşitli kullanımları yanında, deterjan, sabun ve temizlik maddelerinin ana bileşeni olarak da büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu kimyasalların çoğu veya bunların parçalanma ürünleri mutajenik, östrojenik, toksik veya karsinojenik olabilmektedir. Ayrıca üreme ve gelişmede görev yapan östrojen, progesteron, androjen ve diğer hormonların metabolik faaliyetlerini, hormon reseptör bölgelerine bağlanarak hormon gibi davranarak veya doğal hormonun spesifik reseptör bölgesine bağlanmasını engelleyerek anti-hormonal etki gösterebildiğinden, endişelerin ortaya çıkmasına neden olmaktadır. Bu nedenle NF ve BFA’nın olası dolaylı veya direkt etkilerinin moleküler düzeyde incelenmesi önem arz etmekte ve önemli araştırma konuları arasında olduğu öngörülmektedir. 

Kaynakça

  • [1] Urriola-Muñoz, P., Li, X., Maretzky, T., McIlwain, D.R., Mak, T.W., Reyes, J.G., Blobel, C.P., Moreno, D. 2017. The Xenoestrogens Biphenol-A and Nonylphenol differentially regulate metalloprotease-mediated shedding of EGFR ligands. J Cell Physiol. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26097.
  • [2] Lagos-Cabre R, Moreno R.D. 2012. Contribution of environmental pollutants to male infertily: a working model of germ cell apoptosis induced by plasticizers. Biological research. 45(1):5-14.
  • [3] Gao, Q. T., Wong, Y. S., Tam, N.F.Y. 2017. Antioxidant responses of different microalgal species to nonylphenol-induced oxidative stress. Journal of Applied Phycology. 29(3):1317-1329.
  • [4] Warhurst, A.M. 1995. An Environmental Assessment of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates and Alkylphenols.
  • [5] Sharma, V.K., Anquandah, G.A.K., Yngard, R.A., Kım, H., Fekete, J., Bouzek, K., Ray, A.K., Golovko, D. 2009. Nonylphenol, octylphenol, and bisphenol-A in the aquatic environment: A review on occurrence, fate, and treatment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A. 44, 423–442. [6] Kawamura, Y., Ogawa, Y., Mutsuga, M. 2017. Migration of nonylphenol and plasticizers from polyvinyl chloride stretch film into food simulants, rapeseed oil, and foods. Food Sci Nutr. 5(3): 390–398.
  • [7] Lyons, R., Van de Bittner. K., Morgan-Jones, S. 2014. Deposition patterns and transport mechanisms for the endocrine disruptor 4-nonylphenol across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. Environmental Pollution. 195:123-132.
  • [8] İşcan, M., Togan, İ., Tabak, İ., Uğuz, C., Ergüven, A., Eroğlu, Y., Zengin, M., Aktaş, M., Zengin, B., 2001. Deniz ve Akarsulardaki Kirliliğin Karadeniz'deki Ekonomik Değeri Yüksek Balıkların Stok ve Üremesi Üzerine Olan Etkisinin Belirlenmesi. T. C. Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Tarımsal Araştırmalar Genel Müdürlüğü. TAGEM / HAYSÜD /98/12/02/00
  • [9] Uğuz C, Togan I, Eroğlu Y, Tabak I, Zengin M, Işcan M. 2003. Alkylphenol concentrations in two rivers of Turkey. Environ Toxicol Pharm, 14, 87-88.
  • [10] İşcan, M., Togan, İ., Severcan, F., Uğuz, C., Ergüven, A. 2005. Sakarya Nehri ve Değirmenderesi’nde Alkilfenol Kirliliği ve Nonilfenol’ün Alabalıklar (Onchoryncus Mykiss) Üzerine Etkileri. The Sientific and technical Research Council of Turkey. 2005-286.
  • [11] Zemheri F. ve Uğuz C. 2016. Determining Mutagenic Effect of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A by Using Ames/Salmonella/Microsome Test. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 10 (3): 09-12, 2016.
