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Grammar-learning Beliefs of Students Who Learn Turkish as a Foreign Language

Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 1, 32 - 50, 31.01.2022

Öz

The aim of the study is to determine the beliefs of those who learn Turkish as a foreign language about learning grammar and to determine whether their beliefs are in line with their perceptions of grammar. In this study, which was created using the mixed method, the data about the beliefs of the learners in accordance with the survey method was collected, which is one of the basic quantitative research methods. In addition, the data for the determination of learners’ perceptions were collected in accordance with one of the qualitative research methods—the phenomenology method. The study group of this research consists of B1, B2, and C1 level students who learn Turkish at Aydın TÖMER (Turkish Teaching Application and Research Center), İstanbul Aydın University. Based on the findings obtained in the research, 45% of the learners believe that they can learn Turkish without knowing the grammar while 37% believe that they cannot. When the beliefs about grammar-learning method are examined, it is seen that 27% of the learners have the belief that it is important to learn grammar directly, and 63% believe that it is more important to understand the rules based on examples. In the context of all of this data, it was concluded that there is a parallelism between the grammar-learning beliefs of those who learn Turkish as a foreign language and their grammar perceptions. In other words, those who think that they cannot learn Turkish without knowing grammar also perceive grammar as difficult, a necessity, and produce metaphors for it. In addition, it was understood that those who believe that they can learn Turkish without knowing grammar perceive grammar as a tool and produce metaphors and provide reasons.

