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Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes

Yıl 2020, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 4 - 30, 17.01.2020
https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.583530

Öz

Eutrophication is a phenomenon that causes the degradation of the water quality which results in negative impacts on living and non-living environment of the water body. Therefore, monitoring, evaluation and classification of water quality is the utmost importance for policy makers and regional institutions/organizations in order to be able to assess the quality and sustainability of water bodies and take timely and relevant measures for its rehabilitation when and where required. Regional conventions such as the Helsinki Convention, Oslo-Paris Convention, Barcelona Convention – Programme for the Assessment and Control of Marine Pollution in the Mediterranean, Strategic Action Programme and Integrated Coastal Zone Management as well as legislative instruments such as the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive,  Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive and Nitrate Directive  in Europe; the Clean Water Act, Water Quality Act, National Environmental Policy  and  Coastal Zone Management Act issued by the United State Environmental Protection Agency in the United States, addressed  the importance of eutrophication monitoring.   The eutrophication indexes have been developed in line with regional requirements by using specific data sets of state variables and parameters, representative of a location. In this study, we reviewed the commonly used eutrophication indexes worldwide within the areas applied, parameters, methods and classification scales and presented trophic level equivalence between the indexes. We expected to provide the researchers with comprehensive approaches related to eutrophication indexes while evaluating the trophic status of a water body.

Kaynakça

  • Andersen, J. H., Axe, P., Backer, H., Carstensen, J., Claussen, U., Fleming-Lehtinen, V., . . . Korpinen, S. (2011). Getting the measure of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea: towards improved assessment principles and methods. Biogeochemistry, 106(2), 137-156.
  • Baltic2Black. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.helcom.fi/helcom-at-work/projects/completed-projects/baltic2black
  • Bonometto, A., Giordani, G., Ponis, G., Facca, C., Brusà, R. B., Sfriso, A., & Viaroli, P. (2016). Eutrophication assessment in transitional waters A performance analysis of the Transitional Water Quality Index (TWQI). Paper presented at the VII EUROLAG - EUROPEAN COASTAL LAGOONS SYMPOSIUM
  • Borja, A., Basset, A., Bricker, S., Dauvin, J.-C., Elliot, M., Harrison, T., . . . West, R. (2012). Classifying ecological quality and integrity of estuaries.
  • Bowie, G. L., Mills, W. B., Porcella, D. B., Campbell, C. L., Pagenkopf, J. R., Rupp, G. L., . . . Chamberlin, C. E. (1985). Rates, constants, and kinetics formulations in surface water quality modeling (2nd ed. Vol. EPA/600/3-85/040). Athens, Georgia.
  • Bricker, S., Ferreira, J., & Simas, T. (2003). An integrated methodology for assessment of estuarine trophic status. Ecological modelling, 169(1), 39-60.
  • Bricker, S. B., Clement, C. G., Pirhalla, D. E., Orlando, S. P., & Farrow, D. R. (1999). National estuarine eutrophication assessment: effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation's estuaries: US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Special Projects Office and the National Center for Coastal Ocean Science.
  • Burns, N., Bryers, G., & Browman, E. (2000). Protocol for monitoring trophic levels of New Zealand lakes and reservoirs. New Zealand: Ministry for the Environment, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Burns, N. M., Rutherford, J. C., & Clayton, J. S. (1999). A monitoring and classification system for New Zealand lakes and reservoirs. Lake and Reservoir Management, 15(4), 255-271.
  • Canfield Jr, D. E., & Bachmann, R. W. (1981). Prediction of total phosphorus concentrations, chlorophyll a, and Secchi depths in natural and artificial lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 38(4), 414-423.
  • Carlson, R. E. (1977). A trophic state index for lakes1. Limnology and oceanography, 22(2), 361-369.
  • Carlson, R. E., & Simpson, J. (1996). A coordinator’s guide to volunteer lake monitoring methods. North American Lake Management Society, 96, 305.
  • Chapra, S. C. (1977). Total phosphorus model for the Great Lakes. Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 103(2), 147-161.
  • Cloern, J. E. (2001). Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Marine ecology progress series, 210, 223-253.
