Yıl 2014, Cilt 21 , Sayı 4, Sayfalar 133 - 141 2015-01-29

2450 MHz Elektromanyetik Alanın Sıçan Tiroid dokusuna etkisi; Selenyum ve L-Karnitinin koruyucu rolü

Ahmet Koyu [1] , Nurhan Gümral [2] , Halil Aşcı [3] , Alpaslan GÖKÇİMEN [4] , Meltem ÖZGÖÇMEN [5] , Nilüfer ÖZDAMAR [6]


Aim: In this study, protective effects of selenium (SE) and L-Karnitin (L-Kar) on electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by local area networks (WLAN, Wireless) 2450 MHz frequency in thyroid tissue were explored. Material and methods: In study 6 rats each group to total of 30 male Wistar Albino rats were used and divided into 5 groups:1- Control group (no application has been made); 2-Sham group (intraperitoneal (i.p) 0.5ml per day saline); 3- EMF ; 4- EMF+Se (1,5 mg/kg/every other day i.p ) ; 5- EMF+L-Kar (100mg/kg/day i.p). EMF applications of 2450 MHz frequency band was applied as specific absorption rate (SAR) of 54 mW/kg for 28 days to 1 hours per day. At the end of the experiment, blood samples analyzed biochemically and thyroid tissues analyzed histopathologically. Results: As a result of biochemical examination, T3 and T4 levels of the samples taken from the rats applied 2450 MHz EMF group were decreased significantly compared to the sham group (p=0,039 ve p=0,019; respectively) and only T4 hormone levels were decreased significantly compared to control group (p=0,042). In EMF group thyroid follicule degeneration, fibrosis, vascular congestion and mononuclear cell infiltration increased significantly from control and sham groups (p=0,000 ve p=0,002; respectively). In L-carnitine and selenium used groups, we observed the histopathological data of thyroid tissues (P=0,004 ve 0,026; respectively) had recovery and increase in hormone level s(P>0,05). Conclusion: 2450 MHz EMF rats brought negative biochemical and histopathological changes occur in the thyroid gland and it was observed that the protective effect of selenium and L-carnitine against this damage. Thereby, to solve the problems created by exposure of electromagnetic fields according to increasing technological developments, Selenium and L-Carnitine will be useful in nutritional products as a preservative
ÖZET Giriş ve Amaç: Wireless gibi elektromanyetik alan oluşturan cihazların kullanımı ile hematolojik parametrelerin, hormonların ve bağışıklık sisteminin etkilendiğine dair çalışmalar yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada kablosuz yerel alan ağlarının (WLAN, Wireless) frekansı olan 2450 MHz' in yaydığı elektromanyetik alanın tiroid dokusuna yapabileceği etkiler üzerine Selenyum (Se) ve L-Karnitinin (L-Kar) koruyucu etkileri araştırıldı. Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmada her grupta 6 rat olmak üzere toplam 30 adet Wistar Albino erkek rat kullanıldı ve 5 gruba ayrıldı: 1- Kontrol grubu (Hiçbir uygulama yapılmadı); 2- Sham grubu (0,5ml/gün serum fizyolojik intraperitoneal (i.p.) uygulandı); 3- EMA; 4- EMA+Se (1,5 mg/kg/günaşırı i.p.) 5- EMR+L-Kar (100 mg/kg/gün i.p.). EMA uygulamaları 2450 MHz frekansında olup 28 gün boyunca günde 1 saat olacak şekilde uygulandı. Deney sonunda ratlardan alınan kanlar biyokimyasal ve eksize edilen tiroid dokuları da, histopatolojik incelendi. Bulgular: Biyokimyasal incelemeler sonucunda 2450 MHz EMA uygulanan gruptaki ratlardan alınan kanlardan bakılan T3 ve T4 hormon seviyeleri sham grubuna göre anlamlı olarak azalma (p<0,05) gösterirken sadece T4 hormon seviyelerinde kontrol grubuna göre anlamlı azalma saptanmıştır (p<0,05). EMA uygulanan gruptaki ratların kontol ve sham grubundaki ratların tiroid dokusuna göre tiroid foliküllerinde dejenerasyonun, vasküler konjesyon ile fibrozisin ve mononükleer hücre infiltrasyonunun anlamlı bir şekilde arttığı gözlendi (p<0,05). L-Kar ve Se kullanılan gruplardaki ratların tiroid dokularında histopatolojik verilerde düzelme (P<0,05) ve hormon seviyelerinde artış gözlenmiştir (P>0,05). Sonuç-Tartışma: 2450 MHz EMA'nın sıçan tiroid dokularında önemli biyokimyasal ve histopatolojik olumsuz değişiklikler meydana getirdiği ve bu hasarlara karşı Selenyum ve L-Karnitinin koruyucu özellikte olduğu gözlendi.
  • 1- Özaktaş HM. Günlük Hayatta Karşılaşılan Elektromanyetik Alanlar ve İnsan Sağlığı. Bilişim Toplumuna Girerken Elektromanyetik Kirlilik Etkileri Sempozyumu. 1999; 7-14