Kaynakça

  • Akkaya, A. (2013). Syrian refugees’ perception of the Turkish language. Ekev Akademi Dergisi, 17(56), 179–190.
  • Aragão, R. (2011). Beliefs and emotions in foreign language learning. System, 39(3), 302–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.07.003.
  • Arıkan, A., Taşer, D., & Saraç-Süzer, H. S. (2008). The effective English language teacher from the perspectives of Turkish preparatory school students. Education Sciences, 33(150), 42–51.
  • Arslan, M. (2014). The effects of structural features of learning Turkish language as a foreign language from learners’ perspective: Bosnia and Herzegovina case. Eğitim ve Bilim, 39(174), 189–200. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2014.2554.
  • Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Pscychologist, 28(2), 117–148. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3
  • Baş, M. & Gezegin B. B. (2017). Metaphors of English as a foreign language. Global Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 7(1), 2–8. https://doi.org/10.18844/gjflt.v7i1.2403.
  • Bernat, E. & Gvozdenko, I. (2005). Beliefs about language learning: Current knowledge, pedagogical ımplications, and new research directions. Tesl-ej, 9(1), 1–21.
  • Biçer, N. (2017). Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretiminde ana dilinin etkisi. Journal of Turkish Studies, 12(14), 41–58. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.11704.
  • Boylu, E. & Işık, Ö. F. (2017). Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenenlerin Türkçeye yönelik algılarının metaforlar aracılığı ile belirlenmesi. Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 5(3), 450–471.
  • Boylu, E. & Işık, Ö. F. (2020). Metaphorical perceptions of learners of Turkish as a foreign language towards Turkish grammar. Başkent University Journal of Education,7(1), 129–145.
  • Brown, A. V. (2009). Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of effective foreign language teaching: A comparison of ideals. The Modern Language Journal, 93(1), 46–60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00827.x.
  • Bülbül, A. & Güven, Z. Z. (2017). A study ınto the grammar-based dıffıcultıes ın teachıng Turkish as a foreıgn language. Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 10(52), 83–91.
  • Burgess, J. & Etherington, S. (2002). Focus on grammatical form: Explicit or implicit? System, 30(4), 433–458. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(02)00048-9.
  • Büyükyazı, M. (2010). The beliefs of university foreign language students and their teachers about language learning. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8(1), 169–182.
  • Creswell, J. W. & Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Understanding mixed methods research. In J. Creswell (Ed.), Designing and conducting mixed methods research (1–19). Sage.
  • Creswell, J. W. & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage.
  • De la Campa, J. C. & Nassaji, H. (2009). The amount, purpose, and reasons for using L1 in L2 classrooms. Foreign Language Annals, 42(4), 742–759. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2009.01052.x.
  • Demir, H. (2012). The role of native language in the teaching of the fl grammar. Journal of Education, 1(2), 21–28.
  • Demirci, K. (2016). “Metafor: Bir Anlatım Üretim Mekanizması” Dil Bilimleri Kültür ve Edebiyat, (Edt. M Sarıca, B. Sarıca), Padam Yayınları, 330–343.
  • Ekici, G., & Akdeniz, H. (2018). Öğretmen adaylarının “sınıfta disiplin sağlamak” kavramına ilişkin algılarının belirlenmesi: Bir metafor analizi çalışması. Dicle Üniversitesi Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 33, 26–37.
  • Erol, S. & Kaya, M. (2020). The ınvestigation of the perception of Turkish learners as a foreign language regarding Turkish grammar with reference to several variables. International Journal of Language Academy, 8(3), 390–401.
  • Farjami, H. (2012). English learners’ metaphors and images of vocabulary learning. Electronic Journal of Foreign language Teaching and Translation Studies, 1(2), 75–89.
  • Fontich, X. & Camps, A. (2013). Towards a rationale for research into grammar teaching in schools. Journal Research Papers in Education, 29(5), 598–625. https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2013.813579.
  • Göçen, G. (2019). Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenenlerin “Türkçenin dil bilgisi”ne yönelik metaforik algısı. Başkent University Journal of Education, 6(1), 28–45.
  • Göçer, A. (2008). Türkçe dil bilgisi öğretiminde çözümleme yönteminin kullanımı. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 5(10), 101–120.
  • Göçer, A. (2013). Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarının kültür dil ilişkisine yönelik metaforik algıları. Turkish Studies 8(9), 253–263.
  • Graham, S. (2006). Strategy ınstruction and the teaching of writing: A meta-analysis. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (187–207). The Guilford Press.
  • Güler, E. B. & Eyüp B. (2016). Hal eklerinin ikinci dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen öğrenciler tarafından kullanılması. Turkish Studies, 11(14), 295–312.
  • Güneş, F. (2013). Dil bilgisi öğretiminde yeni yaklaşımlar. Dil ve Edebiyat Eğitimi Dergisi, 2(7), 71–92.
  • Horwitz, E.K. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language methods course. Foreign Language Annals, 18(4), 333–340.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1985.tb01811.x.
  • Horwitz, E.K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. Modern Language Journal, 72(3), 283–294.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1988.tb04190.x.
  • Horwitz, E.K. (1999). Cultural and situational influences on foreign language learners’ beliefs about language learning: A review of BALLI studies. System, 27(4), 557–576.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00050-0.
  • Kalaja P. & Barcelos A.M.F. (2003) Conclusion: Exploring possibilities for future research on beliefs about SLA. In: Kalaja P., Barcelos A.M.F. (Eds) Beliefs about SLA: New Research Approaches, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4751-0_10.
  • Karatay, H. & Kartallıoğlu N. (2019). Moğol öğrencilerin Türkiye ve Türkçe algıları. Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,19(3), 1016–1028.
  • Kayaoğlu, M. (2012). Öğretmen uygulama ve perspektifinden yabancı dil öğretiminde anadil kullanımı. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 32(32), 25–35.
  • Kaypak, E. & Ortaçtepe D. (2014). Language learner beliefs and study abroad: A study on English as a lingua franca (ELF). System, 42, 355–367.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.01.005.
  • Köylü, Z. (2018). The rse of L1 in the tertiary L2 classroom: Code-switching factors, functions, and attitudes in Turkey. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 15(2), 271–289.
  • Li, C. & Ruan, Z. (2015). Changes in beliefs about language learning among Chinese EAP learners in an EMI context in Mainland China: A socio-cultural perspective. System, 55, 43–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.08.010.
  • Loewen, S., Li, S., Fei, F., Thompson, A., Nakatsukasa, K., Ahn, S.,& Chen, X. (2009). L2 learners’ beliefs about grammar instruction and error correction. The Modern Language Journal 93(1), 91–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00830.x.
  • Mete, F. & Bağcı Ayrancı, B.(2016). Dil ve edebiyata ilişkin algıların metaforlar yoluyla incelenmesi. Dede Korkut Uluslararası Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(11), 53–64.
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Data management and analysis methods. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (428–444). Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Moore, P. J. (2013). An emergent perspective on the use of the first language in the English‐as‐a‐foreign‐language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 97(1), 239–253.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.01429.x.
  • Morgan, G. (1980). Paradigms, metaphors, and puzzle solving in organizational analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 606–622.
  • Mori, Y. (1999). Epistemological beliefs and language learning beliefs: What do language learners believe about their learning? Language Learning, 49(3),377–415. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00094.
  • Mudra, H.& Aini, N.(2020). “English learning islike…:” Metaphorical perceptions of prospective English teachers about language learning process. Journal of English Education and Linguistic Studies, 7(1), 69–90. https://doi.org/10.30762/jeels.v7i1.1710.
  • Özçelik, N. (2013). Yabancı dil Fransızca sınıfında anadil kullanımı. Journal of Turkish Studies, 8(10), 541–553. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.5157.
  • Özer, B., & Korkmaz, C. (2016). Yabancı dil öğretiminde öğrenci başarısını etkileyen unsurlar. Ekev Akademi Dergisi, 20(67), 59–84.
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Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 1, 32 - 50, 31.01.2022