  • Commission Decision 2010/477/EU. (2010). Commission decision of 1 September 2010 on criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters (notified under document C(2010) 5956). Official Journal of the European Union, 14-24. Conley, D. J., Kaas, H., Møhlenberg, F., Rasmussen, B., & Windolf, J. (2000). Characteristics of Danish estuaries. Estuaries, 23(6), 820-837.
  • Cunha, D. G. F., do Carmo Calijuri, M., & Lamparelli, M. C. (2013). A trophic state index for tropical/subtropical reservoirs (TSItsr). Ecological Engineering, 60, 126-134.
  • Devlin, M., Bricker, S., & Painting, S. (2011). Comparison of five methods for assessing impacts of nutrient enrichment using estuarine case studies. Biogeochemistry, 106(2), 177-205.
  • Dillon, P. J., & Rigler, F. (1974). The phosphorus‐chlorophyll relationship in lakes 1, 2. Limnology and oceanography, 19(5), 767-773.
  • Dodds, W. K. (2002). Freshwater ecology: concepts and environmental applications: Elsevier.
  • Ferreira, J. G., Andersen, J. H., Borja, A., Bricker, S. B., Camp, J., Da Silva, M. C., . . . Ignatiades, L. (2011). Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 93(2), 117-131.
  • Galloway, J. N., & Cowling, E. B. (2002). Reactive nitrogen and the world: 200 years of change. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 31(2), 64-71.
  • Giordani, G., Zaldívar, J. M., & Viaroli, P. (2009). Simple tools for assessing water quality and trophic status in transitional water ecosystems. Ecological Indicators, 9(5), 982-991.
  • Giovanardi, F., & Vollenweider, R. A. (2004). Trophic conditions of marine coastal waters: experience in applying the Trophic Index TRIX to two areas of the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas. Journal of Limnology, 63(2), 199-218.
  • Glibert, P. M., Harrison, J., Heil, C., & Seitzinger, S. (2006). Escalating worldwide use of urea–a global change contributing to coastal eutrophication. Biogeochemistry, 77(3), 441-463.
  • Heiskary, S. A., & Bouchard Jr, R. W. (2015). Development of eutrophication criteria for Minnesota streams and rivers using multiple lines of evidence. Freshwater Science, 34(2), 574-592.
  • HELCOM. (2007). HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan. Retrieved from Krakow, Poland:
  • HELCOM. (2009). Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea – An integrated thematic assessment of the effects of nutrient enrichmentand eutrophication in the Baltic Sea region, Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 115B.
  • Howarth, R. W., Sharpley, A., & Walker, D. (2002). Sources of nutrient pollution to coastal waters in the United States: Implications for achieving coastal water quality goals. Estuaries, 25(4), 656-676.
  • Hoyer, M. V., Terrell, J. B., & Canfield Jr, D. E. (2015). Chain of eutrophication models for assessing the potential impact of nutrient enrichment on Choctawhatchee Bay, FL, USA. Florida Scientist, 20-36.
  • Ignatiades, L. (2005). Scaling the trophic status of the Aegean Sea, eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Sea Research, 54(1), 51-57.
  • Jiang, P., Cui, Y., Wang, H., & Wang, H. (2011). Macrobenthos communities and bio-assessment of lakes in Hanyang district. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 20(5), 525-533.
  • Jones, J. R., & Bachmann, R. W. (1976). Prediction of phosphorus and chlorophyll levels in lakes. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), 2176-2182.
  • Kitsiou, D., & Karydis, M. (2011). Coastal marine eutrophication assessment: a review on data analysis. Environment international, 37(4), 778-801.
  • Kupchella, C. E., & Hyland, M. C. (1989). Environmental Science: Living within the system of nature (2nd ed.). USA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Lazar, L., Boicenco, L., Beken, C., Dzhurova, B., Moncheva, S., Shtereva, G., & Vasiliu, D. (2016). Western black sea eutrophication status according to the black sea eutrophication asessment tool, BEAST-MISIS cruise results. Cercet. Mar., 46, 48-60.
