Araştırma Makalesi
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The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils

Yıl 2023, Cilt 34, Sayı 1, 135 - 152, 01.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.18400/tjce.1209185

Öz

The lime column (LC) technique has been commonly used for the improvement of expansive soils. The achievement of this technique depends on the lime diffusion into the expansive soils, but lime diffusion into the expansive soil is generally a slow process due to the low permeability of these soils. In this study, sodium lignosulfonate, which is used as a superplasticizer in the concrete industry, was added to lime columns to accelerate the diffusion of lime particles. First, treated expansive clay specimens with thirty-seven 4.5 mm diameter columns were prepared in an oedometer ring. These columns were filled with two different mixtures: water-lime and water-lime-sodium lignosulphonate to investigate the effect of the addition of sodium lignosulphonate. Free swell tests were done on these treated expansive clay specimens that were subjected to different curing periods, it was observed that the treated specimens with sodium lignosulphonate lime columns (NaLS-LC) are more effective than the treated specimens with lime columns (LC). A treated expansive clay specimen (in a 30cmx30cm mold) with seven pieces of 45 mm diameter sodium lignosulphonate lime columns were prepared to observe the alteration of engineering properties of untreated expansive clay specimen (US) located between the columns. Free swell and unconfined compressive strength tests were done on the undisturbed expansive clay specimens taken from the mold between the columns. SEM-EDX analyses were made to investigate whether the ettringite mineral, which leads to swelling of the expansive soil during lime stabilization, forms or not. While the ettringite mineral formed during the curing period in the lime column stabilization method, the addition of sodium lignosulphonate to lime columns blocked the formation of the ettringite mineral. It can be stated that sodium lignosulphonate lime columns (NaLS-LC) show better performance than lime columns (LC), in the treatment of expansive clays.

Kaynakça

  • Masia, M. J., Totoev Y. Z., Kleeman P. W., Modeling Expansive Soil Movements Beneath Structures. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 130(6), 572–579, 2004. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:6(572)
  • Parhi, P.S., Garanayak, L., Mahamaya, M., Das, S.K., Stabilization of expansive soil using alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymer. In Advances in Characterization and Analysis of Expansive Soils and Rocks; Hoyos, L., McCartney, J., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, USA; pp. 36–50, 2017.
  • Rogers, C. D., Glendinning, S., Improvement of clay soils in situ using lime piles in the UK. Engineering Geology, 47(3), 243–257, 1997.
  • Goud, G.N., Hyma, A.; Chandra, V.S., Rani, R.S., Expansive soil stabilization with coir waste and lime for flexible pavement subgrade. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Materials, Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Hyderabad, India, 1–2 June 2017; IOP Publishing: Bristol, UK, 2018; Volume 330, p. 012130.
  • Shaqour, F, Ismeik, M., Esaifan, M., Alkali activation of natural clay using a Ca(OH)2/Na2CO3 alkaline mixture. Clay Minerals, 52(04), 485–496, 2017.
  • Rajasekaran, G., Narasimha Rao, S., Sulphate attack in lime-treated marine clay. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 23(1-2), 93–116, 2005.
  • Prusinski, J., Bhattacharja, S., Effectiveness of Portland cement and lime in stabilizing clay soils. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1652, 215–227, 1999.
  • Muntohar, A. S., The influence of molding water content and lime content on the strength of stabilized soil with lime and rice husk ash. Civil Engineering Dimension, 7(1), Pp. 1-5, 2005.
  • Yang D, Qiu X, Zhou M, Lou H, Properties of sodium lignosulfonate as a dispersant of coal water slurry. Energy Conversion and Management, 48(9), 2433–2438, 2007. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2007.04.00
  • Ekinci C. E., Ay S., Baykuş N., Ay. A., (2016), Examination of the impact of lignin sulfonate-based structure chemicals on fresh and hardened concrete. Pamukkale Univ Muh Bilim Derg., 22(6): 478-485, 2016.
  • Alazigha, D P, Indraratna, B, Vinod, J S, Heitor A, Mechanisms of stabilization of expansive soil with lignosulphonate admixture. Transportation Geotechnics, 14 81-92., 2018 //doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2017.11.001
  • Vinod J S, Indraratna B, Mahamud M A A, Stabilization of an erodible soil using a chemical admixture, Journal of Ground Improvement, Vol. 163: 43 – 51, 2010. //doi.org/10.1680/grim.2010.163.1.43
  • Vakili A H, Kaedi M, Mokhberi M, Selamat M R, Salimi M, Treatment of highly dispersive clay by lignosulphonate addition and electroosmosis application. Applied Clay Science. 152, 1–8, 2018. //doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2017.11.039
  • Indraratna, B., Mahamud, M., Vinod, J.S., and Wijeyakulasuriya, V., Stabilization of an erodible soil using chemical admixtures, in Bouassida, M, Hamdi, E & Said, I (eds), ICGE'10: Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering: 45-54, 2010.
  • Tingle, J. S., and Santoni R. L., Stabilization of Clay Soils with Nontraditional Additives. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1819, Vol. 2, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., pp. 72–84, 2003.
  • Chen, Q., and Indraratna, B., Shear behavior of sandy silt treated with lignosulfonate. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52(8), 1180–1185, 2015.
  • ASTM Standard D422, Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007.
  • ASTM Standard D4318, Standard Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017.
  • ASTM Standard D854, Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.
  • ASTM Standard D4546, Standard Test Methods for One- Dimensional Swell or Collapse of Soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.
  • Seed, H. B., Woodward, R. J., Jr. and Lundgren, R., Prediction of swelling potential for compacted clays: J. ASCE, Soil Mechanics, and Foundation Division, Vol. 88, No. SM-3, Part 1, pp. 53–87, 1962.
  • ASTM D2166 / D2166M-16, Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016.
  • NF P 94-068., Soils: Investigation and testing—Measuring of the methylene blue adsorption capacity of a rock soil—Determination of the methylene blue of soil using the stain test. Paris: Association Française de Normalisation, 1998.

