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Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 11 Sayı: 1, 237 - 266, 31.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.1211827

Öz

Güç dengesi, uluslararası ilişkiler teorisyenlerinin tartıştığı ana konulardan biridir. Teorisyenlerin her biri güç dengesinin etkilerini özellikle jeopolitik açısından açıklamaya çalışmaktadırlar. ABD ve Çin arasındaki jeopolitik mücadele küresel ve bölgesel politikalarda giderek daha fazla hissedilir hale gelmiştir. Bu jeopolitik mücadelenin yaşandığı en önemli bölgelerden biri Orta Doğu’dur. ABD’nin Çin ile ticaret konusundaki stratejik ve jeopolitik rekabetindeki artış, Çin’in Körfez bölgesindeki davranışında birçok değişikliğe yol açmıştır. Pekin’in rakiplerini dengeleme ve çok taraflılığı artırmaya yönelik dış politikası, Çin’in Orta Doğu ile bağlarını derinleştirmesini sağlamıştır. Basra Körfezi, çeşitli jeopolitik, jeo-ekonomik ve jeo-stratejik nedenlerle dünya siyasetinde her zaman özel bir yere ve öneme sahip olmuştur. Diğer taraftan Suudi Arabistan ve İran’ın Çin ile işbirliği ve stratejik denklemlerindeki rollüleri ve konumları her geçen gün yeni boyu kazanmaktadır. Bu çalışma Çin’in dış politika yönelimlerinde bu ilişkinin neden ve etkilerinin jeopolitik güç dengesi bağlamında ele almaktadır. Zira Çin hem Suudi Arabistan ve hem İran’la stratejik ilişikler kurmuştur ve bu ikili ilişkiler her geç gün daha da derinleşmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Alqahtanı, K. M. (2020). Does Saudi Arabia Benefit From China’s Belt and Road Initiative?. Journal of Management and Strategy, 11(1), 1-6.
  • Al-Tamımı, N. (2022). Saudi Arabia’s Once Marginal Relationship with China Has Grown into a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership China and Saudi Arabia Relations. In J. Gunter and H. Legarda (Eds) Beyond Blocs: Global Views on China and US-China Relations, (pp.73-79). Berlin: The Mercator Institute for China Studies (MERICS).
  • Alterman J. B. (2013). China’s Balancing Act in the Gulf, Center for Strategic and International Studies: Middle East Program, Washington, DC.
  • Alterman J. B. (2013). China’s Balancing Act in the Gulf. Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies: Middle East Program.
  • Arab News. (2019, 23 May). China’s Belt and Road Initiative consistent with Saudi Vision 2030 reform plan, says Chinese envoy, Erişim tarihi: 20.09.2022, https://www.arabnews.com/node/1500941/saudi-arabia.
  • Arab News. (2021, 20 April). Saudi Arabia’s crown prince and China’s president discuss climate change, Erişim tarihi: 20.09.2022, https://arab.news/z4n52,
  • Arkhevani Pirsalami, F. ve Mirahmadi, S. (2019). Explanation of China s Regional Balancing Policy in the Middle East. The Quarterly Journal of World Politics, 8, 139-176.
  • Bagheri Dolatabadi, A. ve Zarei, R. (2018). The Future of Iran-China Relations: an Alliance or Pure Cooperation?. Comparative Politics Russia, 9(1), 60-73.
  • Brown, C. and Ainley, K. (2005). Understanding International Relations, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Chazıza, M. (2019). The Gulf States and the New Silk Road, Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 1,229..
  • Chazıza, M. (2020). China and Iran Reach a New Stage in Their Strategic Partnership, Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 1,654.
  • Chen, D. (May 2021). China’s Belt and Road Initiative and Saudi Vision 2030: A Review of the Partnership for Sustainability. The King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC), Saudi Arabia.
  • Chen, D. ve Wenke, H. (2019). Deepening Cooperation Between Saudi Arabia and China, The King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC), Saudi Arabia.
  • Chen, J. (2011). The Emergence of China in the Middle East, National Defense University, Center for the Study of Chinese Military Affairs, SF No. 271, 2011.
