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The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey

Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 121 - 144, 13.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.946225

Öz

After the 1970’s, an unprecedented urbanization and industrial activities have resulted in severe inland and coastal water degradation in Turkey. Infrastructure investment in wastewater management has fallen behind schedule due to the lack of required extensive financing to implement large projects. On the other hand, land-use planning has been overlooked due to increased demand for housing and legal gaps that weaken the enforcement in that respect. Turkey is updating its regulations within the framework of the current EU directives after becoming a candidate country to the European Union (EU). Comprehensive reforms related to institutional and legal issues have gradually taken place with the objective of meeting the defined strategies for water pollution abatement. A new “Water Law '' has been drafted for ensuring a more efficient water management by updating the existing legal framework where needed and with emerging issues (e.g. climate change). In 2021, a “Consultative Assembly on Water'' was established to analyze the content and items of the new “Water Law '', in particular, and the conclusion statement was displayed. In this study, Turkey’s water quality management policies are presented by taking into consideration the present urgent actions and future needs, development at national, regional and municipal levels as well as the on-going EU accession process together with regional and international agreements. An assessment of inland and coastal water quality is done according to the regulations in force and set standards.

Kaynakça

  • Biswas, A. K., & Tortajada, C. (2011). Water quality management: An introductory framework. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 27(1), 5–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2010.547979
  • Blue Flag (2021). Blue Flag Turkey. http://www.mavibayrak.org.tr
  • Burak, S., Gönenç, I. E., & Erol, A. (1994). Institutional and legislative structure of water quality management in Turkey. Water Science and Technology, 30(5), 261.
  • Burak, S., Doǧan, E., & Gazioǧlu, C. (2004). Impact of urbanization and tourism on coastal environment. Ocean and Coastal Management, 47(9–10), 515–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2004.07.007
  • Burak, S. (2008). Overview of water management in Turkey: Issues, constraints, achievements, prospect. In Sustainable use and development of watersheds (pp. 151–171). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8558-1_10
  • Burak Selmin. (2009). Su Gündemi- Su Kaynakları, Yönetimi, Sınıraşan Sular. İstanbul: Beta.
  • Burak, S., & Demir, V. (2016). The Sea of Marmara marine biodiversity, fisheries, conservation and governance: Land-based pollution in the Sea of Marmara and assessment of pollution abatement strategies. (E. Özsoy, M. N. Çağatay, N. Balkıs, N. Balkıs, & B. Öztürk). TUDAV. (pp. 849-62). https://tudav.org/wpcontent/ uploads/2018/04/THE_SEA_OF_MARMARA_2016_low.pdf
  • Burak, S., & Margat, J. (2016). Water management in the Mediterranean region: Concepts and policies. Water Resources Management, 30(15), 5779–5797. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-016- 1389-4
  • Burak, S., & Ülker, D. (2018). Which Effluent Quality for Which Reuse in the Mediterranean Region ? (pp. 124–125). Istanbul, Turkey, October 24-26 2018: 4rd International Conference on Recycling and Reuse. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338687638_Which_Effluent_Quality_for_Which_ Reuse_in_the_Mediterranean_Region
  • Burak, S., & Mat, H. (2020). Water resources of Turkey: Urban and ındustrial water uses. (N. B. Harmancioglu & D. Altinbilek). Springer. (pp. 341–398). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030- 11729-0_11
  • Burak, S., Bilge, A. H., & Ulker, D. (2021a). Computation of monthly runoff coefficients for Istanbul. Thermal Science, 25(2 Part B), 1561–1571. https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI191102147B
  • Burak, S., Bilge, A. H., & Ülker, D. (2021b). Assessment and simulation of water transfer for the megacity Istanbul. Physical Geography, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2021.1904698
  • Control of Pollution by Dangerous Substances in Water and its Environment. (2005). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=9638&MevzuatTur=7&MevzuatTertip=5
  • Cross, K., & Latorre, C. (2015). Which water for which use? Exploring water quality instruments in the context of a changing climate. Aquatic Procedia, 5, 104–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2015.10.012
  • Çiçekalan, B., & Öztürk, İ. (2018). III. Marmara Sea Symposium Book of Proceedings: Pressures on the Marmara Sea resulting from hydraulic and organic loads from Danube River. (A. C. Kahraman & M. Özkul). Marmara Municipalities Union Cultural Publications. (pp. 72–91). https://marmara.gov.tr/UserFiles/Attachments/2018/05/17/9a366d19-35c6-4d4d-8194- 7fac90a73c18.pdf#page=133
