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Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version)

Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı Special Issue, 1 - 26, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.54535/rep.1054235

Öz

This study aims to develop a valid and reliable measurement instrument to measure the quality of Mindset Theories of students aged 14- 22. A systematic approach was followed to develop the measurement tool. 1145 students participated in the study (48% were female and 52% were male). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were applied to determine the scale's construct validity. As a result of exploratory factor analysis, the scale was determined to consist of 19 items and four sub-dimensions. In line with the literature, these dimensions are called Procrastination, Immutability of Belief, Belief in Improvement and Effort. The four-factor structure of the scale was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, it was found that the differences between the averages of the upper and lower groups that make up 27% of the scale items are significant. When the results of the reliability analyses were examined from the perspective of the factors of the mindset theory scale, the values of 0.724 for the Procrastination sub-dimension and 0.805 for the Immutability of Belief sub-dimension of the Fixed Mindset dimension were found. It was found 0.701 for the sub dimension of Effort and 0.771 for the sub dimension of Belief of Mindset Theory Scale’s Growth Mindset dimension. The internal consistency coefficient was found 0.723 for the Fixed Mindset dimension and 0.714 for the Growth Mindset dimension of the Mindset Theory Scale. These results shows that the Mindset Theory Scale measures students' mindset theories in a valid and reliable way.

Kaynakça

  • Abd-El-Fattah, S. M., & Yates, G. C. R. (2006). Implicit theory of ıntelligence scale: testing for factorial ınvariance and mean structure. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Adelaide, South Australia.
  • Achor, S. (2012). Positive intelligence. Harvard Business Review.
  • Acuna, E., & Rodriguez, C. (2004). A meta analysis study of outlier detection methods in classification. Technical paper, Department of Mathematics, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, 1-25.
  • Anderson, L. & Glover, D. R. (2017). Building character, community, and a growth mindset in physical education: Activities that promote learning and emotional and social development. Human Kinetics, Inc.
  • Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens throughthe twenties. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Aronson, J. M., Fried, C. B. & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(2), 113–125.
  • Baldwin, A. (2019). Impacting growth mindsets in student employment. New Directions for Student Leadership, 162, 49-60. https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.20333
  • Baruch-Feldman, C. (2017). The grit guide for teens: a workbook to help you build perseverance, self-control, and a growth mindset. New Harbinger Publications.
  • Bayram, N. (2013). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesine giriş AMOS uygulamaları [Introduction to structural equation modeling: Amos Applications]. Ezgi Publications.
  • Beere, J. (2019). The growth mindset edge: your guide to developing grit. Ulysses Press.
  • Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H. & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78(1), 246–263.
  • Boaler, J. (2015). Mathematical mindsets: Unleashing students' potential through creative math, inspiring messages and innovative teaching. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Breuning, L. G. (2015). Habits of a happy brain: retrain your brain to boost your serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, & endorphin levels. Simon & Schuster.
  • Bryman, A. & Cramer, D. (2001). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 10 for Windows. London: Routledge.
  • Burnette, J. L., O’Boyle, E.H., VanEpps, E.M., Pollack, J.M. & Finkel, E.J. (2013). Mind-sets matter: a meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 139(3), 655–701.
  • Busch, B. (2018). Research every teacher should know: growth mindset. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/2018/jan/04/research-every-teacher on the 06.04.2020.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2015). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. [Data analysis for social sciences hand book] Ankara: Pegem Publications.
  • Claro, S., Paunesku, D. & Dweck, C. S. (2016). Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(31), 8664-8668.
  • Comrey, A. L & Lee, H. L. (1992). A first course in factor analysis. New Jersey: Erlbaum, Hillsdale.
  • Çankaya, İ. & Demirtaş, Z. (2010). Öğretmen adaylarının görüşlerine göre üniversite iklimi ve atalet arasındaki ilişki [The relationship between university climate and ınertia according to preservice teachers’ view]. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 28(28), 1-9.