  • Liebig, J. v. (1840). Organic chemistry in its application to vegetable physiology and agriculture. Readings in ecology. Prentice Hall, New York.
  • MSFD 2008/56/EC. (2008). Directive 2008/56/EC Of The European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Marine Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Union, 19-40.
  • Nielsen, S. L., Sand-Jensen, K., Borum, J., & Geertz-Hansen, O. (2002). Phytoplankton, nutrients, and transparency in Danish coastal waters. Estuaries, 25(5), 930-937.
  • OSPAR. (2008). Marine biodiversity monitoring and assessment: Activities to improve synergies between EU directives and international conventions, Activities in all OSPAR Contracting Parties: OSPAR Commission.
  • OSPAR. (2017). Eutrophication Status of the OSPAR Maritime Area, Third Integrated Report on the Eutrophication Status of the OSPAR Maritime Area. Eutrophication Series. www.ospar.org
  • Pan, B.-Z., Wang, H.-Z., Pusch, M. T., & Wang, H.-J. (2015). Macroinvertebrate responses to regime shifts caused by eutrophication in subtropical shallow lakes. Freshwater Science, 34(3), 942-952.
  • Parparov, A., Gal, G., Hamilton, D. P., Kasprzak, P., & Ostapenia, A. (2010). Water quality assessment, trophic classification and water resources management.
  • Pettine, M., Casentini, B., Fazi, S., Giovanardi, F., & Pagnotta, R. (2007). A revisitation of TRIX for trophic status assessment in the light of the European Water Framework Directive: Application to Italian coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(9), 1413-1426.
  • Rask, N., Pedersen, S. E., & Jensen, M. H. (1999). Response to lowered nutrient discharges in the coastal waters around the island of Funen, Denmark. In Biological, Physical and Geochemical Features of Enclosed and Semi-enclosed Marine Systems (pp. 69-81): Springer.
  • Rinaldi, A., & Giovanardi, F. (2011). Contribution of Richard A. Vollenweider toward understanding eutrophication of the coastal Adriatic Sea. Aquatic ecosystem health & management, 14(2), 200-203.
  • Smil, V. (2004). Enriching the earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the transformation of world food production: MIT press.
  • Souchu, P., Ximenes, M., Lauret, M., Vaquer, A., & Dutrieux, E. (2000). Mise à jour d’indicateurs du niveau d’eutrophisation des milieux lagunaires méditerranéens, août 2000. Ifremer-Créocean-Université Montpellier II, 412.
  • Stips, A., Macias, D., Garcia-Gorriz, E., & Miladinova, S. (2016). Alternative assessments of large scale Eutrophication using ecosystem simulations: Hind-casting and scenario modelling. Luxembourg (Luxembourg): EUR, 27904.
  • The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution, HELCOM, & The European Commission. (2014). Environmental monitoring of the Black Sea with focus on nutrient pollution” (Acronym: Baltic2Black), Final Report for the Grant Agreement No 07.0204/2010/580913/SUB/D2.
  • Tsakiris, G. (2015). The status of the European waters in 2015: a review. Environmental Processes, 2(3), 543-557.
  • UNEP/MAP. (2007a). Approaches to the Assessment of Eutrophication in Mediterranean Coastal Waters Retrieved from Athens:
  • UNEP/MAP. (2007b). Eutrophication Monitoring Strategy for the MED POL Retrieved from Athens:
  • USEPA. (2004). National Coastal Condition Report II. Retrieved from Washington, DC: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/nccr2/
  • USEPA. (2008). EPA's report on the environment. Retrieved from Washington, DC 20460:
  • Vollenweider, R., Giovanardi, F., Montanari, G., & Rinaldi, A. (1998). Characterization of the trophic conditions of marine coastal waters with special reference to the NW Adriatic Sea: proposal for a trophic scale, turbidity and generalized water quality index. Environmetrics: The official journal of the International Environmetrics Society, 9(3), 329-357.
  • Vollenweider, R., & Kerekes, J. (1980). Loading concept as basis for controlling eutrophication philosophy and preliminary results of the OECD Programme on Eutrophication. Progress in Water Technology, 12, 5-38.