  • Doğan, E., & Burak, S. (2007). Ship-originated pollution in the Istanbul strait (Bosphorus) and Marmara Sea. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(2) 388–394. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4494207
  • Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of 23rd October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy (Water Framework Directive), Publ. L. No.327 (2000). https://eurlex. europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:5c835afb-2ec6-4577-bdf8- 756d3d694eeb.0004.02/DOC_1&format=PDF
  • Directive 2006/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 February 2006 concerning the management of bathing water quality and repealing Directive 76/160/EEC (Bathing Water Directive), Publ. L. No.64 (2006). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/ EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32006L0007
  • Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive), Publ. L. No.164 (2008). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/ EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008L0056&from=EN
  • Eker O. E., Çağlayan S. H., Bektaş, Ş., Öksüz, S., Korkmaz, F., Kaleli, N., Kantarlı S., Olgun S., Tanas, R. A., & Satılmış, M. M. (2016, December 21-23). Integrated Marine Pollution Monitoring. In the project on integrated morine pollution monitoring: 2014-2016 [Panel presentation] I. Ulusal Denizlerde İzleme ve Değerlendirme Sempozyumu, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Kunt, M., Gürbüzler, D., Erkal, İ. F., Hacıhasanoğlu, S., & Özer, E. (Eds.). (2016). State of the environment report for Republic of Turkey. Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. https://webdosya.csb.gov.tr/db/ced/editordosya/tcdr_ing_2015.pdf
  • Law on Metropolitan Municipalities, Publ. L. No. 5216 (2004). http://www.lawsturkey.com/law/law-on-metropolitan-municipalities-5216
  • Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry. (2021, June 1). River Basin Management Plans. https://www.tarimorman.gov.tr/SYGM/Sayfalar/Detay.aspx?SayfaId=49
  • Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry. (2021). 1. Su Şurası sonuç bildirgesi. https://cdniys.tarimorman.gov.tr/api/File/GetFile/467/Sayfa/1497/1861/DosyaGaleri/i._su_su rasi_sonuc_bildirgesi.pdf.
  • Ministry of Environment & Urbanization. (2017). Wastewater Treatment Action Plan (2017–2023). Ankara. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/tur181401.pdf
  • Ministry of Environment & Urbanization. (2019). 2020-2023 National Smart Cities Strategy and Action Plan. Ankara. https://www.akillisehirler.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/EylemPlani.pdf
  • Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. (2013). Strategy of National Watershed Management Report 2012. Ankara.
  • Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. (2017). Su Kalitesi Yönetimi Çalışma Grubu Çalışma Belgesi (Water Quality Working Group Report) 2. Ormancilik ve Su Surasi. T.C. Orman ve Su Isleri Bakanligi (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Resources, General Directorate for Water Management). Ankara.
  • Ministry of Health. (2021). Bathing Water Quality Tracking System. https://yuzme.saglik.gov.tr
  • Nas, B. (2017). Determination of Current Status of Domestic / Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants Across the Country Revision Needs Determination Project 2016-2017. Republic of Turkey The Ministry of Environment & Urbanization, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Priority Actions Programme/Regional Activity Centre. (2005). Coastal area management in Turkey. https://www.medcoast.net/uploads/documents/Coastal_Area_Management_in_Turkey.pdf
  • Regulation on Monitoring, Implementation and Preperation of Flood Management Plans. (2016). https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/05/20160512-6.htm
  • Regulation on Preparation, Implementation and Monitoring of the River Basin Management Plans. (2012). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=16695&MevzuatTur=7&MevzuatTertip= 5
  • Regulation on Protection of Groundwater Against Pollution and Deterioration. (2012). https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2012/04/20120407-10.htm
  • Regulation on Protection of Waters from Agricultural Nitrate Pollution. (2016). https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/07/20160723-2.htm
  • Regulation on Surface Water Quality Management. (2012). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=16806&MevzuatTur=7&MevzuatTertip= 5
  • Regulation on the Management of the Quality of Bathing Water. (2019). https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2019/09/20190925-2.htm
  • Regulation on Water Pollution Control. (2004). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=7221&MevzuatTur=7&MevzuatTertip=5
  • Savun-Hekimoğlu, B., Erbay, B., Hekimoğlu, M., & Burak, S. (2021). Evaluation of water supply alternatives for Istanbul using forecasting and multi-criteria decision making methods. Journal of Cleaner Production, 287, 125080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125080
  • Selek, Z. & Karaaslan, Y. (Eds.). (2019). Ecosystem-Based Water Quality Management. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.