  • [12] Li, X., Zhou, L., Ni, Y., Wang, A., Hu, M., Lin, Y., Hong, C., Wan, J., Chen, B., Fang, L., Tong, J., Tong, X., Tao, S., Tian, H. 2017. Nonylphenol Induces Pancreatic Damage in Rats through Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress. Toxicology Research. DOI: 10.1039/C6TX00450D
  • [13] Yücedağ, F., Okur, E., Uğuz, C., Zemheri, F., Kuzu, S., Ayçiçek, A., Kahveci, O.K., 2014. The 875 effects of nonylphenol on hearing in rats. J. Int. Adv. Otol. 10.
  • [14] Ergün, S. S., Üstüner, B., Alçay, S., Sağırkaya, H., Uğuz, C. 2014. The Effects of Nonylphenol on Gamete Physiology in Bovine. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 8(2): 32-38.
  • [15] Prokop, Z., Hankova, L., Jerabek, K. 2004. Bisphenol A Synthesis – Modeling of Industrial Reactor and Catalyst Deactivation, Reac. And Func. Polym. 60: 77-83.
  • [16] Johnson, I., Harvey, P. 2002, Study on The Scientific Evaluation of 12 Substances In The Context of Endocrine Disrupter Priority List of Actions European Commission, Wrc-Nsf Ref: Uc 6052.
  • [17] Kosky, P.E., Guggenheim, E.K. 1991. The Aqueous Phase in the Interfacial Sythesis of Polycarbonates. 1. Ionic Equilibra and Experhnental Solubilities in the BPA-NaOH-H2O System Ind. Eng.
  • [18] ECB. 2003, European Chemicals Bureau, European Union Risk Assessment Report 4,4'-Isopropylidenediphenol (Bisphenol-A). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Einecs No: 201-245-8
  • [19] Zhang, J., Zhang, T., Guan, T., Yu, H., Li, T. 2017. In vitro and in silico assessment of the structure-dependent binding of bisphenol analogues to glucocorticoid receptor. Anal Bioanal Chem. 409(8):2239-2246.
  • [20] Wenzel, A., Muler, J., Ternes, T., 2003. Study on Endocrine Disrupters in Drinking Water Final Report, Schmallenberg and Wiesbaden Env.D.1/Etu/2000/0083.
  • [21] Sağlık Bakanlığı 2008 T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı, Temel Sağlık Bülteni Yıl:3 Sayı:24 Kasım 2008 ‘Ayın Mesajı’ syf:3.
  • [22] Seachrist, D.D., Bonk, K.W., Ho, S.M., Prins, G.S., Soto, A.M., Keri, R.A. 2016. A review of the carcinogenic potential of bisphenol A. Reprod Toxicol. 59:167-82.
  • [23] Snyder, R.W., Maness, S.C., Gaido, K.W., Welsch, F., Sumner, S.C.J., Fennell, T.R. 2000. Metabolism and Disposition of Bisphenol A in Female Rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 168: 225-234.
  • [24] Buckiova, D., Kyselova, V., Piknicova, J., Boubelik, M. 2001. Low Doses of Bisphenol A (BPA) Affect Fertility in CD Mice. Reprod. Toxicol., 15: 459.
  • [25] Beydoun, H.A., Beydoun M.A., Jeng, H. A., Zonderman, A. B., Eid, S.M. 2016. Bisphenol-A and Sleep Adequacy among Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Sleep. 39(2): 467–476.
  • [26] Öner, Y., Canpolat, Ö., Elmacı, C. 2012. Nutrigenomik ve Hayvan Beslemedeki Uygulamaları. Hayvansal Üretim 53(1): 49-54.
  • [27] Okutucu, B., Pehlivan, S., 2003. Revers-Transkriptaz Polimeraz Zincir Reaksiyonu (RT-PCR) ve Uygulama Alanları. ARŞİV.12:138.
  • [28] Tuncer, S., Demirci, M., Dental Materyallerde Biyouyumluluk Değerlendirmeleri. Atatürk Üniv. Diş Hek. Fak. Derg. Cilt:21, Sayı: 2, Sayfa: 141-149.
  • [29] Uğuz, C., Erdoğan, M., Sevimli, A., Onrat, S.T., Özdemir, M., Lenger, F.Ö., Arıkan, E.S., Bayram, İ., İşcan, M., Togan, İ. 2004. Nonilfenol’ün Bıldırcınlarda Histopatolojik Ve Moleküler Düzeydeki Etkileri.Türk Biyokimya Dergisi; 29 (1); 1-176.