  • 2- Eraslan G, Bilgili A, Eşsiz D, Saltaş H. Elektromanyetik Alanın (90 Hz ve 5 mT) Erkek Farelerde Bazı Kan Elektrolit (Ca++, P+++, Na+, K+, Cl-) Düzeyleri Üzerine Etkileri. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2002; 26:1233-36
  • 3- Hossmann KA, Hermann DM. Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system. Bioelectromagnetics 2003; 24(1):49-62
  • 4-Ozgüner M, Koyu A, Cesur G, Ural M,Özgüner F,Gokcimen A, Delibas N. Biological and morphological effects on the reproductive organ of rats after exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF). S.Medical Journal. 2005; 26(3):405-10
  • 5-Saygın M. 2450 MHz Dalga Frekanslı Elektromanyetik Alanın Sıçanların Testislerinde Oluşturduğu Fizyopatolojik ve Yapısal Değişkliklerin Araştırılması. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Isparta: 2009
  • 6-Gannes FP, Haro E, Hurtier A, Taxile M, Athane A, Ait-Aissa S, Masuda H, et al. Effect of In Utero Wi-Fi Exposure on the Pre and Postnatal Development of Rats. Birth Defects Research (Part B). 2000; 95(2):130-6
  • 7-Eser O, Songur A, Aktas C, Karavelioglu E, Caglar V, Aylak F, Ozguner F, et al. The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the rat brain: an experimental study. Turk Neurosurg. 2013; 23(6):707-15.
  • 8-Rothman KJ. Epidemiological evidence on health risks of cellular telephones. Lancet 2000; 356(9244):25
  • 9-Özen Ş. Mikrodalga frekanslı EM radyasyona maruz kalan biyolojik dokularda oluşan ısıl etkinin teorik ve deneysel incelenmesi. Doktora Tezi. Sakarya: 2003
  • 10- Bianchi G, Solaroli E, Zaccheroni V, Grossi G, Bargossi AM, Melchionda N, Marchesini G. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidant metabolites in patients with hyperthyroidism: Effect of Treatment. Horm Metab Res. 1999; 3(11):62-24
  • 11-Diplock AT. Antioxidant nutrients and disease prevention: An Overview. Am J Chim Nutr 1991; 53:1895-1935
  • 12- Yoon GA, Park S. Antioxidant action of soy isoflavones on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in exercised rats. Nutr Res Pract. 2014; 8(6):618-624.
  • 13- Seifirad S, Farzampour S, Nourbakhsh M, Amoli MM, Razzaghy-Azar M, Larijani B. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on paraoxonase serum activity and lipid peroxidation metabolites in rat. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014; 13(1): 85. doi: 10.1186/s40200- 014-0085-2. eCollection 2014.
  • 14- Reale M, Kamal MA, Patruno A, Costantini E, D’Angelo C, Pesce M, Greig NH. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 15;9(8):e104973. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0104973. eCollection 2014.
  • 15- Jain SK, Levine SN. Elevated lipid peroxidation and vitamin E-quinone levels in heart ventricles of streptozotocin- treated diabetic rats. Free Radic Biol Med 1995; 18(2): 337-341
  • 16- Çakal E. Selenyum ve Tiroid. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Endocrinology Special Topics 2014, 7(3), 23-27
  • 17- Beckett GJ, Beddows SE, Morrice PC, Nicol F, Arthur,JR. Inhibition of Hepatic Deiodination of Thyroxine is Caused by Selenium Deficiency in Rats. J. Biochem. 1987; 248(2): 443-447.
  • 18- Naziroğlu, M, Çay M, Tahan V, Bal R, Delibaş N. Effects of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on Concentrations of Plasma Thyroid Hormones in Lambs. Tr. J. of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 1998; 22(2): 157- 160.
  • 19- Chanoine JP, Safran M, Farwell AP, Tranter P, Ekenbarger DM, Dubord S, Alex S, et al. Selenium Deficiency and Type II 5-Deiodinase Regulation in the Euthyroid and Hypothyroid Rat: Evidence of a Direct Effect of Thyroxine. Endocrinology.1992; 131: 479-484.
  • 20- Kim Y, Kim DC, Cho ES, Ko SO, Kwon WY, Suh GJ, Shin HK. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of selenium in oral buccal mucosa and small intestinal mucosa during intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Inflamm (Lond). 2014; 11(1): 36.
  • 21-Penglase S, Hamre K, Ellingsen S. Selenium prevents downregulation of antioxidant selenoprotein genes by methylmercury. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014; 75: 95-104.
  • 22- Rebouche CJ. Carnitine function and requirements during the life cycle. Faseb J. 1992; 6(15):3379-86.