  • Chen, J., Shu, M, and Wen, S, (2018). Aligning China’s Belt and Road Initiative with Saudi Arabia’s 2030 Vision. China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies, 4(3), 363-379.
  • Ding, J. ve Cheng H. (2017). China’s Proposition to Build a Community of Shared Future for Mankind and the Middle East Governance. Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 11(4), 1-14.
  • Dorsey James M. China and the Middle East: Venturing into the Maelstrom, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies Singapore: The RSIS Working Paper NO. 296, 18 March 2016.
  • Dorsey, J. M. (2016, 18 March). China and the Middle East: Venturing into the Maelstrom, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies Singapore: The RSIS Working Paper NO. 296.
  • Figueroa, W. (2022, 01 January). China and Iran Since the 25-Year Agreement: The Limits of Cooperation. the Diplomat, Erişim tarihi:25.08.2022, https://thediplomat.com/2022/01/china-and-iran-since-the-25-year-agreement-the-limits-of-cooperation/.
  • Flint, C. (2006). Introduction to Geopolitics. New York: Routledge.
  • Freidin, E. (2022, 15 June). Saudi Arabia and China: a blossoming friendship. The Interpreter, Erişim tarihi, 12.09.2022, https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/saudi-arabia-and-china-blossoming-friendship.
  • Fulton, J. (2020). Situating Saudi Arabia in China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Asian Politics & Policy, 12(3), 362-383.
  • Ghozllu, M. (2021, 21 March). Iran-China Agreement and 25 Years of Cooperation: What Do We Know about the Iran-China Deal?. Tejaratnews, Erişim tarihi: 01.10.2022, https://tejaratnews.com/training/462138/.
  • Gray, C. S. (1988). The Geopolitics Of Super Power, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky.
  • Guzansky, Y. ve Lavi, G. (2020). Saudi Arabia-China Relations: A Brave Friendship or Useful Leverage?. Strategic Assessment (A Multidisciplinary Journal on National Security), 23(2), 108-114.
  • Hafeznıa, M. R. (2006). Principles and Concepts of Geopolitics, Iran: Papoli Press.
  • Houlden, G. ve Zaamout, N. M. (2019). A New Great Power Engages with the Middle East: China’s Middle East Balancing Approach, University of Alberta: China Institute.
  • Jiangbo, S. ve Zezhuang, W. (2020). China’s Economic Activities in Iran Under the Belt and Road Initiative: Opportunity or Challenge?. Journal of Political Strategy, 3(11), 149-162.
  • Karaoğlu, O. (2021). Teopower Olarak Şiilik ve İran Dış Politikası, İstanbul: Kitabevi Yayınları.
  • Karaoğlu, O. (2022). Jeopolitiği Anlamak: Uluslararası Politika Yazıları, Ankara: Orion Yayınları.
  • Kelly, P. (2016). Classical Geopolitics: A New Analytical Model, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Klıeman, A. (2015). Pushing Back: The Balance and Balancing of Power, Global Power Shift. In A. Klieman (Eds) Comparative Analysis and Perspectives (pp.11-31). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
  • Leylanoğlu, H. & Seyedi Asl, S. (2021). İran ve Suudi Arabistan’ın 2003’ten Sonra Irak’ta Çıkar Çatışmalarına Jeopolitik Bir Bakış. Akademi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8(22), 107-126.
  • Liu, J. ve Wu, L. (2010). Key Issues in China-Iran Relations. Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 4(1), 40-57.
  • Malmgren, P. (2015). Geopolitics for Investors, USA: The CFA Institute Research Foundation, Miller, B. (2004). The International System and Regional Balance in the Middle East. In T. V. Paul, J. Wirtz, and M. Fortmann (Eds). Balance of Power: Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (pp.239-267). California: Stanford University Press.
  • Mohammadi, H. (2020, 4 June). 25 Year Document of Iran and China, from Lie to Reality. Iranian Diplomacy. Erişim tarihi: 01.10.2022, http://irdiplomacy.ir/fa/news/1992891/.