  • Çankaya, İ. H. (2010). İlköğretim okul yöneticilerinin vicdan odaklı yaklaşım düzeyleri ile atalet algıları arasındaki ilişki [The relationship between elementary school managers’ conscience-oriented approach levels and ınertia perceptions]. Ahi Evran University Journal of Education, 11(2), 65-74.
  • Çebi, M., Yamak, B., & Öztürk, M. (2016). 11-14 yaş çağındaki çocukların spor yapma alışkanlığının duygu kontrolü üzerine etkilerinin incelenmesi. Amasya University Journal of Education, 5(2), 468-482.
  • Doğan, N., Soysal, S. & Karaman H. (2017). Aynı örnekleme açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi uygulanabilir mi? Küreselleşen Dünyada Eğitim [Can exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis be applied to the same sampling? Education in a Globalizing World]. (Demirel, Ö. ve Dinçer, S., Ed.). Ankara: Pegem Publications.
  • Duckworth, A. L. & Quinn, P.D. (2009). Development and validation of the short Grit Scale (Grist-S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174.
  • Dweck, C. (2008). Mindsets and math/science achievement. Paper Prepared for the Carnegie-IAS Commission on Mathematics and Science Education. Retrieved from http://www. opportunityequation.org/resources/commissioned-papers/dweck on the 06.04.2020
  • Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. NY: Random House Publishing Group, New York.
  • Dweck, C. S., Walton, G. M. & Cohen, G. L. (2014). Academic Tenacity: Mindsets and Skills that Promote Long-Term Learning. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2016). Mindset: the new psychology of success. Ballantine Books.
  • Evans, J. D. (1996). Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences. Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co, California Üniversitesi.
  • Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T.S., Johnson, D.W. & Beechum, N.O. (2012). Teaching adolescents to become learners. The role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance: A critical literatüre review. University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research.
  • Fensterwald, J. (2015, November 23). There’s more to a growth mindset than assuming you have it. Retrieved from http://edsource.org/2015/theres-more-to-a-growth-mindset-thanassuming-you-have-it/90780 on the 06.04.2020.
  • Fitzgerald, C. J., & Laurian-Fitzgerald, S. M. (2016). Helping students enhance their grit and growth mindsets. Journal Plus Education / Educatia Plus, 14(2), 52-56.
  • French, R. P. (2016). The fuzziness of mindsets. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 24(4), 673-691. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijoa-09-2014-0797
  • Garcia, E. (2014). The need to address noncognitive skills in the educational policy agenda. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://www.epi.org/publication/the-need-to-address-noncognitive-skills-in-the-education-policy-agenda/ on the 06.04.2020.
  • Güven, Z., & Yılmaz, E. (2017). Üst düzey öğrenme (meta öğrenme) becerileri [High-level learning (meta learning) skills]. In E. Yılmaz & H. Yılmaz (Ed.), Eğitimden Damlalar [Drops from Education] içinde (s. 105-107). Palet Publications.
  • Hu, L. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit ındexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.
  • Ingebrigtsen, M. (2018). How to measure a growth mindset. a validation study of the ımplicit theories of ıntelligence scale and a novel norwegian measure. Master's thesis, UiT Arktiske Universitet, Norges. Retrieved from https://munin.uit.no/bitstream/handle/10037/12904/thesis.pdf?sequence=2&isAllow d=y
  • Işık, Ş. (2016). Psikolojik dayanıklılık ölçeği’nin geliştirilmesi: geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 4(2), 165-182.
  • Kalaycı, Ş. (2014). Spss uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri (6.baskı). Asil.
  • Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Publications.
  • Kline, R. B., (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Press, New York.
  • Laursen, E. K. (2015). The power of grit, perseverance, and tenacity. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 23(4), 19.
  • Lindgren, K. P., Burnette, J.L., Hoyt, C.L., Peterson, K.P. & Neighbors, C. (2019). Growth mindsets of alcoholism buffer against deleterious effects of drinking identity on problem drinking over time. Alcoholism: Clinical And Experimental Research.
