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Grounding Vulnerability and Resilience in the Face of Disasters: A Capital-Based Comprehensive Cognitive and Operational Model Proposal

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 14, 97 - 117, 30.06.2024

Öz

Human history, while witnessing significant advancements and progress, has also been subjected to substantial destruction due to natural disasters and risks arising from human-nature interactions. These experiences have pushed the boundaries of individuals and communities, enhancing their resilience and ability to cope with disasters. However, each success and preventive measure has led to the emergence of more complex risks and dangers, increasing the severity of losses and the experienced events and complicating their manageability. In this context, a vast body of literature has developed on how to enhance the resilience of individuals and communities against various risks and disasters. This study, starting from this point, examines how individual and societal vulnerability and resilience are grounded in the international literature. Thus, it aims to expand the operational and conceptual understanding of the national disaster literature and propose a model. In this regard, data from the international literature have been analyzed using a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted with the PRISMA protocol. The findings underscore the central role of resilience and vulnerability concepts in disaster management and the importance of social, economic, human, physical, and cultural capital in this context. Additionally, it suggests adding social ecosystem capital as an alternative dimension of capital to the model.

Kaynakça

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Afetler Karşısında Kırılganlık ve Dirençliliği Temellendirmek: Sermaye Temelli Bütüncül Bir Bilişsel ve Operasyonel Model Önerisi