  • Moisio Sami (2015). “Geopolitics/Critical Geopolitics”, (ed.), John Agnew, Virginie Mamadouh, Anna J. Secor, Joanne Sharp, The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Political Geography, Wiley-Blackwell, 220-234.
  • MojNews. (2020, 11 June). Iran-China Cooperation Document; The Resurgence of the Silk Road. Erişim tarihi:02.10.2020, https://www.mojnews.com/336983/.
  • Morgenthau, H. J. (1948). Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, New York: Knopf.
  • Mottaghi, A. (2013). Recognizing the Dimensions of China’s Approach to the Persian Gulf and Iran’s Future Security Scenarios. Afaq Security Journal, 6(21), 129-151.
  • Ó Tuathaıl, G. (1996). Critical Geopolitics: The Politics of Writing Global Space, London: Routledge.
  • Osmo, T. (1998). The New Geopolitics: the World System and Northern Europe Seen from a Modern Geopolitical Perspective, Helsinki: National Defence College.
  • Paınter, J. (2008). Geographies of Space and Power. In K. Cox, M. Low and Jennifer Robinson (Eds). The SAGE Handbook of Political Geography (pp.57-73). London: SAGE Publications.
  • Paul, T. V. (2004). Introduction: The Enduring Axioms of Balance of Power Theory and Their Contemporary Relevance. In T. V. Paul, J. Wirtz, and M. Fortmann (Eds). Balance of Power: Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (pp.1-29). California: Stanford University Press.
  • poollnews.ir. (2020, 5 July). Allegations and ambiguities about the Iran-China cooperation document: A 25-year strategic agreement or a treaty like Turkmenchay?!. Erişim tarihi: 03.10.2022.poolnews.ir/001Oqj.
  • Rashid, M. ve Basiri, M. A. (2015). Economic and Military Take off of China and its Security Impact on Islamic Republic of Iran. Political International Researches, 7(22), 59-83.
  • Riedel, B. (2020, 20 July). Saudi Arabia’s relations with China: Functional, but not strategic. The Brookings Institution, Erişim Tarihi:21.08.2022, https://www.brookings.edu/articles/saudi-arabias-relations-with-china-functional-but-not-strategic/.
  • Saleh, A. ve Yazdanshenas, Z. (2020, 09 August). Iran’s Pact With China Is Bad News for the West. Foreign Policy, Erişim tarihi: 29.09.2022, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/08/09/irans-pact-with-china-is-bad-news-for-the-west/.
  • Scobell, A. ve Nader A. (2016). China in the Middle East: The Wary Dragon, Calif: RAND Corporation.
  • Scott, W. H. ve Nader, A. (2012). China and Iran: Economic, Political, and Military Relations, California: RAND Corporation.
  • Seliktar O. ve Rezaei F. (2020, July). The Iran-China 25-Year Plan: A Preliminary Assessment, Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies: Paper No. 1,653, Erişim tarihi: 02.10.2022, https://besacenter.org/iran-china-25-year-plan/.
  • Sempa, F. P. (2002). Geopolitics: From the Cold War to the 21st Century, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
  • Shariatinia, M. ve Azizi H. (2017). Iran-China Cooperation in the Silk Road Economic Belt. Quarterly Foreign Relations, 9(4), 7-29.
  • Shirgholami, K. (2022, 05 January). China-Saudi Arabia Missile Cooperation: Reasons and Consequences. Institute for Political and International Studies (IPIS), Erişim tarihi: 15.09.2022, https://www.ipis.ir/portal/subjectview/663914/.
  • Soltanzade, A. (2021, 05 April). China and Saudi Arabia, win-win; China and Iran, win-lose”, Independent Persian, Erişim Tarihi: 19.09.2022, https://www.independentpersian.com/node/135966/.
  • Stanzel, A. (2022). China’s Path to Geopolitics: Case Study on China’s Iran Policy at the Intersection of Regional Interests and Global Power Rivalry. (SWP Research Paper, 5/2022). Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik -SWP- Deutsches Institut für Internationale Politik und Sicherheit.
  • Tabnak. (2020, 21 July). How did Iran and China agree to a 25-year contract?. Erişim tarihi:01.10.2022, https://www.tabnak.ir/fa/news/991928/.
