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NEOLITHIC POT SHERDS WITH SCHEMATIC HUMANS IN RELIEF FROM KENDALE HECALA IN THE UPPER TIGRIS REGION

Yıl 2019, Sayı: 1, 1 - 12, 28.12.2019

Öz

            Neolithic
settlements have been exposed in three mounds to be affected by the dam built
on the Ambar Stream, one of the northern branches of the Upper Tigris Valley. In
Kendale Hecala, one of these mounds, two vessels with stylized human figures in
relief with their hands raised have been recovered. Although vessels decorated
with figurative reliefs have been found in various excavations in Anatolia dating
to the Neolithic, vessels with human relief decoration have so far not been
found in Mesopotamia. The Kendale Hecala finds constitute the first examples of
vessels adorned with human and animal figures from the Neolithic settlements to
the south of the Taurus Mountains. These schematic human and animal figures
preserved on vessel fragments may be related to hunting rituals associated with
dances, thought to have been performed before or after hunting.

Kaynakça

  • Bader 1993 N. O. Bader, “The Early Agricultural Settlement of Tell Sotto”, Early Stages in the Evolution of Mesopotamian Civilization, (Ed. N. Yoffee- J. J. Clark), Tucson 1993, 41-54.
  • Balossi-Restelli 2006 F. Balossi-Restelli, The Development of ‘Cultural Regions’ in the Neolithic of the Near East: The ‘Dark Faced Burnished Ware Horizon’, British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1482, Oxford 2006.
  • Beuger- Kopanias 2018 C. Beuger- K. Kopanias, “Neolithic Pottery From Tell Nader (Erbil)”, II Workshop on Late Neolithic Ceramics in Ancient Mesopotamia: pottery in context, (Eds. A. Gómez- Bach- J. Becker- M. Molist), Barcelona 2018, 91-98.
  • Bıçakçı vd. 2012 E. Bıçakçı-M. Godon-Y. G. Çakan, “Tepecik-Çiftlik”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, Central Turkey, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2012, 89-134.
  • Brandt 1978 R. W. Brandt, “The Chalcolithic Pottery” Korucutepe 2, (Ed. M. N. Van Loon), Amsterdam 1978, 57-60.
  • Duru 1988 R. Duru, “Kuruçay Höyüğü Kazıları 1986–87, Çalışmaları Raporu”, Belleten 203, 1988, 653-666.
  • Esin 1976 U. Esin, “Tülintepe Excavations 1972”, Keban Project 1972 Activities, Ankara 1976, 147-172.
  • Esin 1993 U. Esin, “The Relief Decorations on the Prehistoric Pottery of Tülintepe in Eastern Anatolia”, Between the Rivers and over the Mountains, (Eds. M. Frangipane- H. Hauptmann- M. Liverani- P. Matthiae- M. Mellink), Roma 1993, 105-119.
  • Garfinkel 2003 Y. Garfinkel, Dancing at the Dawn of Agriculture, Austin 2003.
  • Hauptmann 1976 H. Hauptmann, “Die Grabungen auf dem Norşuntepe 1972”, Keban Project 1972 Activities, Ankara 1976, 71-108.
  • Helwing 2014 B. Helwing, “East of Eden? A Review of Turkey’s Eastern Neighbors in the Neolithic”, The Neolithic in Turkey. 10500-5200BC: Environment Settlement, Flora, Fauna, Dating, Symbols of Belief, with Views from North, South, East and West, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2014, 321-277.
  • Hodder 2012 I. Hodder, “Renewed Work at Çatalhöyük”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, Central Turkey, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2012, 245-277.
  • Kirkbride 1973 D. Kirkbridge, “Umm Dabaghiyah 1972: A Second Preliminary Report”, Iraq 35, 1973, 1-7.
  • Le Miere-Nieuwenhuyse 1996 M. Le Mière - O. Nieuwenhuyse. 1996. “Chapter 3: The Prehistoric Pottery”, Tell Sabi Abyad. The Late Neolithic Settlement. Report on the Excavations of the University of Amsterdam (1988) and the National Museum of Antiquities (1991-1993) in Syria, (Ed. P. M. M. G. Akkermans), Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul, Leiden 1996, 119-284.
  • Miyake 2011 Y. Miyake, “Salat Cami Yanı: A Pottery Neolithic Settlement in the Tigris Valley”, The Neolithic in Turkey 1: The Tigris Basin. New Excavations and New Research, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2011, 129-149.
  • Nieuwenhuyse vd. 2010 O. P. Nieuwenhuyse- P. M. M. G. Akkermans- J. van der Plicht, “Not so coarse, nor always plain-the earliest pottery of Syria”, Antiquity 84, Issue 323, 2010, 71-85.
  • Nieuwenhuyse 2018 O. P. Nieuwenhuyse, Relentlessly Plain: Seventh Millennium Ceramics at Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria, Oxford 2018.
  • Ökse (Baskıda) A. Tuba Ökse, “Yukarı Dicle Havzasında Ambar Çayı Vadisi Yerleşim Tarihi”, Olba 28 (Baskıda).
  • Ökse vd. (Baskıda) A. T. Ökse- A. Konak- V. Yurt, “Ambar Barajı – Ambar Höyük, Gre Fılla ve Kendale Hecala 2018 Kurtarma Kazıları”, 41. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı (Baskıda).
  • Özdoğan 2011 M. Özdoğan, “Mezraa-Teleilat”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), The Euphrates Basin, İstanbul 2011, 203-260.
  • Öztan 2012 A. Öztan, “Köşk Höyük: A Neolithic Settlement in Niğde-Bor Plateau”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, Central Turkey, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2012, 31-70.
  • Peters vd. 2014. J. Peters-B. S. Arbuckle-N. Pöllath, “Subsistence and Beyond: Animals in Neolithic Anatolia”, The Neolithic in Turkey. 10500-5200BC: Environment Settlement, Flora, Fauna, Dating, Symbols of Belief, with Views from North, South, East and West, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2014, 135-203.
  • Sağlamtimur 2012 H. Sağlamtimur, “The Neolithic Settlement of Ege Gübre”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, Western Turkey, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2012, 197-225.
  • Tobler 1950 A. J. Tobler, Excavations at Tepe Gawra II, Philadelphia 1950.