  • Vollenweider, R., Marchetti, R., & Viviani, R. (1992). Marine coastal eutrophication: the response of marine transitional systems to human impacts; problems and perspectives for restoration. In Marine coastal eutrophication: the response of marine transitional systems to human impacts; problems and perspectives for restoration: Elsevier.
  • Vollenweider, R. A. (1976). Advances in defining critical loading levels for phosphorus in lake eutrophication. Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, Dott. Marco de Marchi Verbania Pallanza.
  • WFD 2000/60/EC. (2000). Directive 2000/60/Ec of the European Parliament And of The Council of 23 October 2000 Establishing A Framework For Community Action in the Field of Water Policy. Official Journal of the European Communities.
  • WFD 2000/60/EC Technical Report. (2009). Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), Guidance Document No. 23 Guidance Document on Eutrophication Assessment in the Context of European Water Policies
  • WFD Guidance Document No5. (2003). Common Implementation Strategy for the WFD (2000/60/EC), Transitional and Coastal Waters – Typology, Reference Conditions and Classification Systems.
  • Zaldívar, J.-M., Viaroli, P., Newton, A., De Wit, R., Ibañez, C., Reizopoulou, S., . . . Holmer, M. (2008). Eutrophication in transitional waters: an overview. Transitional Waters Monographs, 2(1), 1-78.

Yıl 2020, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 4 - 30, 17.01.2020
https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.583530

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Andersen, J. H., Axe, P., Backer, H., Carstensen, J., Claussen, U., Fleming-Lehtinen, V., . . . Korpinen, S. (2011). Getting the measure of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea: towards improved assessment principles and methods. Biogeochemistry, 106(2), 137-156.
  • Baltic2Black. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.helcom.fi/helcom-at-work/projects/completed-projects/baltic2black
  • Bonometto, A., Giordani, G., Ponis, G., Facca, C., Brusà, R. B., Sfriso, A., & Viaroli, P. (2016). Eutrophication assessment in transitional waters A performance analysis of the Transitional Water Quality Index (TWQI). Paper presented at the VII EUROLAG - EUROPEAN COASTAL LAGOONS SYMPOSIUM
  • Borja, A., Basset, A., Bricker, S., Dauvin, J.-C., Elliot, M., Harrison, T., . . . West, R. (2012). Classifying ecological quality and integrity of estuaries.
  • Bowie, G. L., Mills, W. B., Porcella, D. B., Campbell, C. L., Pagenkopf, J. R., Rupp, G. L., . . . Chamberlin, C. E. (1985). Rates, constants, and kinetics formulations in surface water quality modeling (2nd ed. Vol. EPA/600/3-85/040). Athens, Georgia.
  • Bricker, S., Ferreira, J., & Simas, T. (2003). An integrated methodology for assessment of estuarine trophic status. Ecological modelling, 169(1), 39-60.
  • Bricker, S. B., Clement, C. G., Pirhalla, D. E., Orlando, S. P., & Farrow, D. R. (1999). National estuarine eutrophication assessment: effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation's estuaries: US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Special Projects Office and the National Center for Coastal Ocean Science.
  • Burns, N., Bryers, G., & Browman, E. (2000). Protocol for monitoring trophic levels of New Zealand lakes and reservoirs. New Zealand: Ministry for the Environment, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Burns, N. M., Rutherford, J. C., & Clayton, J. S. (1999). A monitoring and classification system for New Zealand lakes and reservoirs. Lake and Reservoir Management, 15(4), 255-271.
  • Canfield Jr, D. E., & Bachmann, R. W. (1981). Prediction of total phosphorus concentrations, chlorophyll a, and Secchi depths in natural and artificial lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 38(4), 414-423.
  • Carlson, R. E. (1977). A trophic state index for lakes1. Limnology and oceanography, 22(2), 361-369.
  • Carlson, R. E., & Simpson, J. (1996). A coordinator’s guide to volunteer lake monitoring methods. North American Lake Management Society, 96, 305.
  • Chapra, S. C. (1977). Total phosphorus model for the Great Lakes. Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 103(2), 147-161.