  • Tasnim News Agency. (2020, 6 October). Iran-China 25-year contract; Analysis of the role of “Citic Trust” in the cooperation between the two countries, Erişim yarihi:02.10.2022, https://www.tasnimnews.com/fa/news/1399/07/15/2363428/.
  • The safety4sea (2019, 26 February). China, Saudi Arabia to bolster cooperation through Belt and Road, Erişim earihi: 22.09.2022, https://safety4sea.com/china-saudi-arabia-to-bolster-cooperation-through-belt-and-road/.
  • Waltz, K., W. (1979). Theory of International Politics, California: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
  • Wu, Z. (2018). Classical Geopolitics, Realism and the Balance of Power Theory. Journal of Strategic Studies, 41(6), 786-823.
  • Wuthnow, J. (2016). Posing Problems Without an alliance: China-Iran Relations after the Nuclear Deal, National Defense University Washington: Institute for National Strategic Studies,
  • Yang, H. (2018). Time to Up the Game? Middle Eastern Security and Chinese Strategic Involvement. Asia Europe Journal, 16, 283–296.
  • Yurong, C. (2020, 20 November). Graphics: How is BRI bolstering China-Saudi Arabia ties?. China Global Television Network, Erişim tarihi: 20.09.2022, https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-11-20/Graphics-How-is-BRI-bolstering-China-Saudi-Arabia-ties--VzqqKFdXSo/index.html,
  • Zolfagharı, M. ve Emami, A. (2022). Saudi Foreign Policy towards Iran in the Post-JCPOA Period. The Journal of Fundamental and Applied Studies of the Islamic World, 4(12), 31-59.
  • Zulfikar Rakhmat, M. (2019, 12 March). The Belt and Road Initiative in the Gulf: Building “Oil Roads” to Prosperity. Middle East Institute, Erişim tarihi: 19.09.2022, https://www.mei.edu/publications/belt-and-road-initiative-gulf-building-oil-roads-prosperity.

China’s Approach to Iran and Saudi Arabia in the Middle East in Terms of Geopolitical Balance of Power

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 11 Sayı: 1, 237 - 266, 31.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.1211827

Öz

The balance of power is one of the main issues discussed by international relations theorists. Each of the theorists tries to explain the effects of the balance of power especially in terms of geopolitics. The geopolitical struggle between the USA and China has become more and more palpable in global and regional politics. Middle East is one of the most important regions of this geopolitical struggle. The increase in the US's strategic and geopolitical competition for trade with China has led to many changes in China's behavior in the Gulf region. Beijing's foreign policy aimed at balancing its rivals and increasing multilateralism has enabled China to deepen its ties with the Middle East. The Persian Gulf has always had a special place and importance in world politics for various geopolitical, geo-economic and geo-strategic reasons. On the other hand, the roles and positions of Saudi Arabia and Iran in the cooperation and strategic equations with China are gaining a new dimension day by day. This study deals with the reasons and effects of this relationship in China's foreign policy orientations in the context of geopolitical power balance. Because China has established strategic relations with Saudi Arabia and Iran, and these bilateral relations are getting deeper daily.

Kaynakça

  • Alqahtanı, K. M. (2020). Does Saudi Arabia Benefit From China’s Belt and Road Initiative?. Journal of Management and Strategy, 11(1), 1-6.
  • Al-Tamımı, N. (2022). Saudi Arabia’s Once Marginal Relationship with China Has Grown into a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership China and Saudi Arabia Relations. In J. Gunter and H. Legarda (Eds) Beyond Blocs: Global Views on China and US-China Relations, (pp.73-79). Berlin: The Mercator Institute for China Studies (MERICS).
  • Alterman J. B. (2013). China’s Balancing Act in the Gulf, Center for Strategic and International Studies: Middle East Program, Washington, DC.
  • Alterman J. B. (2013). China’s Balancing Act in the Gulf. Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies: Middle East Program.
  • Arab News. (2019, 23 May). China’s Belt and Road Initiative consistent with Saudi Vision 2030 reform plan, says Chinese envoy, Erişim tarihi: 20.09.2022, https://www.arabnews.com/node/1500941/saudi-arabia.