YUKARI DİCLE HAVZASINDA KENDALE HECALA NEOLİTİK ÇAĞ STİLİZE İNSAN VE KABARTMALI KAP PARÇALARI

Yıl 2019, Sayı: 1, 1 - 12, 28.12.2019

Öz

        Yukarı Dicle vadisinin kuzey kollarından biri
olan Ambar Çayı üzerine
kurulan barajdan etkilenecek üç höyükte Neolitik Çağ yerleşim
katmanları açığa çıkmıştır. Bunlardan birisi olan Kendale Hecala’da ele geçen
iki kap parçası üzerinde, ellerini yukarı kaldırmış stilize insan kabartmaları
bulunmaktadır. Neolitik Çağda kabartmalı kaplara Anadolu’da çeşitli kazılarda
rastlanmış olmakla birlikte, Mezopotamya’da üzerinde insan kabartması bulunan
kaplar bilinmemektedir. Kendale Hecala buluntuları, Güneydoğu Toros dağlarının
güneyindeki bölgede Neolitik Çağ yerleşimleri arasında kabartmalı insan ve
hayvan figürü ile bezeli kapların ilk örneklerini oluşturmaktadır. Kap
parçaları üzerinde korunan şematik insan ve hayvan figürlerinin av öncesi ya da
sonrasında yapıldığı değerlendirilen danslı av ayinleri ile ilişkili olabileceği
düşünülmektedir.

Destekleyen Kurum

Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü, Devlet Su İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü

Kaynakça

  • Bader 1993 N. O. Bader, “The Early Agricultural Settlement of Tell Sotto”, Early Stages in the Evolution of Mesopotamian Civilization, (Ed. N. Yoffee- J. J. Clark), Tucson 1993, 41-54.
  • Balossi-Restelli 2006 F. Balossi-Restelli, The Development of ‘Cultural Regions’ in the Neolithic of the Near East: The ‘Dark Faced Burnished Ware Horizon’, British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1482, Oxford 2006.
  • Beuger- Kopanias 2018 C. Beuger- K. Kopanias, “Neolithic Pottery From Tell Nader (Erbil)”, II Workshop on Late Neolithic Ceramics in Ancient Mesopotamia: pottery in context, (Eds. A. Gómez- Bach- J. Becker- M. Molist), Barcelona 2018, 91-98.
  • Bıçakçı vd. 2012 E. Bıçakçı-M. Godon-Y. G. Çakan, “Tepecik-Çiftlik”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, Central Turkey, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2012, 89-134.
  • Brandt 1978 R. W. Brandt, “The Chalcolithic Pottery” Korucutepe 2, (Ed. M. N. Van Loon), Amsterdam 1978, 57-60.
  • Duru 1988 R. Duru, “Kuruçay Höyüğü Kazıları 1986–87, Çalışmaları Raporu”, Belleten 203, 1988, 653-666.
  • Esin 1976 U. Esin, “Tülintepe Excavations 1972”, Keban Project 1972 Activities, Ankara 1976, 147-172.
  • Esin 1993 U. Esin, “The Relief Decorations on the Prehistoric Pottery of Tülintepe in Eastern Anatolia”, Between the Rivers and over the Mountains, (Eds. M. Frangipane- H. Hauptmann- M. Liverani- P. Matthiae- M. Mellink), Roma 1993, 105-119.
  • Garfinkel 2003 Y. Garfinkel, Dancing at the Dawn of Agriculture, Austin 2003.
  • Hauptmann 1976 H. Hauptmann, “Die Grabungen auf dem Norşuntepe 1972”, Keban Project 1972 Activities, Ankara 1976, 71-108.
  • Helwing 2014 B. Helwing, “East of Eden? A Review of Turkey’s Eastern Neighbors in the Neolithic”, The Neolithic in Turkey. 10500-5200BC: Environment Settlement, Flora, Fauna, Dating, Symbols of Belief, with Views from North, South, East and West, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2014, 321-277.
  • Hodder 2012 I. Hodder, “Renewed Work at Çatalhöyük”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, Central Turkey, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2012, 245-277.
  • Kirkbride 1973 D. Kirkbridge, “Umm Dabaghiyah 1972: A Second Preliminary Report”, Iraq 35, 1973, 1-7.
  • Le Miere-Nieuwenhuyse 1996 M. Le Mière - O. Nieuwenhuyse. 1996. “Chapter 3: The Prehistoric Pottery”, Tell Sabi Abyad. The Late Neolithic Settlement. Report on the Excavations of the University of Amsterdam (1988) and the National Museum of Antiquities (1991-1993) in Syria, (Ed. P. M. M. G. Akkermans), Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul, Leiden 1996, 119-284.
  • Miyake 2011 Y. Miyake, “Salat Cami Yanı: A Pottery Neolithic Settlement in the Tigris Valley”, The Neolithic in Turkey 1: The Tigris Basin. New Excavations and New Research, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2011, 129-149.
  • Nieuwenhuyse vd. 2010 O. P. Nieuwenhuyse- P. M. M. G. Akkermans- J. van der Plicht, “Not so coarse, nor always plain-the earliest pottery of Syria”, Antiquity 84, Issue 323, 2010, 71-85.
  • Nieuwenhuyse 2018 O. P. Nieuwenhuyse, Relentlessly Plain: Seventh Millennium Ceramics at Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria, Oxford 2018.
  • Ökse (Baskıda) A. Tuba Ökse, “Yukarı Dicle Havzasında Ambar Çayı Vadisi Yerleşim Tarihi”, Olba 28 (Baskıda).
  • Ökse vd. (Baskıda) A. T. Ökse- A. Konak- V. Yurt, “Ambar Barajı – Ambar Höyük, Gre Fılla ve Kendale Hecala 2018 Kurtarma Kazıları”, 41. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı (Baskıda).
  • Özdoğan 2011 M. Özdoğan, “Mezraa-Teleilat”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), The Euphrates Basin, İstanbul 2011, 203-260.
  • Öztan 2012 A. Öztan, “Köşk Höyük: A Neolithic Settlement in Niğde-Bor Plateau”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, Central Turkey, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2012, 31-70.
  • Peters vd. 2014. J. Peters-B. S. Arbuckle-N. Pöllath, “Subsistence and Beyond: Animals in Neolithic Anatolia”, The Neolithic in Turkey. 10500-5200BC: Environment Settlement, Flora, Fauna, Dating, Symbols of Belief, with Views from North, South, East and West, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2014, 135-203.
  • Sağlamtimur 2012 H. Sağlamtimur, “The Neolithic Settlement of Ege Gübre”, The Neolithic in Turkey: New Excavations & New Research, Western Turkey, (Ed. M. Özdoğan- N. Başgelen- P. I. Kuniholm), İstanbul 2012, 197-225.
  • Tobler 1950 A. J. Tobler, Excavations at Tepe Gawra II, Philadelphia 1950.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Arkeoloji
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Ayşe Tuba ÖKSE 0000-0003-3533-8936

Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Aralık 2019
Gönderilme Tarihi 31 Ekim 2019
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA ÖKSE, A. T. (2019). YUKARI DİCLE HAVZASINDA KENDALE HECALA NEOLİTİK ÇAĞ STİLİZE İNSAN VE KABARTMALI KAP PARÇALARI. Seramik Araştırmaları Dergisi(1), 1-12.

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