  • Cloern, J. E. (2001). Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Marine ecology progress series, 210, 223-253.
  • Commission Decision 2010/477/EU. (2010). Commission decision of 1 September 2010 on criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters (notified under document C(2010) 5956). Official Journal of the European Union, 14-24. Conley, D. J., Kaas, H., Møhlenberg, F., Rasmussen, B., & Windolf, J. (2000). Characteristics of Danish estuaries. Estuaries, 23(6), 820-837.
  • Cunha, D. G. F., do Carmo Calijuri, M., & Lamparelli, M. C. (2013). A trophic state index for tropical/subtropical reservoirs (TSItsr). Ecological Engineering, 60, 126-134.
  • Devlin, M., Bricker, S., & Painting, S. (2011). Comparison of five methods for assessing impacts of nutrient enrichment using estuarine case studies. Biogeochemistry, 106(2), 177-205.
  • Dillon, P. J., & Rigler, F. (1974). The phosphorus‐chlorophyll relationship in lakes 1, 2. Limnology and oceanography, 19(5), 767-773.
  • Dodds, W. K. (2002). Freshwater ecology: concepts and environmental applications: Elsevier.
  • Ferreira, J. G., Andersen, J. H., Borja, A., Bricker, S. B., Camp, J., Da Silva, M. C., . . . Ignatiades, L. (2011). Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 93(2), 117-131.
  • Galloway, J. N., & Cowling, E. B. (2002). Reactive nitrogen and the world: 200 years of change. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 31(2), 64-71.
  • Giordani, G., Zaldívar, J. M., & Viaroli, P. (2009). Simple tools for assessing water quality and trophic status in transitional water ecosystems. Ecological Indicators, 9(5), 982-991.
  • Giovanardi, F., & Vollenweider, R. A. (2004). Trophic conditions of marine coastal waters: experience in applying the Trophic Index TRIX to two areas of the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas. Journal of Limnology, 63(2), 199-218.
  • Glibert, P. M., Harrison, J., Heil, C., & Seitzinger, S. (2006). Escalating worldwide use of urea–a global change contributing to coastal eutrophication. Biogeochemistry, 77(3), 441-463.
  • Heiskary, S. A., & Bouchard Jr, R. W. (2015). Development of eutrophication criteria for Minnesota streams and rivers using multiple lines of evidence. Freshwater Science, 34(2), 574-592.
  • HELCOM. (2007). HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan. Retrieved from Krakow, Poland:
  • HELCOM. (2009). Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea – An integrated thematic assessment of the effects of nutrient enrichmentand eutrophication in the Baltic Sea region, Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 115B.
  • Howarth, R. W., Sharpley, A., & Walker, D. (2002). Sources of nutrient pollution to coastal waters in the United States: Implications for achieving coastal water quality goals. Estuaries, 25(4), 656-676.
  • Hoyer, M. V., Terrell, J. B., & Canfield Jr, D. E. (2015). Chain of eutrophication models for assessing the potential impact of nutrient enrichment on Choctawhatchee Bay, FL, USA. Florida Scientist, 20-36.
  • Ignatiades, L. (2005). Scaling the trophic status of the Aegean Sea, eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Sea Research, 54(1), 51-57.
  • Jiang, P., Cui, Y., Wang, H., & Wang, H. (2011). Macrobenthos communities and bio-assessment of lakes in Hanyang district. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 20(5), 525-533.
  • Jones, J. R., & Bachmann, R. W. (1976). Prediction of phosphorus and chlorophyll levels in lakes. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), 2176-2182.
  • Kitsiou, D., & Karydis, M. (2011). Coastal marine eutrophication assessment: a review on data analysis. Environment international, 37(4), 778-801.
  • Kupchella, C. E., & Hyland, M. C. (1989). Environmental Science: Living within the system of nature (2nd ed.). USA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Lazar, L., Boicenco, L., Beken, C., Dzhurova, B., Moncheva, S., Shtereva, G., & Vasiliu, D. (2016). Western black sea eutrophication status according to the black sea eutrophication asessment tool, BEAST-MISIS cruise results. Cercet. Mar., 46, 48-60.