  • Lottero-Perdue, P. S., & Lachapelle, C. P. (2019). Instruments to measure elementary student mindsets about smartness and failure in general and with respect to engineering. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 7(2), 197-214.
  • Lüftenegger, M. & Chen, J. A. (2017). Conceptual issues and assessment of implicit theories. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie, 225(2), 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1027/21512604/a000286
  • Mather, M., Cacioppo, J. T. & Kanwisher, N. (2013). How fMRI can inform cognitive theories. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(1), 108-113. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1745691612469037
  • Meydan, C. H. & Sesen, H. (2011). Structural equation modeling AMOS applications. Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Midkiff, B., Langer, M., Demetriou, C., & Panter, A. T. (2017). An IRT analysis of the growth mindset scale. In The Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, 163-174, Springer, Cham.
  • Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L. Gloeckner, G.W., & Barrett, K. C. (2004). SPSS for introductory statistics: Use and interpretation. Psychology Press.
  • Ocakçı, A. F. (2015). Ergenlik dönemi özellikleri [Puberty characteristics]. In Ocakçı, A. F. & Üstüner Top, F. (Ed.), Yetişkinliğe bir adım kala ergen sağlığı [Adolescent health one step away to adulthood] (ss. 1-7).
  • Ormrod, J. E. (2017). How we think and learn: Theoretical perspectives and practical implications. Cambridge University Press.
  • Pett, M. A., Lackey, N. R. & Sullivan, J. J. (2003). Making Sense of Factor Analysis. The Use of Factor Analysis for Instrument Development in Health Care Research. Sage Publications
  • Pfeiffer. S., & Jarosewich, T. (2003). Gifted rating scales. Pearson.
  • Ricci, M. C., & Lee, M. (2016). Mindsets for parents: Strategies to encourage growth mindsets in kids. Sourcebooks, Inc.
  • Ricci, M. C. (2013a). Mindsets in the classroom: Building a growth mindset learning community. Sourcebooks, Inc.
  • Ricci, M. C. (2013b). Mindsets in the classroom. Prufrock Press.
  • Rustin, S. (2016). New test for ‘growth mindset’, the theory that anyone who tries can succeed. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/may/10/growth-mindset-research-ukschools-sats o the 06.04.2020.
  • Sarıçam, H., Çelik, İ., & Oğuz, A. (2016). Kısa azim (sebat) ölçeğinin Türkçeye uyarlanması- geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Turkish adaptation of the short grit scale (Grit-s): Validity and reliability study]. International Journal of Turkish Literature Culture Education, 5(2), 927-935. http://dx.doi.org/10.7884/teke.622
  • Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. Psychology Press.
  • Sekman, M. (2007). Kişisel ataleti yenmek [Overcoming personal inertia]. Alfa Publications.
  • Sternberg, R. J., Zhang, L. F. & Rayner, S. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of intellectual styles: Preferences in cognition, learning, and thinking. Springer Publishing Company.
  • Szpirglas, J. & Saint-Onge, D. (2018). Train your brain: How your brain learns best. Crabtree Publishing Company.
  • Şeker, H., & Gençdoğan, B. (2014). Psikolojide ve eğitimde ölçme aracı geliştirme. (2. Basım). Nobel Yayınevi.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı Special Issue, 1 - 26, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.54535/rep.1054235

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Abd-El-Fattah, S. M., & Yates, G. C. R. (2006). Implicit theory of ıntelligence scale: testing for factorial ınvariance and mean structure. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Adelaide, South Australia.
  • Achor, S. (2012). Positive intelligence. Harvard Business Review.
  • Acuna, E., & Rodriguez, C. (2004). A meta analysis study of outlier detection methods in classification. Technical paper, Department of Mathematics, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, 1-25.