  • [30] Vivacqua, A., Recchia, A.G., Fasanella, G., Gabriele, S., Carpino, A., Rago, V. 2003. The food contaminants bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol act as agonists for estrogen receptor alpha in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Endocrine. 22(3):275-284.
  • [31] Balakrishnan, B., Thorstensen, E., Ponnampalam, A., Mitchell, M. D. 2011. Passage of 4-Nonylphenol across the human placenta. Placenta, 32: 788-792.
  • [32] Sise, S., Uguz, C. 2017. Nonylphenol in Human Breast Milk in Relation to Sociodemo-graphic Variables, Diet, Obstetrics Histories and Lifestyle Habits in a Turkish Population. Iran J Public Health, 46(4):491-499.
  • [33] Uğuz, C., Varışlı, O., Ağca, C., Ağca, Y. 2009. Effects of nonylphenol on motility and subcellular slements of epididymal rat sperm. Reproduct. Toxicol., 28(4): 542-549.
  • [34] Lukac, N., Lukacova, J., Pınto, B., Knazıcka, Z., Tvrda, E., Massanyı, P. 2013. The effect of nonylphenol on the motility and viability of bovine spermatozoa in vitro. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 48: 973-979.
  • [35] Uğuz, C., Varışlı, O., Ağca, C., Ağca, Y. (2014a). Effects of Nonylphenol on Motion Kinetics, Acrosome and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Frozen-Thawed Bull Sperm, Kafkas Üniv. Vet. Fak. Derg. 20(4): 583-590.
  • [36] Uğuz, C., Varışlı, O., Ağca, C., Ağca, Y. (2014b). In vitro effects of nonylphenol on motility, mitochondrial, akrozomal and chromatin integrity of ram and boar spermatozoa, Andrologia, 3:1:10.
  • [37] Watanabe, M., Ohno, S., Nakajin, S. 2012. Effects of bisphenol A on the expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) in human fetal osteoblastic and granulosa cell-like cell lines. Toxicology Letters 210; 95– 99.
  • [38] Perera, F., Herbstman, J. 2011. Prenatal environmental exposures, epigenetics and disease. Reproductive Toxicology. 31; 363–373.
  • [39] Palermo, F. A., Cocci, F., Nabissi, M., Polzonetti-Magni, A., Mosconi, G. 2012. Cortisol response to waterborne 4-nonylphenol exposure leads to increased brain POMC and HSP70 mRNA expressions and reduced total antioxidant capacity in juvenile sole (Solea solea).Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C. 156: 135-139.
  • [40] Vetillard, A., Bailhache, T., 2006. Effects of 4-n-Nonylphenol and Tamoxifen on Salmon Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone, Estrogen Receptor, and Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Juvenile Rainbow Trout. Toxicological Sciences. 92(2), 537–544.
  • [41] Howdeshell, K.L., Hotchkıss, A.K., Thayer, K.A., Vandenbergh, J.G., Vom Saal, F.S. 1999. Exposure to Bisphenol A Advances Puberty. Nature, 401: 763-764.

Endocrine Disruptive Chemicals: Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A

Yıl 2018, Cilt 30, Sayı 1, 71 - 76, 31.03.2018
https://doi.org/10.7240/marufbd.337686

Öz

The improvement of technology and science has facilitated human, but these brought various negative effects. The chemicals that exist in the environment affects the vitality negatively. These compounds are such as food additives, cosmetics and medicines used in industry, pesticides, herbicides, cigarette smoke and alcohols. The possible negative effects of pollutants on the health of living beings are increasing. These especially affect the endocrine system of living things. Endocrine disrupting chemical compounds are nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) which are most commonly used in the industry. These degradable materials are removed at the treatment facility, but reduced concentrations of them are given to rivers and streams. In this way, they participate in the biological cycle and stored by the biomass. These chemicals are called xenoestrogens, and they have various usage at home and industry. In addition to these, they have great importance as the main component of detergents, soaps and cleaners. Most of them or their decomposition products may be mutagenic, estrogenic, toxic or carcinogenic. In addition, they could block the metabolic activities of estrogen, progesterone, androgen and other hormones by means of adhering to the hormone receptor domain or act as anti-hormonal substances. Therefore, it is important to examine the possible indirect or direct effects of NP and BPA at the molecular level, and it is foreseen as an important research topic.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Urriola-Muñoz, P., Li, X., Maretzky, T., McIlwain, D.R., Mak, T.W., Reyes, J.G., Blobel, C.P., Moreno, D. 2017. The Xenoestrogens Biphenol-A and Nonylphenol differentially regulate metalloprotease-mediated shedding of EGFR ligands. J Cell Physiol. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26097.