  • Arab News. (2021, 20 April). Saudi Arabia’s crown prince and China’s president discuss climate change, Erişim tarihi: 20.09.2022, https://arab.news/z4n52,
  • Arkhevani Pirsalami, F. ve Mirahmadi, S. (2019). Explanation of China s Regional Balancing Policy in the Middle East. The Quarterly Journal of World Politics, 8, 139-176.
  • Bagheri Dolatabadi, A. ve Zarei, R. (2018). The Future of Iran-China Relations: an Alliance or Pure Cooperation?. Comparative Politics Russia, 9(1), 60-73.
  • Brown, C. and Ainley, K. (2005). Understanding International Relations, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Chazıza, M. (2019). The Gulf States and the New Silk Road, Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 1,229..
  • Chazıza, M. (2020). China and Iran Reach a New Stage in Their Strategic Partnership, Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 1,654.
  • Chen, D. (May 2021). China’s Belt and Road Initiative and Saudi Vision 2030: A Review of the Partnership for Sustainability. The King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC), Saudi Arabia.
  • Chen, D. ve Wenke, H. (2019). Deepening Cooperation Between Saudi Arabia and China, The King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC), Saudi Arabia.
  • Chen, J. (2011). The Emergence of China in the Middle East, National Defense University, Center for the Study of Chinese Military Affairs, SF No. 271, 2011.
  • Chen, J., Shu, M, and Wen, S, (2018). Aligning China’s Belt and Road Initiative with Saudi Arabia’s 2030 Vision. China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies, 4(3), 363-379.
  • Ding, J. ve Cheng H. (2017). China’s Proposition to Build a Community of Shared Future for Mankind and the Middle East Governance. Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 11(4), 1-14.
  • Dorsey James M. China and the Middle East: Venturing into the Maelstrom, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies Singapore: The RSIS Working Paper NO. 296, 18 March 2016.
  • Dorsey, J. M. (2016, 18 March). China and the Middle East: Venturing into the Maelstrom, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies Singapore: The RSIS Working Paper NO. 296.
  • Figueroa, W. (2022, 01 January). China and Iran Since the 25-Year Agreement: The Limits of Cooperation. the Diplomat, Erişim tarihi:25.08.2022, https://thediplomat.com/2022/01/china-and-iran-since-the-25-year-agreement-the-limits-of-cooperation/.
  • Flint, C. (2006). Introduction to Geopolitics. New York: Routledge.
  • Freidin, E. (2022, 15 June). Saudi Arabia and China: a blossoming friendship. The Interpreter, Erişim tarihi, 12.09.2022, https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/saudi-arabia-and-china-blossoming-friendship.
  • Fulton, J. (2020). Situating Saudi Arabia in China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Asian Politics & Policy, 12(3), 362-383.
  • Ghozllu, M. (2021, 21 March). Iran-China Agreement and 25 Years of Cooperation: What Do We Know about the Iran-China Deal?. Tejaratnews, Erişim tarihi: 01.10.2022, https://tejaratnews.com/training/462138/.
  • Gray, C. S. (1988). The Geopolitics Of Super Power, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky.
  • Guzansky, Y. ve Lavi, G. (2020). Saudi Arabia-China Relations: A Brave Friendship or Useful Leverage?. Strategic Assessment (A Multidisciplinary Journal on National Security), 23(2), 108-114.
  • Hafeznıa, M. R. (2006). Principles and Concepts of Geopolitics, Iran: Papoli Press.
  • Houlden, G. ve Zaamout, N. M. (2019). A New Great Power Engages with the Middle East: China’s Middle East Balancing Approach, University of Alberta: China Institute.
  • Jiangbo, S. ve Zezhuang, W. (2020). China’s Economic Activities in Iran Under the Belt and Road Initiative: Opportunity or Challenge?. Journal of Political Strategy, 3(11), 149-162.
  • Karaoğlu, O. (2021). Teopower Olarak Şiilik ve İran Dış Politikası, İstanbul: Kitabevi Yayınları.