  • 23- Fritz IB, Arrigoni-Martelli E: Sites of action of carnitine and its derivatives on the cardiovascular system. Interactions with membranes. Trend Pharmacol Sci. 1993; 14(10):355- 60
  • 24- Sener G, Eksioğlu-Demiralp E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Sirvanci S, Gedik N, Yeğen BC. L-Carnitine ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury and inhibits leukocyte death. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2006; 22(1):47-60.
  • 25-Mansour HH. Protective role of carnitine ester against radiation-induced oxidative stres in rats. Pharmacol Res 2006; 54(3):165-71.
  • 26- Naziroğlu M, Gümral N. Modulator effects of L-Carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat. International Journal of Radiation Biology 2009; 85(8):680-9
  • 27- Peyman A, Rezazadeh AA, Gabriel C. Changes in the dielectric properties of rat tissue as a function of age at microwave frequencies. Phys. Med. Biol. 2002; 47:2187- 8
  • 28- Abdel-Wahhab MA, Nada SA, Arbid MS. Ochratoxicosis: prevention of developmental toxicity by L-methionine in rats. Journal of applied toxicology. JAT. 1999; 19(1):7-12.
  • 29- Koyu A, Gökalp O, Özgüner F, Cesur G, Mollaoğlu H, Özer MK, Çalışkan S. Subkronik 1800 MHz elektromanyetik alan uygulamasının TSH, T3, T4, kortizol ve testosteron hormon düzeylerine etkileri. Genel Tıp Derg 2005; 15(3):101-5
  • 30- Moustafa YM, Moustafa RM, Belacy A, Abou-El-Ela SH, Ali FM. Effects of acute exposure to the radiofrequency fields of mobile phones on plasma lipid peroxidase and antioxidase activities in human erythrocytes. J Pharmaceut Biomed Analy 2001; 26(4): 605-8
  • 31- Ozben T. Oxidative stress and apoptosis: Impact on cancer therapy. J Pharmaceut Sci. 2007; 96: 2181–96,
  • 32- Nuutinen J, Ikäheimo R, Lahtinen T. Validation of a new dielectric device to assess changes of tissue water in skin and subcutaneous fat. Physiol Meas. 2004; 25(2):447-54.
  • 33- Koyu A, Cesur G, Ozguner F, Akdogan M, Mollaoglu H, Ozen S. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetıc field on serum TSH and T3 -T4 hormones in rats. Toxicology Lett 2005; 157(3): 257-62
  • 34- Eşmekaya MA, Seyhan N, Ömeroğlu S. Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: a light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2010; 86(12): 1106–16
  • 35-Rajkovic V, Matavulj M, Gledic D, Lazetic B. Evaluation of rat thyroid gland morphophysiological status after three months exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic field. Tissue Cell 2003; 35(3):223-31
  • 36- De Seze R, Peray PF, Miro L. GSM radiocellular telephones do not disturb to secretion of antepituitary hormones in humans. Bioelectromagnetics 1998; 19(5): 271-8
  • 37-Sinha RK. Chronic non-thermal exposure of modulated 2450 MHz microwave radiation alters thyroidhormones and behavior of male rats. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008; 84(6):505-13.
  • 38-Türedi S, Hancı H, Topal Z, Unal D, Mercantepe T, Bozkurt I, Kaya H, et al. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 900- MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat heart. Electromagn Biol Med. 2014; 28:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
  • 39- Deng B, Xu H, Zhang J, Wang J, Han LC, Li LY, Wu GL, et al. Neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane against electromagnetic pulse-induced brain injury through inhibition of neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3): e91019.
  • 39- Hassanin KM, Abd El-Kawi SH, Hashem KS. The prospective protective effect of selenium nanoparticles against chromium-induced oxidative and cellular damage in rat thyroid. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013; 8: 1713-20. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S42736. Epub 2013 May 1.
  • 41-Sleem M, Taye A, El-Moselhy MA, Mangoura SA. Combination therapy with losartan and l-carnitine protects against endothelial dysfunction of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014; 5; 744:10-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.09.032. Epub 2014 Oct 2.
  • 42- Rajković V, Matavulj M, Lukac T, Gledić D, Babić L, Lazetić B. Morphophysiological status of rat thyroid gland after subchronic exposure to low frequency electromagnetic field. Med Pregl. 2001; 54(3-4): 119-27
Birincil Dil en
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Yazar: Ahmet Koyu

