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Ahmed Rashid Pasha’s Work and Evaluation on Imām A‘žam’s Political Biography

Yıl 2019, Cilt 2, Sayı 2, 213 - 256, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3598226

Öz

Hacı Sherif Ahmed Rashid Pasha, originally from Safranbolu, was born in Istanbul in 1858 and passed away in 1918. Having served as the governor of Mosul and the Hejaz in the last period of the Ottoman Empire, he was a prominent figure in Islamic law, history and literature, and is known for reviving one of the twelve works of Abū Ĥanīfa. The state is his treatise. The treatise was written in Ottoman Turkish, it totals 24 pages, and was published in 1328/1911 in Istanbul. The treatise, which touches on the aspects of Abū Ĥanīfa as Imām A‘žam, contains important information that sheds light on the historical processes of the Islamic sciences. In the treatise, while explaining the scientific capacity of Imām A‘žam and its effect on the studies carried out in the following periods, it states that he is the founder and leader of both the science of fiqh and kalam; this emphasis is likewise made in various other sources. The treatise introduces Imām A‘žam as one who did not possess slaves, who engaged in free thought without conceding to case-based reasoning, and allows others to freely explain their opinion without suppressing mujtahids (legal scholars). Hacı Sherif Ahmed Rashid Pasha, who had a great command of law and the history of sciences and was also known as a poet, authored twelve works in the field of law, history, and literature. The work of Imām A‘žam, the state is a short treatise that focuses on his political life. In the work, the scholarly position of Imām A‘žam and his political attitude towards the ‘Umayyad and ‘Abbāsid administration are brought to the fore. Some have held that the work was appropriated as the state of Imām A‘žam because of his political posture against the wrong actions of the ‘Umayyad and ‘Abbāsid administration. The work presents Imām A‘žam’s political concerns with regards to several events. One of the most important of these is where the ‘Umayyad and ‘Abbāsid states offered Imām A‘žam a position as a judge in order that he may ratify their decisions and ensure their acceptance by the public. Imām A‘žam, however, refused to accept the duty of judgeship, notwithstanding he considered it legitimate and even necessary for those who were competent to take office. The work which remains in manuscript was written in Ottoman Turkish on 9 Zilhicce 1327 / 9 November 1325 (December 22, 1909) as stated on the last page. It was published in 1328/1911 by the Printing Press Hayriyye in Cağaloğlu, Istanbul, with a total of 24 pages. On the first page of the work, the author is described as the “Governor of Esbak Mosul, Haji Rashid Pasha, Graduate from the School of Law”.Imām A‘žam is known for having engaged in the science of kalam and defending the Companions and the beliefs of the people at that time against his opponents. As a result of this, he composed a treatise on Islamic creed entitled al-Fiqh al-Akbar as his first work.Abū Ĥanīfa acted as a guide and leader for Imām Ash‘arī, who came two centuries later and was considered a leader of the followers of the Ahl al-Sunnah. All the efforts put forward by Ash‘arī and Māturīdī was based on explaining Imām A‘žam’s al-Fiqh al-Akbar, in particular its proofs, and to also render its contents more comprehensible. For this reason, Abū Ĥanīfa was deemed Imām A‘žam not only in the science of fiqh but also in kalam and creedal thought.Sources explain the reasons for why Imām A‘žam eventually inclined towards fiqh and moved away from kalam as he saw fiqh and its objectives to be more significant and useful compared to all other sciences. Imām A‘žam, who tells us of the great delight he obtained from the science of fiqh, decided that the joy of the world and the afterlife could only be achieved through the science of fiqh, which is ultimately why he devoted his entire career to its advancement. Although Imām A‘žam did his best to avoid political entanglement, he was nonetheless imprisoned by the ‘Umayyad and ‘Abbāsid administrations and was also subjected to torture.Imām A‘žam was first to classify the science of fiqh, which he placed under specific headings. He further divided the subjects of fiqh into books and chapters, beginning with the subject of worship, then with issues related to transactions, followed by issues of ‘uqūbāt which included crime and