  • The Environment Act, Publ. L. No. 2872 (1983). http://www.lawsturkey.com/law/environmentlaw- 2872
  • The Law on Groundwater, Publ. L. No.167. (1960). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.4.167.pdf
  • The Law on the Organization and Duties of the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, Publ. L. No.6200. (1953). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.3.6200.pdf
  • The Water Law, Publ. L. No. 831. (1926). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.3.831.pdf
  • The World Bank. (2016). Republic of Turkey : Sustainable Urban Water Supply and Sanitation. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/907151483607340902/pdf/P161143-01-04- 2017-1483543404823.pdf
  • Tramblay, Y., Koutroulis, A., Samaniego, L., Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Volaire, F., Boone, A., Boone, A., Le Page, M., Llasat, C. M., Albergel, C., Burak, S., Cailleret, M. Kalin, C. K., Davi, H. Dupuy, J., Greve, P., Grillakis, M., Hanich, L., Jarlan, L., Martin-StPaul, N., … Polcher, J. (2020). Challenges for drought assessment in the Mediterranean region under future climate scenarios. Earth-Science Reviews, 210, 103348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2020.103348
  • United Nations Environment Programme/Mediterranean Action Plan. (2012). State and pressure of the marine and coastal Mediterranean environment. http://www.umsl.edu/~robertsondb/248/State_of_the_Mediterranean_2012.pdf
  • Urban Wastewater Treatment Regulation. (2006). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/anasayfa/MevzuatFihristDetayIframe?MevzuatTur=7&Mevzua tNo=9844&MevzuatTertip=5
  • Uslu, O. (1985). Marine outfalls as a wastewater treatment and disposal alternative in developing countries. In C. Kriton (Ed.), Appropriate Waste Management for Developing Countries (pp. 459– 473). Springer.
  • Ülker, D., & Baltaoğlu, S. (2018). Ship born oil pollution ın Turkish Straits sea area and MARPOL 73/78. In S. Ünlü, B. Alpar, & B. Öztürk (Eds.), Oil spill along the Turkish Straits sea area; Accidents, environmental pollution, socio-economic ımpacts and protection (pp.363-370). Istanbul: TUDAV.
  • Ülker, D., Ergüven, O., & Gazioğlu, C. (2018). Socio-economic impacts in a changing climate: Case study Syria. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, 5(1), 84–93. https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.406273
  • Ülker, D., Bayırhan, İ., & Burak, S. (2020). Assessment and comparison of commonly used eutrophication ındexes. Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management, 4(1), 4–30. https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.583530
  • Wilk & Wittgren (Eds). (2009). Adapting Water Management Policy, to Climate Change. Swedish Water House Brief Nr. 7. SIWI, 2009. https://siwi.org/wpcontent/ uploads/2015/03/1250679072664policy_brief_water_and_climate-3.pdf
  • Zeki, S., Aslan, A., Burak, S., & Rose, J. B. (2021). Occurrence of a human-associated microbial source tracking marker and its relationship with faecal indicator bacteria in an urban estuary. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 72(2), 167–177. https://doi.org/10.1111/lam.13405

Türkiye'de Su Kalitesi Yönetiminin Yasal Çerçevesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 121 - 144, 13.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.946225

Öz

Türkiye’de özellikle 1970'lerden sonra, hızlı kentleşme ve endüstriyel faaliyetler, iç ve kıyı sularında ciddi sorunlara neden olmuştur. Atık su yönetimine yapılan altyapı yatırımları finansman ve yeterli arazi kullanım planlamasının olmaması nedeniyle programın gerisinde kalmıştır. Kurumsal ve yasal konularla ilgili kapsamlı reformlar, tanımlanan kirlilik azaltma stratejilerinin karşılanması amacıyla kademeli olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada, mevcut acil eylemler ve gelecekteki ihtiyaçlar, devam eden AB katılım süreci ile birlikte ulusal ve uluslararası anlaşmalar dikkate alınarak, Türkiye’nin su kalitesi yönetimi politikaları sunulmaktadır. İç ve kıyı sularının kalite değerlendirilmesi belirlenen yönetmeliklere ve standartlara göre yapılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Biswas, A. K., & Tortajada, C. (2011). Water quality management: An introductory framework. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 27(1), 5–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2010.547979
  • Blue Flag (2021). Blue Flag Turkey. http://www.mavibayrak.org.tr
  • Burak, S., Gönenç, I. E., & Erol, A. (1994). Institutional and legislative structure of water quality management in Turkey. Water Science and Technology, 30(5), 261.