Yazar: Nurhan Gümral

Yazar: Halil Aşcı

Yazar: Alpaslan GÖKÇİMEN

Yazar: Meltem ÖZGÖÇMEN

Yazar: Nilüfer ÖZDAMAR

Tarihler

Başvuru Tarihi : 18 Aralık 2014
Kabul Tarihi : 18 Eylül 2019
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 29 Ocak 2015

Bibtex
APA Koyu, A , Gümral, N , Aşcı, H , GÖKÇİMEN, A , ÖZGÖÇMEN, M , ÖZDAMAR, N . (). . , 21 (4) , 133-141 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sdutfd/issue/21019/226050
MLA Koyu, A , Gümral, N , Aşcı, H , GÖKÇİMEN, A , ÖZGÖÇMEN, M , ÖZDAMAR, N . "". 21 ( ): 133-141 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sdutfd/issue/21019/226050>
Chicago Koyu, A , Gümral, N , Aşcı, H , GÖKÇİMEN, A , ÖZGÖÇMEN, M , ÖZDAMAR, N . "". 21 ( ): 133-141
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - AU - Ahmet Koyu , Nurhan Gümral , Halil Aşcı , Alpaslan GÖKÇİMEN , Meltem ÖZGÖÇMEN , Nilüfer ÖZDAMAR Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - DO - T2 - SDÜ Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 133 EP - 141 VL - 21 IS - 4 SN - 1300-7416-2602-2109 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 SDÜ Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi %A Ahmet Koyu , Nurhan Gümral , Halil Aşcı , Alpaslan GÖKÇİMEN , Meltem ÖZGÖÇMEN , Nilüfer ÖZDAMAR %T %D 2015 %J SDÜ Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1300-7416-2602-2109 %V 21 %N 4 %R %U
ISNAD Koyu, Ahmet , Gümral, Nurhan , Aşcı, Halil , GÖKÇİMEN, Alpaslan , ÖZGÖÇMEN, Meltem , ÖZDAMAR, Nilüfer . "". SDÜ Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 21 / 4 (Ocak 2015): 133-141 .
AMA Koyu A , Gümral N , Aşcı H , GÖKÇİMEN A , ÖZGÖÇMEN M , ÖZDAMAR N . . SDÜ Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi. 2015; 21(4): 133-141.
Vancouver Koyu A , Gümral N , Aşcı H , GÖKÇİMEN A , ÖZGÖÇMEN M , ÖZDAMAR N . . SDÜ Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi. 2015; 21(4): 141-133.