punishment. Imām A‘žam completed the subjects of fiqh with his Kitāb al-Farā’iđ which includes issues dealing iwith inheritance. Abū Ĥanīfa is referred to as Imām A‘žam because of the fact that he established Islamic legal rulings on a firm foundation and, moreover, had an exceptional understanding of the Quran and the Sunna, and also since his vision was sound and reliable and possessed many virtues. Historically, in the Muslim world, whose numbers till this very day has reached billions over the span of fourteen centuries, we may admit only a few persons who were commemorated with such superior qualities after the Companions. Having been dubbed as Imām A‘žam, Abū Ĥanīfa was revered by many Muslims across history and was held in high esteem. Even Imām Shāfi‘ī admired Imām A‘žam with the saying: “people are the offspring of Abū Ĥanīfa in fiqh.” Imām Mālik is also known to have had scholarly discussions with Imām A‘žam. Imām Shāfi‘ī also learned about Imām A‘žam’s legal reasoning from Imām Muĥammad, a discipline founded by Imām A‘žam which he in turn had taught to Imām Aĥmad b. Ĥanbal. Although Imām Mālik, Imām Shāfi‘ī and Imām Aĥmad founded an independent school of legal thought, they adhered to the procedures established by Imām A‘žam, as is evident in their compiled works. For this reason, Imām Shāfi‘ī’s and Imām Aĥmad b. Ĥanbal’s legal reasonings are valuable to the science of fiqh. Imām A‘žam’s legal school followed by that of Imām Shāfi‘ī’s are the most widespread in the Muslim world today. In the Ottoman State courts, Ĥanafī fiqh was applied and enacted.Imām A‘žam is also known as Imām al-Aĥrār, which is suggestive of him as the leader of free thought. He developed his own legal framework and principles on the basis of free thought and did not limit his views on any matter. Imām A‘žam was also an astute literary critic. His usage of language in an eloquent and accurate manner was recognized by many. Imām A‘žam made reference to any given science when necessary; writers are also known to have benefitted from his articulate speech. Imām A‘žam was not only the foremost jurisconsult of the century in which he was found, but is also the leading one in the present century. All the scholars who have emerged in every century have benefited from the legal framework and knowledge of Imām A‘žam. For this reason, Imām A‘žam is considered to be the Mu‘allim al-Awwal (the First Teacher). Muslims were bound to the legal reasoning of Imām A‘žam and followed his path in this way. Legal scholars in general had also recognized the great value of his knowledge. Consequently, Imām A‘žam had experienced a great deal of suffering towards the end of his life. He passed away in a prison in Baghdad at the age of seventy in 150 of the Hegira for refusing to accept the post of qadi. He was buried in a place named Khayzuran east of Baghdad.Treatises written in Ottoman Turkish in more later periods contain valuable information that could reacquaint us with our past and likewise shed light on our future. These works should be transcribed into modern Turkish and made readily available to the public. A markedly strong connection with the past will indeed ensure the enlightenment of the future.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed Reşid Paşa. İmâm-ı A‘zam’ın Siyâsî Tercüme-i Hâli. İstanbul: Matbaa-i Hayriyye, 1328.
  • Bozkurt, Nahide. “Mansûr”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 28/5-6. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 2013.
  • Bozkurt, Nebi - Küçükaşçı, Mustafa Sabri. “Mekke”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 28/555-563. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 2003.
  • Bursalı Mehmed Tâhir. Osmanlı Müellifleri. haz. Fikri Yavuz - İsmail Özen. 3 Cilt. İstanbul: Meral Yayınevi, 1975.
  • Çeker, Huzeyfe. Hanefi Mezhebinde Biyografi Geleneği. Konya: Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi Kültür Yayınları, 2018.
  • Erdem, Sami. “Rûhu’l-Mecelle”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 35/214-215. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 2008.
  • İbn Abdilberr, Ebû Ömer Yûsuf b. Abdillah b. Muhammed. Câmi‘u beyâni’l-‘ilmi ve fadlih, thk. Ebü’l-Eşbâli’z-Züheyrî. 2 Cilt. Demmâm: Dâru İbni’l-Cevzî, 1414/1994.
  • İbnülemin Mahmud Kemal İnal. Son Asır Türk Şairleri. 8 Cilt. İstanbul: Milli Eğitim Basımevi, ts.
  • Kara, Mustafa. “Dâvûd et-Tâî”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 9/48-49. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 1994.