  • Burak, S., Doǧan, E., & Gazioǧlu, C. (2004). Impact of urbanization and tourism on coastal environment. Ocean and Coastal Management, 47(9–10), 515–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2004.07.007
  • Burak, S. (2008). Overview of water management in Turkey: Issues, constraints, achievements, prospect. In Sustainable use and development of watersheds (pp. 151–171). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8558-1_10
  • Burak Selmin. (2009). Su Gündemi- Su Kaynakları, Yönetimi, Sınıraşan Sular. İstanbul: Beta.
  • Burak, S., & Demir, V. (2016). The Sea of Marmara marine biodiversity, fisheries, conservation and governance: Land-based pollution in the Sea of Marmara and assessment of pollution abatement strategies. (E. Özsoy, M. N. Çağatay, N. Balkıs, N. Balkıs, & B. Öztürk). TUDAV. (pp. 849-62). https://tudav.org/wpcontent/ uploads/2018/04/THE_SEA_OF_MARMARA_2016_low.pdf
  • Burak, S., & Margat, J. (2016). Water management in the Mediterranean region: Concepts and policies. Water Resources Management, 30(15), 5779–5797. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-016- 1389-4
  • Burak, S., & Ülker, D. (2018). Which Effluent Quality for Which Reuse in the Mediterranean Region ? (pp. 124–125). Istanbul, Turkey, October 24-26 2018: 4rd International Conference on Recycling and Reuse. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338687638_Which_Effluent_Quality_for_Which_ Reuse_in_the_Mediterranean_Region
  • Burak, S., & Mat, H. (2020). Water resources of Turkey: Urban and ındustrial water uses. (N. B. Harmancioglu & D. Altinbilek). Springer. (pp. 341–398). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030- 11729-0_11
  • Burak, S., Bilge, A. H., & Ulker, D. (2021a). Computation of monthly runoff coefficients for Istanbul. Thermal Science, 25(2 Part B), 1561–1571. https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI191102147B
  • Burak, S., Bilge, A. H., & Ülker, D. (2021b). Assessment and simulation of water transfer for the megacity Istanbul. Physical Geography, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2021.1904698
  • Control of Pollution by Dangerous Substances in Water and its Environment. (2005). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=9638&MevzuatTur=7&MevzuatTertip=5
  • Cross, K., & Latorre, C. (2015). Which water for which use? Exploring water quality instruments in the context of a changing climate. Aquatic Procedia, 5, 104–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2015.10.012
  • Çiçekalan, B., & Öztürk, İ. (2018). III. Marmara Sea Symposium Book of Proceedings: Pressures on the Marmara Sea resulting from hydraulic and organic loads from Danube River. (A. C. Kahraman & M. Özkul). Marmara Municipalities Union Cultural Publications. (pp. 72–91). https://marmara.gov.tr/UserFiles/Attachments/2018/05/17/9a366d19-35c6-4d4d-8194- 7fac90a73c18.pdf#page=133
  • Doğan, E., & Burak, S. (2007). Ship-originated pollution in the Istanbul strait (Bosphorus) and Marmara Sea. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(2) 388–394. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4494207
  • Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of 23rd October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy (Water Framework Directive), Publ. L. No.327 (2000). https://eurlex. europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:5c835afb-2ec6-4577-bdf8- 756d3d694eeb.0004.02/DOC_1&format=PDF
  • Directive 2006/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 February 2006 concerning the management of bathing water quality and repealing Directive 76/160/EEC (Bathing Water Directive), Publ. L. No.64 (2006). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/ EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32006L0007
  • Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive), Publ. L. No.164 (2008). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/ EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008L0056&from=EN