  • [2] Lagos-Cabre R, Moreno R.D. 2012. Contribution of environmental pollutants to male infertily: a working model of germ cell apoptosis induced by plasticizers. Biological research. 45(1):5-14.
  • [3] Gao, Q. T., Wong, Y. S., Tam, N.F.Y. 2017. Antioxidant responses of different microalgal species to nonylphenol-induced oxidative stress. Journal of Applied Phycology. 29(3):1317-1329.
  • [4] Warhurst, A.M. 1995. An Environmental Assessment of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates and Alkylphenols.
  • [5] Sharma, V.K., Anquandah, G.A.K., Yngard, R.A., Kım, H., Fekete, J., Bouzek, K., Ray, A.K., Golovko, D. 2009. Nonylphenol, octylphenol, and bisphenol-A in the aquatic environment: A review on occurrence, fate, and treatment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A. 44, 423–442. [6] Kawamura, Y., Ogawa, Y., Mutsuga, M. 2017. Migration of nonylphenol and plasticizers from polyvinyl chloride stretch film into food simulants, rapeseed oil, and foods. Food Sci Nutr. 5(3): 390–398.
  • [7] Lyons, R., Van de Bittner. K., Morgan-Jones, S. 2014. Deposition patterns and transport mechanisms for the endocrine disruptor 4-nonylphenol across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. Environmental Pollution. 195:123-132.
  • [8] İşcan, M., Togan, İ., Tabak, İ., Uğuz, C., Ergüven, A., Eroğlu, Y., Zengin, M., Aktaş, M., Zengin, B., 2001. Deniz ve Akarsulardaki Kirliliğin Karadeniz'deki Ekonomik Değeri Yüksek Balıkların Stok ve Üremesi Üzerine Olan Etkisinin Belirlenmesi. T. C. Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Tarımsal Araştırmalar Genel Müdürlüğü. TAGEM / HAYSÜD /98/12/02/00
  • [9] Uğuz C, Togan I, Eroğlu Y, Tabak I, Zengin M, Işcan M. 2003. Alkylphenol concentrations in two rivers of Turkey. Environ Toxicol Pharm, 14, 87-88.
  • [10] İşcan, M., Togan, İ., Severcan, F., Uğuz, C., Ergüven, A. 2005. Sakarya Nehri ve Değirmenderesi’nde Alkilfenol Kirliliği ve Nonilfenol’ün Alabalıklar (Onchoryncus Mykiss) Üzerine Etkileri. The Sientific and technical Research Council of Turkey. 2005-286.
  • [11] Zemheri F. ve Uğuz C. 2016. Determining Mutagenic Effect of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A by Using Ames/Salmonella/Microsome Test. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 10 (3): 09-12, 2016.
  • [12] Li, X., Zhou, L., Ni, Y., Wang, A., Hu, M., Lin, Y., Hong, C., Wan, J., Chen, B., Fang, L., Tong, J., Tong, X., Tao, S., Tian, H. 2017. Nonylphenol Induces Pancreatic Damage in Rats through Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress. Toxicology Research. DOI: 10.1039/C6TX00450D
  • [13] Yücedağ, F., Okur, E., Uğuz, C., Zemheri, F., Kuzu, S., Ayçiçek, A., Kahveci, O.K., 2014. The 875 effects of nonylphenol on hearing in rats. J. Int. Adv. Otol. 10.
  • [14] Ergün, S. S., Üstüner, B., Alçay, S., Sağırkaya, H., Uğuz, C. 2014. The Effects of Nonylphenol on Gamete Physiology in Bovine. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 8(2): 32-38.
  • [15] Prokop, Z., Hankova, L., Jerabek, K. 2004. Bisphenol A Synthesis – Modeling of Industrial Reactor and Catalyst Deactivation, Reac. And Func. Polym. 60: 77-83.