  • Karaoğlu, O. (2022). Jeopolitiği Anlamak: Uluslararası Politika Yazıları, Ankara: Orion Yayınları.
  • Kelly, P. (2016). Classical Geopolitics: A New Analytical Model, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Klıeman, A. (2015). Pushing Back: The Balance and Balancing of Power, Global Power Shift. In A. Klieman (Eds) Comparative Analysis and Perspectives (pp.11-31). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
  • Leylanoğlu, H. & Seyedi Asl, S. (2021). İran ve Suudi Arabistan’ın 2003’ten Sonra Irak’ta Çıkar Çatışmalarına Jeopolitik Bir Bakış. Akademi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8(22), 107-126.
  • Liu, J. ve Wu, L. (2010). Key Issues in China-Iran Relations. Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 4(1), 40-57.
  • Malmgren, P. (2015). Geopolitics for Investors, USA: The CFA Institute Research Foundation, Miller, B. (2004). The International System and Regional Balance in the Middle East. In T. V. Paul, J. Wirtz, and M. Fortmann (Eds). Balance of Power: Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (pp.239-267). California: Stanford University Press.
  • Mohammadi, H. (2020, 4 June). 25 Year Document of Iran and China, from Lie to Reality. Iranian Diplomacy. Erişim tarihi: 01.10.2022, http://irdiplomacy.ir/fa/news/1992891/.
  • Moisio Sami (2015). “Geopolitics/Critical Geopolitics”, (ed.), John Agnew, Virginie Mamadouh, Anna J. Secor, Joanne Sharp, The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Political Geography, Wiley-Blackwell, 220-234.
  • MojNews. (2020, 11 June). Iran-China Cooperation Document; The Resurgence of the Silk Road. Erişim tarihi:02.10.2020, https://www.mojnews.com/336983/.
  • Morgenthau, H. J. (1948). Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, New York: Knopf.
  • Mottaghi, A. (2013). Recognizing the Dimensions of China’s Approach to the Persian Gulf and Iran’s Future Security Scenarios. Afaq Security Journal, 6(21), 129-151.
  • Ó Tuathaıl, G. (1996). Critical Geopolitics: The Politics of Writing Global Space, London: Routledge.
  • Osmo, T. (1998). The New Geopolitics: the World System and Northern Europe Seen from a Modern Geopolitical Perspective, Helsinki: National Defence College.
  • Paınter, J. (2008). Geographies of Space and Power. In K. Cox, M. Low and Jennifer Robinson (Eds). The SAGE Handbook of Political Geography (pp.57-73). London: SAGE Publications.
  • Paul, T. V. (2004). Introduction: The Enduring Axioms of Balance of Power Theory and Their Contemporary Relevance. In T. V. Paul, J. Wirtz, and M. Fortmann (Eds). Balance of Power: Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (pp.1-29). California: Stanford University Press.
  • poollnews.ir. (2020, 5 July). Allegations and ambiguities about the Iran-China cooperation document: A 25-year strategic agreement or a treaty like Turkmenchay?!. Erişim tarihi: 03.10.2022.poolnews.ir/001Oqj.
  • Rashid, M. ve Basiri, M. A. (2015). Economic and Military Take off of China and its Security Impact on Islamic Republic of Iran. Political International Researches, 7(22), 59-83.
  • Riedel, B. (2020, 20 July). Saudi Arabia’s relations with China: Functional, but not strategic. The Brookings Institution, Erişim Tarihi:21.08.2022, https://www.brookings.edu/articles/saudi-arabias-relations-with-china-functional-but-not-strategic/.
  • Saleh, A. ve Yazdanshenas, Z. (2020, 09 August). Iran’s Pact With China Is Bad News for the West. Foreign Policy, Erişim tarihi: 29.09.2022, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/08/09/irans-pact-with-china-is-bad-news-for-the-west/.
  • Scobell, A. ve Nader A. (2016). China in the Middle East: The Wary Dragon, Calif: RAND Corporation.
  • Scott, W. H. ve Nader, A. (2012). China and Iran: Economic, Political, and Military Relations, California: RAND Corporation.