The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils

Yıl 2023, Cilt 34, Sayı 1, 135 - 152, 01.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.18400/tjce.1209185

Öz

The lime column (LC) technique has been commonly used for the improvement of expansive soils. The achievement of this technique depends on the lime diffusion into the expansive soils, but lime diffusion into the expansive soil is generally a slow process due to the low permeability of these soils. In this study, sodium lignosulfonate, which is used as a superplasticizer in the concrete industry, was added to lime columns to accelerate the diffusion of lime particles. First, treated expansive clay specimens with thirty-seven 4.5 mm diameter columns were prepared in an oedometer ring. These columns were filled with two different mixtures: water-lime and water-lime-sodium lignosulphonate to investigate the effect of the addition of sodium lignosulphonate. Free swell tests were done on these treated expansive clay specimens that were subjected to different curing periods, it was observed that the treated specimens with sodium lignosulphonate lime columns (NaLS-LC) are more effective than the treated specimens with lime columns (LC). A treated expansive clay specimen (in a 30cmx30cm mold) with seven pieces of 45 mm diameter sodium lignosulphonate lime columns were prepared to observe the alteration of engineering properties of untreated expansive clay specimen (US) located between the columns. Free swell and unconfined compressive strength tests were done on the undisturbed expansive clay specimens taken from the mold between the columns. SEM-EDX analyses were made to investigate whether the ettringite mineral, which leads to swelling of the expansive soil during lime stabilization, forms or not. While the ettringite mineral formed during the curing period in the lime column stabilization method, the addition of sodium lignosulphonate to lime columns blocked the formation of the ettringite mineral. It can be stated that sodium lignosulphonate lime columns (NaLS-LC) show better performance than lime columns (LC), in the treatment of expansive clays.