  • [16] Johnson, I., Harvey, P. 2002, Study on The Scientific Evaluation of 12 Substances In The Context of Endocrine Disrupter Priority List of Actions European Commission, Wrc-Nsf Ref: Uc 6052.
  • [17] Kosky, P.E., Guggenheim, E.K. 1991. The Aqueous Phase in the Interfacial Sythesis of Polycarbonates. 1. Ionic Equilibra and Experhnental Solubilities in the BPA-NaOH-H2O System Ind. Eng.
  • [18] ECB. 2003, European Chemicals Bureau, European Union Risk Assessment Report 4,4'-Isopropylidenediphenol (Bisphenol-A). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Einecs No: 201-245-8
  • [19] Zhang, J., Zhang, T., Guan, T., Yu, H., Li, T. 2017. In vitro and in silico assessment of the structure-dependent binding of bisphenol analogues to glucocorticoid receptor. Anal Bioanal Chem. 409(8):2239-2246.
  • [20] Wenzel, A., Muler, J., Ternes, T., 2003. Study on Endocrine Disrupters in Drinking Water Final Report, Schmallenberg and Wiesbaden Env.D.1/Etu/2000/0083.
  • [21] Sağlık Bakanlığı 2008 T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı, Temel Sağlık Bülteni Yıl:3 Sayı:24 Kasım 2008 ‘Ayın Mesajı’ syf:3.
  • [22] Seachrist, D.D., Bonk, K.W., Ho, S.M., Prins, G.S., Soto, A.M., Keri, R.A. 2016. A review of the carcinogenic potential of bisphenol A. Reprod Toxicol. 59:167-82.
  • [23] Snyder, R.W., Maness, S.C., Gaido, K.W., Welsch, F., Sumner, S.C.J., Fennell, T.R. 2000. Metabolism and Disposition of Bisphenol A in Female Rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 168: 225-234.
  • [24] Buckiova, D., Kyselova, V., Piknicova, J., Boubelik, M. 2001. Low Doses of Bisphenol A (BPA) Affect Fertility in CD Mice. Reprod. Toxicol., 15: 459.
  • [25] Beydoun, H.A., Beydoun M.A., Jeng, H. A., Zonderman, A. B., Eid, S.M. 2016. Bisphenol-A and Sleep Adequacy among Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Sleep. 39(2): 467–476.
  • [26] Öner, Y., Canpolat, Ö., Elmacı, C. 2012. Nutrigenomik ve Hayvan Beslemedeki Uygulamaları. Hayvansal Üretim 53(1): 49-54.
  • [27] Okutucu, B., Pehlivan, S., 2003. Revers-Transkriptaz Polimeraz Zincir Reaksiyonu (RT-PCR) ve Uygulama Alanları. ARŞİV.12:138.
  • [28] Tuncer, S., Demirci, M., Dental Materyallerde Biyouyumluluk Değerlendirmeleri. Atatürk Üniv. Diş Hek. Fak. Derg. Cilt:21, Sayı: 2, Sayfa: 141-149.
  • [29] Uğuz, C., Erdoğan, M., Sevimli, A., Onrat, S.T., Özdemir, M., Lenger, F.Ö., Arıkan, E.S., Bayram, İ., İşcan, M., Togan, İ. 2004. Nonilfenol’ün Bıldırcınlarda Histopatolojik Ve Moleküler Düzeydeki Etkileri.Türk Biyokimya Dergisi; 29 (1); 1-176.
  • [30] Vivacqua, A., Recchia, A.G., Fasanella, G., Gabriele, S., Carpino, A., Rago, V. 2003. The food contaminants bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol act as agonists for estrogen receptor alpha in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Endocrine. 22(3):275-284.
  • [31] Balakrishnan, B., Thorstensen, E., Ponnampalam, A., Mitchell, M. D. 2011. Passage of 4-Nonylphenol across the human placenta. Placenta, 32: 788-792.
  • [32] Sise, S., Uguz, C. 2017. Nonylphenol in Human Breast Milk in Relation to Sociodemo-graphic Variables, Diet, Obstetrics Histories and Lifestyle Habits in a Turkish Population. Iran J Public Health, 46(4):491-499.
  • [33] Uğuz, C., Varışlı, O., Ağca, C., Ağca, Y. 2009. Effects of nonylphenol on motility and subcellular slements of epididymal rat sperm. Reproduct. Toxicol., 28(4): 542-549.