  • Seliktar O. ve Rezaei F. (2020, July). The Iran-China 25-Year Plan: A Preliminary Assessment, Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies: Paper No. 1,653, Erişim tarihi: 02.10.2022, https://besacenter.org/iran-china-25-year-plan/.
  • Sempa, F. P. (2002). Geopolitics: From the Cold War to the 21st Century, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
  • Shariatinia, M. ve Azizi H. (2017). Iran-China Cooperation in the Silk Road Economic Belt. Quarterly Foreign Relations, 9(4), 7-29.
  • Shirgholami, K. (2022, 05 January). China-Saudi Arabia Missile Cooperation: Reasons and Consequences. Institute for Political and International Studies (IPIS), Erişim tarihi: 15.09.2022, https://www.ipis.ir/portal/subjectview/663914/.
  • Soltanzade, A. (2021, 05 April). China and Saudi Arabia, win-win; China and Iran, win-lose”, Independent Persian, Erişim Tarihi: 19.09.2022, https://www.independentpersian.com/node/135966/.
  • Stanzel, A. (2022). China’s Path to Geopolitics: Case Study on China’s Iran Policy at the Intersection of Regional Interests and Global Power Rivalry. (SWP Research Paper, 5/2022). Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik -SWP- Deutsches Institut für Internationale Politik und Sicherheit.
  • Tabnak. (2020, 21 July). How did Iran and China agree to a 25-year contract?. Erişim tarihi:01.10.2022, https://www.tabnak.ir/fa/news/991928/.
  • Tasnim News Agency. (2020, 6 October). Iran-China 25-year contract; Analysis of the role of “Citic Trust” in the cooperation between the two countries, Erişim yarihi:02.10.2022, https://www.tasnimnews.com/fa/news/1399/07/15/2363428/.
  • The safety4sea (2019, 26 February). China, Saudi Arabia to bolster cooperation through Belt and Road, Erişim earihi: 22.09.2022, https://safety4sea.com/china-saudi-arabia-to-bolster-cooperation-through-belt-and-road/.
  • Waltz, K., W. (1979). Theory of International Politics, California: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
  • Wu, Z. (2018). Classical Geopolitics, Realism and the Balance of Power Theory. Journal of Strategic Studies, 41(6), 786-823.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Orhan KARAOĞLU 0000-0003-1389-5512

Seyedmohammad SEYEDI ASL 0000-0001-5237-7385

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ocak 2024
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2024 Cilt: 11 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA KARAOĞLU, O., & SEYEDI ASL, S. (2024). Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı. TESAM Akademi Dergisi, 11(1), 237-266. https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.1211827
AMA KARAOĞLU O, SEYEDI ASL S. Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. Ocak 2024;11(1):237-266. doi:10.30626/tesamakademi.1211827
Chicago KARAOĞLU, Orhan, ve Seyedmohammad SEYEDI ASL. “Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran Ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı”. TESAM Akademi Dergisi 11, sy. 1 (Ocak 2024): 237-66. https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.1211827.
EndNote KARAOĞLU O, SEYEDI ASL S (01 Ocak 2024) Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı. TESAM Akademi Dergisi 11 1 237–266.
IEEE O. KARAOĞLU ve S. SEYEDI ASL, “Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı”, TESAM Akademi Dergisi, c. 11, sy. 1, ss. 237–266, 2024, doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.1211827.
ISNAD KARAOĞLU, Orhan - SEYEDI ASL, Seyedmohammad. “Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran Ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı”. TESAM Akademi Dergisi 11/1 (Ocak 2024), 237-266. https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.1211827.
JAMA KARAOĞLU O, SEYEDI ASL S. Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2024;11:237–266.
MLA KARAOĞLU, Orhan ve Seyedmohammad SEYEDI ASL. “Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran Ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı”. TESAM Akademi Dergisi, c. 11, sy. 1, 2024, ss. 237-66, doi:10.30626/tesamakademi.1211827.
Vancouver KARAOĞLU O, SEYEDI ASL S. Jeopolitik Güç Dengesi Açısından Çin’in Orta Doğu’da İran ve Suudi Arabistan Yaklaşımı. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2024;11(1):237-66.