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 14, 97 - 117, 30.06.2024

Öz

İnsanlık tarihi, büyük gelişmeler ve ilerlemelere tanık olduğu kadar, doğal ve insan-doğa etkileşimli riskler ve afetlerle de büyük yıkımlara maruz kalmıştır. Bu deneyimler, insanların ve toplumların sınırlarını zorlayarak ve dayanıklılıklarını artırarak afetlere karşı başa çıkma kabiliyetlerini geliştirmelerine yol açmıştır. Ancak her başarı ve önlem, daha karmaşık risklerin ve tehlikelerin ortaya çıkmasına sebep olmuştur, bu da kayıpların ve tecrübe edilen olayların şiddetini artırmış ve yönetilebilirliğini zorlaştırmıştır. Bu eksende, afetlere ve çeşitli risklere karşı bireylerin ve toplumların direncinin nasıl arttırabileceğine ilişkin geniş bir literatür oluşmuştur. Çalışma, bu noktadan hareketle birey ve toplumsal kırılganlık ve dirençliliğin uluslararası literatürde nasıl temellendirildiğini incelemektedir. Böylelikle, ulusal afet literatürünün operasyonel ve kavramsal anlayışını genişletmeyi ve bir model önerisi sunmayı hedeflemektedir. Bu bağlamda, PRISMA protokolü kullanılarak yapılan sistematik derleme ve meta-analiz ile uluslararası literatürden elde edilen veriler analiz edilmiştir. Bulgular, direnç ve kırılganlık kavramlarının afet yönetimindeki merkezi rolünü ve sosyal, ekonomik, insani, fiziki ve kültürel sermayenin bu bağlamdaki önemini vurgulamaktadır. Aynı zamanda sermaye yaklaşımlarına ek sosyal ekosistem sermayesini de alternatif bir sermaye boyutu olarak modele eklemeyi önermektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Akbar M. S., Safdar M. R., Yousaf F. N. & Aldrich D. P. 2022, “Status and social capital: a cross-sectional quantitative investigation of flood survivors in south Punjab, Pakistan”. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 13(4), 549-560.
  • Akman D. & Şahin Ş. 2023, “Isparta’da Deprem Afet Bilinci Toplumsal Düzeyinin Belirlenmesi”. Teknik Bilimler Dergisi, 13(2), 1-6.
  • Akobeng A. K. 2005, “Principles of evidence based medicine”. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(8), 837-840.
  • Angeon V. & Bates S. 2015, “Reviewing composite vulnerability and resilience indexes: A sustainable approach and application”. World Development, 72, 140-162.
  • AON. 2024, Climate and Catastrophe Insight. Kaynak: https://assets.aon.com/media/files/aon/reports/2024/ climate-and-catastrophe-insights-report.pdf.
  • AON.2021, Climate and Catastrophe Insight. Kaynak: https://www.aon.com/getmedia/1b516e4d-c5fa-4086-9393-5e6afb0eeded/20220125-2021-weather-climate-catastrophe-insight.pdf.aspx
  • Aslangiri F. & Açkalın O. 2019, “Engellilerin Afete Dirençliliği ve Van’da Yerel Örgütlenme”. Resilience, 3(1), 71-83.
  • Atreya A. & Kunreuther H. 2021, “Assessing community resilience: mapping the community rating system (CRS) against the 6C-4R frameworks”. In Environmental Hazards and Resilience (pp. 71-90), Routledge.
  • Avcı S., Kaplan B., Ortabağ T., & Arslan S. 2022, “Üniversite hastanesinde çalışan hemşirelerin afet konusundaki bilgi ve bilinç düzeyleri”. Afet ve Risk Dergisi, 5(1), 94-108.
  • Avdar R., & Avdar R. 2022, “Türkiye’de yaşanan doğa kaynaklı afetlerin sosyo-ekonomik etkileri”. Afet ve Risk Dergisi, 5(1), 1-12.
  • Ay S., & Çetin B. N. 2022, “Deprem Mağduru Yaşlı Bireylerin Mekân Memnuniyetlerinin İncelenmesi: Elazığ Örneği”.
  • Azad M. J. & Pritchard B. 2023, “Bonding, bridging, linking social capital as mutually reinforcing elements in adaptive capacity development to flood hazard: Insights from rural Bangladesh”. Climate Risk Management, 40, 100498.
  • Barua U., Mannan S., Islam I., Akther M. S., Islam M. A., Akter T. & Ansary M. A. 2020, “People’s awareness, knowledge and perception influencing earthquake vulnerability of a community: A study on Ward no. 14, Mymensingh Municipality, Bangladesh”. Natural Hazards, 103, 1121-1181.
  • Bastaminia A., Rezaei M. R. & Dastoorpoor M. 2017, “Identification and evaluation of the components and factors affecting social and economic resilience in city of Rudbar, Iran”. International journal of disaster risk reduction, 22, 269-280.
  • Birkmann J. 2013, Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: Towards disaster resilient societies (2. ed.). Tokyo: United Nations Univ. Press.
  • Bixler R. P., Paul S., Jones J., Preisser M., & Passalacqua P. 2021, “Unpacking adaptive capacity to flooding in urban environments: Social capital, social vulnerability, and risk perception”. Frontiers in Water, 3, 728730.
  • Bozkurt A. 2022, “Resilience, Adaptability, and Sustainability of Higher Education: A systematic Mapping Study on the Impact of the Coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic and the Transition to the New Normal”. Journal of Learning for Development, 9(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.56059/jl4d.v9i1.590
  • Bronfenbrenner U. 1977, “Toward an Experimental Ecology of Human Development”. American Psychologist. 32(7), 513-531.
  • Bronfrenbrenner U. 1979, The Ecology of Human Developmen: Experiments by Nature and Design. Harvard University Press, America.
  • Brown N. A., Orchiston C., Rovins J. E., Feldmann-Jensen S., & Johnston D. 2018, “An integrative framework for investigating disaster resilience within the hotel sector”. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 36, 67-75. Bulut A. 2023, “Bireylerin Afet Okuryazarlığı Düzeylerini Etkileyen Faktörlerin Sıralı Lojistik Regresyon Analizi ile İncelenmesi”. Afet ve Risk Dergisi, 6(3), 691-709.
  • Casali Y., & Heinimann H. R. 2019, “A topological characterization of flooding impacts on the Zurich road network”. PLoS one, 14(7), e0220338.
  • Chacowry A., McEwen L. J., & Lynch K. 2018, “Recovery and resilience of communities in flood risk zones in a small island developing state: A case study from a suburban settlement of Port Louis, Mauritius”. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 28, 826-838.
  • Chambers K. G., Carrico A. R., & Cook S. M. 2021, “Drivers of sustained sanitation access: social network and demographic predictors of latrine reconstruction after flooding disasters”. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 7(10), 1861-1872.
  • Christmann G. B., Ibert O., Kilper H., & Moss T. 2012, “Vulnerability and resilience from a socio-spatial perspective: Towards a theoretical framework (No. 45)”. Working Paper.
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  • Mileti D. S., Cress D. M. & Darlington J. D. 2002, “Earthquake culture and corporate action. In Sociological Forum”. Vol. 17, pp. 161-180, Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers.
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  • Oral V. & Cengiz E. 2020, “Afete Hazırlık Davranışlarına Etki Eden Faktörlerinin İncelenmesi: Bir Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi”. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 12(3), 1252-1269.
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  • Usta E. & Yükseler M. 2021, “Afetlerde sosyal medya kullanımı ve etik ikilemler: İzmir Seferihisar depremi örneği”. Afet ve Risk Dergisi, 4(2), 249-269.
  • Varol N. & Kırıkkaya E. B. 2017, “Afetler karşısında toplum dirençliliği”. Resilience, 1(1), 1-9.
  • Wardekker A., Nath S., & Handayaningsih T. U. 2023, “The interaction between cultural heritage and community resilience in disaster-affected volcanic regions”. Environmental Science & Policy, 145, 116-128.
  • Weerasinghe K. M., Gehrels H., Arambepola N. M. S. I., Vajja H. P. Herath J. M. K. & Atapattu K. B. 2018, “Qualitative flood risk assessment for the Western Province of Sri Lanka”. Procedia engineering, 212, 503-510.
  • Wisner B., Blaikie P., Cannon T. & Davis I. 2004, At Risk: Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters.
Toplam 91 adet kaynakça vardır.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyoloji (Diğer)
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Serkan Coşkun 0000-0001-5792-3568

Meliha Demet Ulusoy 0000-0001-7169-8301

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2024
Gönderilme Tarihi 5 Mart 2024
Kabul Tarihi 25 Haziran 2024
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2024 Cilt: 14

Kaynak Göster

APA Coşkun, S., & Ulusoy, M. D. (2024). Afetler Karşısında Kırılganlık ve Dirençliliği Temellendirmek: Sermaye Temelli Bütüncül Bir Bilişsel ve Operasyonel Model Önerisi. Akdeniz İnsani Bilimler Dergisi, 14, 97-117.
Adres:
Akdeniz İnsani Bilimler Dergisi
Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi
07058 Kampüs, Antalya / TÜRKİYE
E-Posta:
mjh@akdeniz.edu.tr