Kaynakça

  • Masia, M. J., Totoev Y. Z., Kleeman P. W., Modeling Expansive Soil Movements Beneath Structures. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 130(6), 572–579, 2004. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:6(572)
  • Parhi, P.S., Garanayak, L., Mahamaya, M., Das, S.K., Stabilization of expansive soil using alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymer. In Advances in Characterization and Analysis of Expansive Soils and Rocks; Hoyos, L., McCartney, J., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, USA; pp. 36–50, 2017.
  • Rogers, C. D., Glendinning, S., Improvement of clay soils in situ using lime piles in the UK. Engineering Geology, 47(3), 243–257, 1997.
  • Goud, G.N., Hyma, A.; Chandra, V.S., Rani, R.S., Expansive soil stabilization with coir waste and lime for flexible pavement subgrade. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Materials, Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Hyderabad, India, 1–2 June 2017; IOP Publishing: Bristol, UK, 2018; Volume 330, p. 012130.
  • Shaqour, F, Ismeik, M., Esaifan, M., Alkali activation of natural clay using a Ca(OH)2/Na2CO3 alkaline mixture. Clay Minerals, 52(04), 485–496, 2017.
  • Rajasekaran, G., Narasimha Rao, S., Sulphate attack in lime-treated marine clay. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 23(1-2), 93–116, 2005.
  • Prusinski, J., Bhattacharja, S., Effectiveness of Portland cement and lime in stabilizing clay soils. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1652, 215–227, 1999.
  • Muntohar, A. S., The influence of molding water content and lime content on the strength of stabilized soil with lime and rice husk ash. Civil Engineering Dimension, 7(1), Pp. 1-5, 2005.
  • Yang D, Qiu X, Zhou M, Lou H, Properties of sodium lignosulfonate as a dispersant of coal water slurry. Energy Conversion and Management, 48(9), 2433–2438, 2007. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2007.04.00
  • Ekinci C. E., Ay S., Baykuş N., Ay. A., (2016), Examination of the impact of lignin sulfonate-based structure chemicals on fresh and hardened concrete. Pamukkale Univ Muh Bilim Derg., 22(6): 478-485, 2016.
  • Alazigha, D P, Indraratna, B, Vinod, J S, Heitor A, Mechanisms of stabilization of expansive soil with lignosulphonate admixture. Transportation Geotechnics, 14 81-92., 2018 //doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2017.11.001
  • Vinod J S, Indraratna B, Mahamud M A A, Stabilization of an erodible soil using a chemical admixture, Journal of Ground Improvement, Vol. 163: 43 – 51, 2010. //doi.org/10.1680/grim.2010.163.1.43
  • Vakili A H, Kaedi M, Mokhberi M, Selamat M R, Salimi M, Treatment of highly dispersive clay by lignosulphonate addition and electroosmosis application. Applied Clay Science. 152, 1–8, 2018. //doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2017.11.039
  • Indraratna, B., Mahamud, M., Vinod, J.S., and Wijeyakulasuriya, V., Stabilization of an erodible soil using chemical admixtures, in Bouassida, M, Hamdi, E & Said, I (eds), ICGE'10: Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering: 45-54, 2010.
  • Tingle, J. S., and Santoni R. L., Stabilization of Clay Soils with Nontraditional Additives. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1819, Vol. 2, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., pp. 72–84, 2003.
  • Chen, Q., and Indraratna, B., Shear behavior of sandy silt treated with lignosulfonate. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52(8), 1180–1185, 2015.
  • ASTM Standard D422, Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007.
  • ASTM Standard D4318, Standard Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017.
  • ASTM Standard D854, Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.
  • ASTM Standard D4546, Standard Test Methods for One- Dimensional Swell or Collapse of Soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.
  • Seed, H. B., Woodward, R. J., Jr. and Lundgren, R., Prediction of swelling potential for compacted clays: J. ASCE, Soil Mechanics, and Foundation Division, Vol. 88, No. SM-3, Part 1, pp. 53–87, 1962.
  • ASTM D2166 / D2166M-16, Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016.
  • NF P 94-068., Soils: Investigation and testing—Measuring of the methylene blue adsorption capacity of a rock soil—Determination of the methylene blue of soil using the stain test. Paris: Association Française de Normalisation, 1998.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular İnşaat Mühendisliği
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

İlyas ÖZKAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9660-8229
Türkiye


Erdal ÇOKÇA Bu kişi benim
MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-8367-2539
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ocak 2023
Gönderilme Tarihi 21 Nisan 2022
Kabul Tarihi 10 Ekim 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023, Cilt 34, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tjce1209185, journal = {Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering}, issn = {2822-6836}, address = {İnşaat Mühendisleri Odası Necatibey Cad. No: 57 Kızılay / Ankara}, publisher = {TMMOB İnşaat Mühendisleri Odası}, year = {2023}, volume = {34}, number = {1}, pages = {135 - 152}, doi = {10.18400/tjce.1209185}, title = {The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils}, key = {cite}, author = {Özkan, İlyas and Çokça, Erdal} }
APA Özkan, İ. & Çokça, E. (2023). The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils . Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering , 34 (1) , 135-152 . DOI: 10.18400/tjce.1209185
MLA Özkan, İ. , Çokça, E. "The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils" . Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering 34 (2023 ): 135-152 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tjce/issue/73513/1209185>
Chicago Özkan, İ. , Çokça, E. "The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils". Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering 34 (2023 ): 135-152
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils AU - İlyasÖzkan, ErdalÇokça Y1 - 2023 PY - 2023 N1 - doi: 10.18400/tjce.1209185 DO - 10.18400/tjce.1209185 T2 - Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 135 EP - 152 VL - 34 IS - 1 SN - 2822-6836- M3 - doi: 10.18400/tjce.1209185 UR - https://doi.org/10.18400/tjce.1209185 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils %A İlyas Özkan , Erdal Çokça %T The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils %D 2023 %J Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering %P 2822-6836- %V 34 %N 1 %R doi: 10.18400/tjce.1209185 %U 10.18400/tjce.1209185
ISNAD Özkan, İlyas , Çokça, Erdal . "The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils". Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering 34 / 1 (Ocak 2023): 135-152 . https://doi.org/10.18400/tjce.1209185
AMA Özkan İ. , Çokça E. The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils. tjce. 2023; 34(1): 135-152.
Vancouver Özkan İ. , Çokça E. The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils. Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering. 2023; 34(1): 135-152.
IEEE İ. Özkan ve E. Çokça , "The Investigation of the Addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate to Lime Column Used For Improving the Expansive Soils", Turkish Journal of Civil Engineering, c. 34, sayı. 1, ss. 135-152, Oca. 2023, doi:10.18400/tjce.1209185