Ahmed Reşid Paşa’nın İmâm-ı A‘zam’ın Siyâsî Tercüme-i Hâli Adlı Eseri ve Değerlendirmesi

Yıl 2019, Cilt 2, Sayı 2, 213 - 256, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3598226

Öz

Safranbolulu Hacı Şerif Ahmed Reşid Paşa (1858-1918), Osmanlı Devleti’nin son dönemlerinde Musul ve Hicaz valiliği yapmış, İslam hukuku, tarih ve edebiyat alanlarında değerli eserler vermiş önemli bir şahsiyettir. 1858 yılında İstanbul’da dünyaya gelen ve 1918’de yine İstanbul’da vefat eden Ahmed Reşid Paşa’nın kaleme almış olduğu on iki eserden biri de İmâm-ı Âzam’ın siyasî hayatını kısaca ele aldığı Hazret-i İmâm-ı A‘zam’ın Siyâsî Tercüme-i Hâli isimli risalesidir. Osmanlı Türkçesiyle yazılan bu risale, 24 sayfa olup, 1328/1911 yılında İstanbul’da basılmıştır. Ebû Hanîfe’yi (ö. 150/767) İmâm-ı Âzam yapan yönlerine değinen bu risale, İslamî ilimlerin tarihî sürecine ışık tutan önemli bilgiler de içermektedir. Risalede İmâm-ı Âzam’ın ilmî kapasitesi ve sonraki dönemlerde yapılan çalışmalara etkisi izah edilirken onun hem fıkıh ilminin hem de kelam ilminin kurucusu, önderi olduğu ifade edilmekte, her iki ilmin de “İmâm-ı Âzam”ı olduğu vurgusu, “Ebû Hanîfe hazretleri ilm-i kelâmda dahi İmâm-ı Âzam’dır” cümlesiyle yapılmaktadır. Risalede İmâm-ı Âzam; İmâmu’l-Ahrâr, yani soyunda esir ve köle bulunmayan, içtihatlarında hiçbir baskıya boyun eğmeden özgür düşüncesiyle hareket eden ve de yetiştirdiği müçtehitlerini baskı altında tutmadan kanaatlerini rahatça açıklamalarına imkân tanıyan bir kişilik olarak öne çıkarılmaktadır. Eser, Ebû Hanîfe’nin ilmî, ahlâkî, içtimaî ve siyasî yönü hakkında sair değerli bilgiler de ihtiva etmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed Reşid Paşa. İmâm-ı A‘zam’ın Siyâsî Tercüme-i Hâli. İstanbul: Matbaa-i Hayriyye, 1328.
  • Bozkurt, Nahide. “Mansûr”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 28/5-6. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 2013.
  • Bozkurt, Nebi - Küçükaşçı, Mustafa Sabri. “Mekke”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 28/555-563. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 2003.
  • Bursalı Mehmed Tâhir. Osmanlı Müellifleri. haz. Fikri Yavuz - İsmail Özen. 3 Cilt. İstanbul: Meral Yayınevi, 1975.
  • Çeker, Huzeyfe. Hanefi Mezhebinde Biyografi Geleneği. Konya: Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi Kültür Yayınları, 2018.
  • Erdem, Sami. “Rûhu’l-Mecelle”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 35/214-215. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 2008.
  • İbn Abdilberr, Ebû Ömer Yûsuf b. Abdillah b. Muhammed. Câmi‘u beyâni’l-‘ilmi ve fadlih, thk. Ebü’l-Eşbâli’z-Züheyrî. 2 Cilt. Demmâm: Dâru İbni’l-Cevzî, 1414/1994.
  • İbnülemin Mahmud Kemal İnal. Son Asır Türk Şairleri. 8 Cilt. İstanbul: Milli Eğitim Basımevi, ts.
  • Kara, Mustafa. “Dâvûd et-Tâî”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 9/48-49. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 1994.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Din Bilimi
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

İsmail BİLGİLİ
NECMETTİN ERBAKAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, AHMET KELEŞOĞLU İLAHİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-8738-5948
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2019
Başvuru Tarihi 26 Ekim 2019
Kabul Tarihi 18 Aralık 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 2, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

ISNAD Bilgili, İsmail . "Ahmed Reşid Paşa’nın İmâm-ı A‘zam’ın Siyâsî Tercüme-i Hâli Adlı Eseri ve Değerlendirmesi". Tahkik İslami İlimler Araştırma ve Neşir Dergisi 2 / 2 (Aralık 2019): 213-256 . https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3598226

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