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Akkaya, A. (2013). Syrian refugees’ perception of the Turkish language. Ekev Akademi Dergisi, 17(56), 179–190.
  • Aragão, R. (2011). Beliefs and emotions in foreign language learning. System, 39(3), 302–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.07.003.
  • Arıkan, A., Taşer, D., & Saraç-Süzer, H. S. (2008). The effective English language teacher from the perspectives of Turkish preparatory school students. Education Sciences, 33(150), 42–51.
  • Arslan, M. (2014). The effects of structural features of learning Turkish language as a foreign language from learners’ perspective: Bosnia and Herzegovina case. Eğitim ve Bilim, 39(174), 189–200. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2014.2554.
  • Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Pscychologist, 28(2), 117–148. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3
  • Baş, M. & Gezegin B. B. (2017). Metaphors of English as a foreign language. Global Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 7(1), 2–8. https://doi.org/10.18844/gjflt.v7i1.2403.
  • Bernat, E. & Gvozdenko, I. (2005). Beliefs about language learning: Current knowledge, pedagogical ımplications, and new research directions. Tesl-ej, 9(1), 1–21.
  • Biçer, N. (2017). Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretiminde ana dilinin etkisi. Journal of Turkish Studies, 12(14), 41–58. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.11704.
  • Boylu, E. & Işık, Ö. F. (2017). Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenenlerin Türkçeye yönelik algılarının metaforlar aracılığı ile belirlenmesi. Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 5(3), 450–471.
  • Boylu, E. & Işık, Ö. F. (2020). Metaphorical perceptions of learners of Turkish as a foreign language towards Turkish grammar. Başkent University Journal of Education,7(1), 129–145.
  • Brown, A. V. (2009). Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of effective foreign language teaching: A comparison of ideals. The Modern Language Journal, 93(1), 46–60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00827.x.
  • Bülbül, A. & Güven, Z. Z. (2017). A study ınto the grammar-based dıffıcultıes ın teachıng Turkish as a foreıgn language. Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 10(52), 83–91.
  • Burgess, J. & Etherington, S. (2002). Focus on grammatical form: Explicit or implicit? System, 30(4), 433–458. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(02)00048-9.
  • Büyükyazı, M. (2010). The beliefs of university foreign language students and their teachers about language learning. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8(1), 169–182.
  • Creswell, J. W. & Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Understanding mixed methods research. In J. Creswell (Ed.), Designing and conducting mixed methods research (1–19). Sage.
  • Creswell, J. W. & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage.
  • De la Campa, J. C. & Nassaji, H. (2009). The amount, purpose, and reasons for using L1 in L2 classrooms. Foreign Language Annals, 42(4), 742–759. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2009.01052.x.
  • Demir, H. (2012). The role of native language in the teaching of the fl grammar. Journal of Education, 1(2), 21–28.
  • Demirci, K. (2016). “Metafor: Bir Anlatım Üretim Mekanizması” Dil Bilimleri Kültür ve Edebiyat, (Edt. M Sarıca, B. Sarıca), Padam Yayınları, 330–343.
  • Ekici, G., & Akdeniz, H. (2018). Öğretmen adaylarının “sınıfta disiplin sağlamak” kavramına ilişkin algılarının belirlenmesi: Bir metafor analizi çalışması. Dicle Üniversitesi Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 33, 26–37.
  • Erol, S. & Kaya, M. (2020). The ınvestigation of the perception of Turkish learners as a foreign language regarding Turkish grammar with reference to several variables. International Journal of Language Academy, 8(3), 390–401.
  • Farjami, H. (2012). English learners’ metaphors and images of vocabulary learning. Electronic Journal of Foreign language Teaching and Translation Studies, 1(2), 75–89.
  • Fontich, X. & Camps, A. (2013). Towards a rationale for research into grammar teaching in schools. Journal Research Papers in Education, 29(5), 598–625. https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2013.813579.
  • Göçen, G. (2019). Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenenlerin “Türkçenin dil bilgisi”ne yönelik metaforik algısı. Başkent University Journal of Education, 6(1), 28–45.
  • Göçer, A. (2008). Türkçe dil bilgisi öğretiminde çözümleme yönteminin kullanımı. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 5(10), 101–120.
  • Göçer, A. (2013). Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarının kültür dil ilişkisine yönelik metaforik algıları. Turkish Studies 8(9), 253–263.