  • Anderson, L. & Glover, D. R. (2017). Building character, community, and a growth mindset in physical education: Activities that promote learning and emotional and social development. Human Kinetics, Inc.
  • Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens throughthe twenties. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Aronson, J. M., Fried, C. B. & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(2), 113–125.
  • Baldwin, A. (2019). Impacting growth mindsets in student employment. New Directions for Student Leadership, 162, 49-60. https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.20333
  • Baruch-Feldman, C. (2017). The grit guide for teens: a workbook to help you build perseverance, self-control, and a growth mindset. New Harbinger Publications.
  • Bayram, N. (2013). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesine giriş AMOS uygulamaları [Introduction to structural equation modeling: Amos Applications]. Ezgi Publications.
  • Beere, J. (2019). The growth mindset edge: your guide to developing grit. Ulysses Press.
  • Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H. & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78(1), 246–263.
  • Boaler, J. (2015). Mathematical mindsets: Unleashing students' potential through creative math, inspiring messages and innovative teaching. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Breuning, L. G. (2015). Habits of a happy brain: retrain your brain to boost your serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, & endorphin levels. Simon & Schuster.
  • Bryman, A. & Cramer, D. (2001). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 10 for Windows. London: Routledge.
  • Burnette, J. L., O’Boyle, E.H., VanEpps, E.M., Pollack, J.M. & Finkel, E.J. (2013). Mind-sets matter: a meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 139(3), 655–701.
  • Busch, B. (2018). Research every teacher should know: growth mindset. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/2018/jan/04/research-every-teacher on the 06.04.2020.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2015). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. [Data analysis for social sciences hand book] Ankara: Pegem Publications.
  • Claro, S., Paunesku, D. & Dweck, C. S. (2016). Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(31), 8664-8668.
  • Comrey, A. L & Lee, H. L. (1992). A first course in factor analysis. New Jersey: Erlbaum, Hillsdale.
  • Çankaya, İ. & Demirtaş, Z. (2010). Öğretmen adaylarının görüşlerine göre üniversite iklimi ve atalet arasındaki ilişki [The relationship between university climate and ınertia according to preservice teachers’ view]. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 28(28), 1-9.
  • Çankaya, İ. H. (2010). İlköğretim okul yöneticilerinin vicdan odaklı yaklaşım düzeyleri ile atalet algıları arasındaki ilişki [The relationship between elementary school managers’ conscience-oriented approach levels and ınertia perceptions]. Ahi Evran University Journal of Education, 11(2), 65-74.
  • Çebi, M., Yamak, B., & Öztürk, M. (2016). 11-14 yaş çağındaki çocukların spor yapma alışkanlığının duygu kontrolü üzerine etkilerinin incelenmesi. Amasya University Journal of Education, 5(2), 468-482.
  • Doğan, N., Soysal, S. & Karaman H. (2017). Aynı örnekleme açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi uygulanabilir mi? Küreselleşen Dünyada Eğitim [Can exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis be applied to the same sampling? Education in a Globalizing World]. (Demirel, Ö. ve Dinçer, S., Ed.). Ankara: Pegem Publications.
  • Duckworth, A. L. & Quinn, P.D. (2009). Development and validation of the short Grit Scale (Grist-S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174.
  • Dweck, C. (2008). Mindsets and math/science achievement. Paper Prepared for the Carnegie-IAS Commission on Mathematics and Science Education. Retrieved from http://www. opportunityequation.org/resources/commissioned-papers/dweck on the 06.04.2020
  • Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. NY: Random House Publishing Group, New York.
  • Dweck, C. S., Walton, G. M. & Cohen, G. L. (2014). Academic Tenacity: Mindsets and Skills that Promote Long-Term Learning. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2016). Mindset: the new psychology of success. Ballantine Books.
  • Evans, J. D. (1996). Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences. Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co, California Üniversitesi.
  • Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T.S., Johnson, D.W. & Beechum, N.O. (2012). Teaching adolescents to become learners. The role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance: A critical literatüre review. University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research.