  • Liebig, J. v. (1840). Organic chemistry in its application to vegetable physiology and agriculture. Readings in ecology. Prentice Hall, New York.
  • MSFD 2008/56/EC. (2008). Directive 2008/56/EC Of The European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Marine Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Union, 19-40.
  • Nielsen, S. L., Sand-Jensen, K., Borum, J., & Geertz-Hansen, O. (2002). Phytoplankton, nutrients, and transparency in Danish coastal waters. Estuaries, 25(5), 930-937.
  • OSPAR. (2008). Marine biodiversity monitoring and assessment: Activities to improve synergies between EU directives and international conventions, Activities in all OSPAR Contracting Parties: OSPAR Commission.
  • OSPAR. (2017). Eutrophication Status of the OSPAR Maritime Area, Third Integrated Report on the Eutrophication Status of the OSPAR Maritime Area. Eutrophication Series. www.ospar.org
  • Pan, B.-Z., Wang, H.-Z., Pusch, M. T., & Wang, H.-J. (2015). Macroinvertebrate responses to regime shifts caused by eutrophication in subtropical shallow lakes. Freshwater Science, 34(3), 942-952.
  • Parparov, A., Gal, G., Hamilton, D. P., Kasprzak, P., & Ostapenia, A. (2010). Water quality assessment, trophic classification and water resources management.
  • Pettine, M., Casentini, B., Fazi, S., Giovanardi, F., & Pagnotta, R. (2007). A revisitation of TRIX for trophic status assessment in the light of the European Water Framework Directive: Application to Italian coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(9), 1413-1426.
  • Rask, N., Pedersen, S. E., & Jensen, M. H. (1999). Response to lowered nutrient discharges in the coastal waters around the island of Funen, Denmark. In Biological, Physical and Geochemical Features of Enclosed and Semi-enclosed Marine Systems (pp. 69-81): Springer.
  • Rinaldi, A., & Giovanardi, F. (2011). Contribution of Richard A. Vollenweider toward understanding eutrophication of the coastal Adriatic Sea. Aquatic ecosystem health & management, 14(2), 200-203.
  • Smil, V. (2004). Enriching the earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the transformation of world food production: MIT press.
  • Souchu, P., Ximenes, M., Lauret, M., Vaquer, A., & Dutrieux, E. (2000). Mise à jour d’indicateurs du niveau d’eutrophisation des milieux lagunaires méditerranéens, août 2000. Ifremer-Créocean-Université Montpellier II, 412.
  • Stips, A., Macias, D., Garcia-Gorriz, E., & Miladinova, S. (2016). Alternative assessments of large scale Eutrophication using ecosystem simulations: Hind-casting and scenario modelling. Luxembourg (Luxembourg): EUR, 27904.
  • The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution, HELCOM, & The European Commission. (2014). Environmental monitoring of the Black Sea with focus on nutrient pollution” (Acronym: Baltic2Black), Final Report for the Grant Agreement No 07.0204/2010/580913/SUB/D2.
  • Tsakiris, G. (2015). The status of the European waters in 2015: a review. Environmental Processes, 2(3), 543-557.
  • UNEP/MAP. (2007a). Approaches to the Assessment of Eutrophication in Mediterranean Coastal Waters Retrieved from Athens:
  • UNEP/MAP. (2007b). Eutrophication Monitoring Strategy for the MED POL Retrieved from Athens:
  • USEPA. (2004). National Coastal Condition Report II. Retrieved from Washington, DC: http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/nccr2/
  • USEPA. (2008). EPA's report on the environment. Retrieved from Washington, DC 20460:
  • Vollenweider, R., Giovanardi, F., Montanari, G., & Rinaldi, A. (1998). Characterization of the trophic conditions of marine coastal waters with special reference to the NW Adriatic Sea: proposal for a trophic scale, turbidity and generalized water quality index. Environmetrics: The official journal of the International Environmetrics Society, 9(3), 329-357.
  • Vollenweider, R., & Kerekes, J. (1980). Loading concept as basis for controlling eutrophication philosophy and preliminary results of the OECD Programme on Eutrophication. Progress in Water Technology, 12, 5-38.