  • Graham, S. (2006). Strategy ınstruction and the teaching of writing: A meta-analysis. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (187–207). The Guilford Press.
  • Güler, E. B. & Eyüp B. (2016). Hal eklerinin ikinci dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen öğrenciler tarafından kullanılması. Turkish Studies, 11(14), 295–312.
  • Güneş, F. (2013). Dil bilgisi öğretiminde yeni yaklaşımlar. Dil ve Edebiyat Eğitimi Dergisi, 2(7), 71–92.
  • Horwitz, E.K. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language methods course. Foreign Language Annals, 18(4), 333–340.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1985.tb01811.x.
  • Horwitz, E.K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. Modern Language Journal, 72(3), 283–294.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1988.tb04190.x.
  • Horwitz, E.K. (1999). Cultural and situational influences on foreign language learners’ beliefs about language learning: A review of BALLI studies. System, 27(4), 557–576.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00050-0.
  • Kalaja P. & Barcelos A.M.F. (2003) Conclusion: Exploring possibilities for future research on beliefs about SLA. In: Kalaja P., Barcelos A.M.F. (Eds) Beliefs about SLA: New Research Approaches, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4751-0_10.
  • Karatay, H. & Kartallıoğlu N. (2019). Moğol öğrencilerin Türkiye ve Türkçe algıları. Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,19(3), 1016–1028.
  • Kayaoğlu, M. (2012). Öğretmen uygulama ve perspektifinden yabancı dil öğretiminde anadil kullanımı. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 32(32), 25–35.
  • Kaypak, E. & Ortaçtepe D. (2014). Language learner beliefs and study abroad: A study on English as a lingua franca (ELF). System, 42, 355–367.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.01.005.
  • Köylü, Z. (2018). The rse of L1 in the tertiary L2 classroom: Code-switching factors, functions, and attitudes in Turkey. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 15(2), 271–289.
  • Li, C. & Ruan, Z. (2015). Changes in beliefs about language learning among Chinese EAP learners in an EMI context in Mainland China: A socio-cultural perspective. System, 55, 43–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.08.010.
  • Loewen, S., Li, S., Fei, F., Thompson, A., Nakatsukasa, K., Ahn, S.,& Chen, X. (2009). L2 learners’ beliefs about grammar instruction and error correction. The Modern Language Journal 93(1), 91–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00830.x.
  • Mete, F. & Bağcı Ayrancı, B.(2016). Dil ve edebiyata ilişkin algıların metaforlar yoluyla incelenmesi. Dede Korkut Uluslararası Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(11), 53–64.
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Data management and analysis methods. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (428–444). Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Moore, P. J. (2013). An emergent perspective on the use of the first language in the English‐as‐a‐foreign‐language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 97(1), 239–253.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.01429.x.
  • Morgan, G. (1980). Paradigms, metaphors, and puzzle solving in organizational analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 606–622.
  • Mori, Y. (1999). Epistemological beliefs and language learning beliefs: What do language learners believe about their learning? Language Learning, 49(3),377–415. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00094.
  • Mudra, H.& Aini, N.(2020). “English learning islike…:” Metaphorical perceptions of prospective English teachers about language learning process. Journal of English Education and Linguistic Studies, 7(1), 69–90. https://doi.org/10.30762/jeels.v7i1.1710.
  • Özçelik, N. (2013). Yabancı dil Fransızca sınıfında anadil kullanımı. Journal of Turkish Studies, 8(10), 541–553. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.5157.
  • Özer, B., & Korkmaz, C. (2016). Yabancı dil öğretiminde öğrenci başarısını etkileyen unsurlar. Ekev Akademi Dergisi, 20(67), 59–84.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Emrah BOYLU> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ISTANBUL AYDIN UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9259-7369
Türkiye


Mete Yusuf USTABULUT>
BAYBURT UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-8864-645X
Türkiye


Ezgi İNAL>
ISTANBUL AYDIN UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-1573-9401
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ocak 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Boylu, E. , Ustabulut, M. Y. & İnal, E. (2022). Grammar-learning Beliefs of Students Who Learn Turkish as a Foreign Language . International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies , 9 (1) , 32-50 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/pes/issue/68410/1067533