  • Fensterwald, J. (2015, November 23). There’s more to a growth mindset than assuming you have it. Retrieved from http://edsource.org/2015/theres-more-to-a-growth-mindset-thanassuming-you-have-it/90780 on the 06.04.2020.
  • Fitzgerald, C. J., & Laurian-Fitzgerald, S. M. (2016). Helping students enhance their grit and growth mindsets. Journal Plus Education / Educatia Plus, 14(2), 52-56.
  • French, R. P. (2016). The fuzziness of mindsets. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 24(4), 673-691. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijoa-09-2014-0797
  • Garcia, E. (2014). The need to address noncognitive skills in the educational policy agenda. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://www.epi.org/publication/the-need-to-address-noncognitive-skills-in-the-education-policy-agenda/ on the 06.04.2020.
  • Güven, Z., & Yılmaz, E. (2017). Üst düzey öğrenme (meta öğrenme) becerileri [High-level learning (meta learning) skills]. In E. Yılmaz & H. Yılmaz (Ed.), Eğitimden Damlalar [Drops from Education] içinde (s. 105-107). Palet Publications.
  • Hu, L. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit ındexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.
  • Ingebrigtsen, M. (2018). How to measure a growth mindset. a validation study of the ımplicit theories of ıntelligence scale and a novel norwegian measure. Master's thesis, UiT Arktiske Universitet, Norges. Retrieved from https://munin.uit.no/bitstream/handle/10037/12904/thesis.pdf?sequence=2&isAllow d=y
  • Işık, Ş. (2016). Psikolojik dayanıklılık ölçeği’nin geliştirilmesi: geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 4(2), 165-182.
  • Kalaycı, Ş. (2014). Spss uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri (6.baskı). Asil.
  • Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Publications.
  • Kline, R. B., (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Press, New York.
  • Laursen, E. K. (2015). The power of grit, perseverance, and tenacity. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 23(4), 19.
  • Lindgren, K. P., Burnette, J.L., Hoyt, C.L., Peterson, K.P. & Neighbors, C. (2019). Growth mindsets of alcoholism buffer against deleterious effects of drinking identity on problem drinking over time. Alcoholism: Clinical And Experimental Research.
  • Lottero-Perdue, P. S., & Lachapelle, C. P. (2019). Instruments to measure elementary student mindsets about smartness and failure in general and with respect to engineering. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 7(2), 197-214.
  • Lüftenegger, M. & Chen, J. A. (2017). Conceptual issues and assessment of implicit theories. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie, 225(2), 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1027/21512604/a000286
  • Mather, M., Cacioppo, J. T. & Kanwisher, N. (2013). How fMRI can inform cognitive theories. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(1), 108-113. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1745691612469037
  • Meydan, C. H. & Sesen, H. (2011). Structural equation modeling AMOS applications. Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Midkiff, B., Langer, M., Demetriou, C., & Panter, A. T. (2017). An IRT analysis of the growth mindset scale. In The Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, 163-174, Springer, Cham.
  • Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L. Gloeckner, G.W., & Barrett, K. C. (2004). SPSS for introductory statistics: Use and interpretation. Psychology Press.
  • Ocakçı, A. F. (2015). Ergenlik dönemi özellikleri [Puberty characteristics]. In Ocakçı, A. F. & Üstüner Top, F. (Ed.), Yetişkinliğe bir adım kala ergen sağlığı [Adolescent health one step away to adulthood] (ss. 1-7).
  • Ormrod, J. E. (2017). How we think and learn: Theoretical perspectives and practical implications. Cambridge University Press.
  • Pett, M. A., Lackey, N. R. & Sullivan, J. J. (2003). Making Sense of Factor Analysis. The Use of Factor Analysis for Instrument Development in Health Care Research. Sage Publications
  • Pfeiffer. S., & Jarosewich, T. (2003). Gifted rating scales. Pearson.