  • [34] Lukac, N., Lukacova, J., Pınto, B., Knazıcka, Z., Tvrda, E., Massanyı, P. 2013. The effect of nonylphenol on the motility and viability of bovine spermatozoa in vitro. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 48: 973-979.
  • [35] Uğuz, C., Varışlı, O., Ağca, C., Ağca, Y. (2014a). Effects of Nonylphenol on Motion Kinetics, Acrosome and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Frozen-Thawed Bull Sperm, Kafkas Üniv. Vet. Fak. Derg. 20(4): 583-590.
  • [36] Uğuz, C., Varışlı, O., Ağca, C., Ağca, Y. (2014b). In vitro effects of nonylphenol on motility, mitochondrial, akrozomal and chromatin integrity of ram and boar spermatozoa, Andrologia, 3:1:10.
  • [37] Watanabe, M., Ohno, S., Nakajin, S. 2012. Effects of bisphenol A on the expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) in human fetal osteoblastic and granulosa cell-like cell lines. Toxicology Letters 210; 95– 99.
  • [38] Perera, F., Herbstman, J. 2011. Prenatal environmental exposures, epigenetics and disease. Reproductive Toxicology. 31; 363–373.
  • [39] Palermo, F. A., Cocci, F., Nabissi, M., Polzonetti-Magni, A., Mosconi, G. 2012. Cortisol response to waterborne 4-nonylphenol exposure leads to increased brain POMC and HSP70 mRNA expressions and reduced total antioxidant capacity in juvenile sole (Solea solea).Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C. 156: 135-139.
  • [40] Vetillard, A., Bailhache, T., 2006. Effects of 4-n-Nonylphenol and Tamoxifen on Salmon Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone, Estrogen Receptor, and Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Juvenile Rainbow Trout. Toxicological Sciences. 92(2), 537–544.
  • [41] Howdeshell, K.L., Hotchkıss, A.K., Thayer, K.A., Vandenbergh, J.G., Vom Saal, F.S. 1999. Exposure to Bisphenol A Advances Puberty. Nature, 401: 763-764.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Fahriye ZEMHERİ
BARTIN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
orcid.org/0000-0003-1744-1091
Türkiye


Cevdet UĞUZ
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
orcid.org/0000-0001-9577-0312
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Mart 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 30, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { marufbd337686, journal = {Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2146-5150}, address = {}, publisher = {Marmara Üniversitesi}, year = {2018}, volume = {30}, pages = {71 - 76}, doi = {10.7240/marufbd.337686}, title = {Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A}, key = {cite}, author = {Zemheri, Fahriye and Uğuz, Cevdet} }
APA Zemheri, F. & Uğuz, C. (2018). Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A . Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi , 30 (1) , 71-76 . DOI: 10.7240/marufbd.337686
MLA Zemheri, F. , Uğuz, C. "Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A" . Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi 30 (2018 ): 71-76 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/marufbd/issue/36224/337686>
Chicago Zemheri, F. , Uğuz, C. "Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A". Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi 30 (2018 ): 71-76
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A AU - Fahriye Zemheri , Cevdet Uğuz Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.7240/marufbd.337686 DO - 10.7240/marufbd.337686 T2 - Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 71 EP - 76 VL - 30 IS - 1 SN - -2146-5150 M3 - doi: 10.7240/marufbd.337686 UR - https://doi.org/10.7240/marufbd.337686 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A %A Fahriye Zemheri , Cevdet Uğuz %T Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A %D 2018 %J Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-5150 %V 30 %N 1 %R doi: 10.7240/marufbd.337686 %U 10.7240/marufbd.337686
ISNAD Zemheri, Fahriye , Uğuz, Cevdet . "Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A". Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi 30 / 1 (Mart 2018): 71-76 . https://doi.org/10.7240/marufbd.337686
AMA Zemheri F. , Uğuz C. Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A. MFBD. 2018; 30(1): 71-76.
Vancouver Zemheri F. , Uğuz C. Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A. Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi. 2018; 30(1): 71-76.
IEEE F. Zemheri ve C. Uğuz , "Endokrin Bozucu Kimyasallar: Nonilfenol ve Bisfenol A", Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, c. 30, sayı. 1, ss. 71-76, Mar. 2018, doi:10.7240/marufbd.337686

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