  • Vollenweider, R., Marchetti, R., & Viviani, R. (1992). Marine coastal eutrophication: the response of marine transitional systems to human impacts; problems and perspectives for restoration. In Marine coastal eutrophication: the response of marine transitional systems to human impacts; problems and perspectives for restoration: Elsevier.
  • Vollenweider, R. A. (1976). Advances in defining critical loading levels for phosphorus in lake eutrophication. Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, Dott. Marco de Marchi Verbania Pallanza.
  • WFD 2000/60/EC. (2000). Directive 2000/60/Ec of the European Parliament And of The Council of 23 October 2000 Establishing A Framework For Community Action in the Field of Water Policy. Official Journal of the European Communities.
  • WFD 2000/60/EC Technical Report. (2009). Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), Guidance Document No. 23 Guidance Document on Eutrophication Assessment in the Context of European Water Policies
  • WFD Guidance Document No5. (2003). Common Implementation Strategy for the WFD (2000/60/EC), Transitional and Coastal Waters – Typology, Reference Conditions and Classification Systems.
  • Zaldívar, J.-M., Viaroli, P., Newton, A., De Wit, R., Ibañez, C., Reizopoulou, S., . . . Holmer, M. (2008). Eutrophication in transitional waters: an overview. Transitional Waters Monographs, 2(1), 1-78.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm TÜRKİYE SU BİLİMLERİ VE YÖNETİMİ DERGİSİ
Yazarlar

Duygu ÜLKER (Sorumlu Yazar)
ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-6279-7321
Türkiye


İrşad BAYIRHAN
ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9404-399X
Türkiye


Selmin BURAK
ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-0780-0687
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Ocak 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 4, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tjwsm583530, journal = {Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management}, issn = {2536-474X}, eissn = {2564-7334}, address = {Orman ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü Beştepe Mahallesi Alparslan Türkeş Caddesi No: 71 -Yenimahalle / ANKARA, PK: 06560}, publisher = {Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü}, year = {2020}, volume = {4}, pages = {4 - 30}, doi = {10.31807/tjwsm.583530}, title = {Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes}, key = {cite}, author = {Ülker, Duygu and Bayırhan, İrşad and Burak, Selmin} }
APA Ülker, D. , Bayırhan, İ. & Burak, S. (2020). Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes . Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management , 4 (1) , 4-30 . DOI: 10.31807/tjwsm.583530
MLA Ülker, D. , Bayırhan, İ. , Burak, S. "Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes" . Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management 4 (2020 ): 4-30 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tjwsm/issue/51930/583530>
Chicago Ülker, D. , Bayırhan, İ. , Burak, S. "Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes". Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management 4 (2020 ): 4-30
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes AU - Duygu Ülker , İrşad Bayırhan , Selmin Burak Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.31807/tjwsm.583530 DO - 10.31807/tjwsm.583530 T2 - Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 4 EP - 30 VL - 4 IS - 1 SN - 2536-474X-2564-7334 M3 - doi: 10.31807/tjwsm.583530 UR - https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.583530 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Türkiye Su Bilimi ve Yönetimi Dergisi Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes %A Duygu Ülker , İrşad Bayırhan , Selmin Burak %T Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes %D 2020 %J Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management %P 2536-474X-2564-7334 %V 4 %N 1 %R doi: 10.31807/tjwsm.583530 %U 10.31807/tjwsm.583530
ISNAD Ülker, Duygu , Bayırhan, İrşad , Burak, Selmin . "Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes". Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management 4 / 1 (Ocak 2020): 4-30 . https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.583530
AMA Ülker D. , Bayırhan İ. , Burak S. Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes. Turkish J. Water Sci. Manag.. 2020; 4(1): 4-30.
Vancouver Ülker D. , Bayırhan İ. , Burak S. Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes. Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management. 2020; 4(1): 4-30.
IEEE D. Ülker , İ. Bayırhan ve S. Burak , "Assessment and Comparison of Commonly Used Eutrophication Indexes", Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management, c. 4, sayı. 1, ss. 4-30, Oca. 2020, doi:10.31807/tjwsm.583530