  • Ricci, M. C., & Lee, M. (2016). Mindsets for parents: Strategies to encourage growth mindsets in kids. Sourcebooks, Inc.
  • Ricci, M. C. (2013a). Mindsets in the classroom: Building a growth mindset learning community. Sourcebooks, Inc.
  • Ricci, M. C. (2013b). Mindsets in the classroom. Prufrock Press.
  • Rustin, S. (2016). New test for ‘growth mindset’, the theory that anyone who tries can succeed. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/may/10/growth-mindset-research-ukschools-sats o the 06.04.2020.
  • Sarıçam, H., Çelik, İ., & Oğuz, A. (2016). Kısa azim (sebat) ölçeğinin Türkçeye uyarlanması- geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Turkish adaptation of the short grit scale (Grit-s): Validity and reliability study]. International Journal of Turkish Literature Culture Education, 5(2), 927-935. http://dx.doi.org/10.7884/teke.622
  • Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. Psychology Press.
  • Sekman, M. (2007). Kişisel ataleti yenmek [Overcoming personal inertia]. Alfa Publications.
  • Sternberg, R. J., Zhang, L. F. & Rayner, S. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of intellectual styles: Preferences in cognition, learning, and thinking. Springer Publishing Company.
  • Szpirglas, J. & Saint-Onge, D. (2018). Train your brain: How your brain learns best. Crabtree Publishing Company.
  • Şeker, H., & Gençdoğan, B. (2014). Psikolojide ve eğitimde ölçme aracı geliştirme. (2. Basım). Nobel Yayınevi.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Tavşancıl, E. (2005). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve spss ile veri analizi [Measuring attitudes and data analysis with SPSS]. Nobel Publications.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Bölüm Articles
Yazarlar

Ercan YILMAZ (Sorumlu Yazar)
Necmettin Erbakan University
0000-0003-4702-1688
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Nisan 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı Special Issue

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { rep1054235, journal = {Research on Education and Psychology}, eissn = {2602-3733}, address = {}, publisher = {Bülent DİLMAÇ}, year = {2022}, volume = {6}, number = {Special Issue}, pages = {1 - 26}, doi = {10.54535/rep.1054235}, title = {Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version)}, key = {cite}, author = {Yılmaz, Ercan} }
APA Yılmaz, E. (2022). Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version) . Research on Education and Psychology , Scale Development and Adaptation Studies , 1-26 . DOI: 10.54535/rep.1054235
MLA Yılmaz, E. "Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version)" . Research on Education and Psychology 6 (2022 ): 1-26 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/rep/issue/68707/1054235>
Chicago Yılmaz, E. "Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version)". Research on Education and Psychology 6 (2022 ): 1-26
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version) AU - Ercan Yılmaz Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.54535/rep.1054235 DO - 10.54535/rep.1054235 T2 - Research on Education and Psychology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 26 VL - 6 IS - Special Issue SN - -2602-3733 M3 - doi: 10.54535/rep.1054235 UR - https://doi.org/10.54535/rep.1054235 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Research on Education and Psychology Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version) %A Ercan Yılmaz %T Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version) %D 2022 %J Research on Education and Psychology %P -2602-3733 %V 6 %N Special Issue %R doi: 10.54535/rep.1054235 %U 10.54535/rep.1054235
ISNAD Yılmaz, Ercan . "Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version)". Research on Education and Psychology 6 / Special Issue (Nisan 2022): 1-26 . https://doi.org/10.54535/rep.1054235
AMA Yılmaz E. Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version). Research on Education and Psychology. 2022; 6(Special Issue): 1-26.
Vancouver Yılmaz E. Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version). Research on Education and Psychology. 2022; 6(Special Issue): 1-26.
IEEE E. Yılmaz , "Development of Mindset Theory Scale (Growth And Fixed Mindset): A Validity and Reliability Study (Turkish Version)", Research on Education and Psychology, c. 6, sayı. Special Issue, ss. 1-26, Nis. 2022, doi:10.54535/rep.1054235

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