  • Eker O. E., Çağlayan S. H., Bektaş, Ş., Öksüz, S., Korkmaz, F., Kaleli, N., Kantarlı S., Olgun S., Tanas, R. A., & Satılmış, M. M. (2016, December 21-23). Integrated Marine Pollution Monitoring. In the project on integrated morine pollution monitoring: 2014-2016 [Panel presentation] I. Ulusal Denizlerde İzleme ve Değerlendirme Sempozyumu, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Kunt, M., Gürbüzler, D., Erkal, İ. F., Hacıhasanoğlu, S., & Özer, E. (Eds.). (2016). State of the environment report for Republic of Turkey. Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. https://webdosya.csb.gov.tr/db/ced/editordosya/tcdr_ing_2015.pdf
  • Law on Metropolitan Municipalities, Publ. L. No. 5216 (2004). http://www.lawsturkey.com/law/law-on-metropolitan-municipalities-5216
  • Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry. (2021, June 1). River Basin Management Plans. https://www.tarimorman.gov.tr/SYGM/Sayfalar/Detay.aspx?SayfaId=49
  • Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry. (2021). 1. Su Şurası sonuç bildirgesi. https://cdniys.tarimorman.gov.tr/api/File/GetFile/467/Sayfa/1497/1861/DosyaGaleri/i._su_su rasi_sonuc_bildirgesi.pdf.
  • Ministry of Environment & Urbanization. (2017). Wastewater Treatment Action Plan (2017–2023). Ankara. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/tur181401.pdf
  • Ministry of Environment & Urbanization. (2019). 2020-2023 National Smart Cities Strategy and Action Plan. Ankara. https://www.akillisehirler.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/EylemPlani.pdf
  • Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. (2013). Strategy of National Watershed Management Report 2012. Ankara.
  • Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. (2017). Su Kalitesi Yönetimi Çalışma Grubu Çalışma Belgesi (Water Quality Working Group Report) 2. Ormancilik ve Su Surasi. T.C. Orman ve Su Isleri Bakanligi (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Resources, General Directorate for Water Management). Ankara.
  • Ministry of Health. (2021). Bathing Water Quality Tracking System. https://yuzme.saglik.gov.tr
  • Nas, B. (2017). Determination of Current Status of Domestic / Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants Across the Country Revision Needs Determination Project 2016-2017. Republic of Turkey The Ministry of Environment & Urbanization, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Priority Actions Programme/Regional Activity Centre. (2005). Coastal area management in Turkey. https://www.medcoast.net/uploads/documents/Coastal_Area_Management_in_Turkey.pdf
  • Regulation on Monitoring, Implementation and Preperation of Flood Management Plans. (2016). https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/05/20160512-6.htm
  • Regulation on Preparation, Implementation and Monitoring of the River Basin Management Plans. (2012). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=16695&MevzuatTur=7&MevzuatTertip= 5
  • Regulation on Protection of Groundwater Against Pollution and Deterioration. (2012). https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2012/04/20120407-10.htm
  • Regulation on Protection of Waters from Agricultural Nitrate Pollution. (2016). https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2016/07/20160723-2.htm
  • Regulation on Surface Water Quality Management. (2012). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=16806&MevzuatTur=7&MevzuatTertip= 5
  • Regulation on the Management of the Quality of Bathing Water. (2019). https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2019/09/20190925-2.htm
  • Regulation on Water Pollution Control. (2004). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=7221&MevzuatTur=7&MevzuatTertip=5
  • Savun-Hekimoğlu, B., Erbay, B., Hekimoğlu, M., & Burak, S. (2021). Evaluation of water supply alternatives for Istanbul using forecasting and multi-criteria decision making methods. Journal of Cleaner Production, 287, 125080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125080
  • Selek, Z. & Karaaslan, Y. (Eds.). (2019). Ecosystem-Based Water Quality Management. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.
  • The Environment Act, Publ. L. No. 2872 (1983). http://www.lawsturkey.com/law/environmentlaw- 2872
  • The Law on Groundwater, Publ. L. No.167. (1960). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.4.167.pdf
  • The Law on the Organization and Duties of the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, Publ. L. No.6200. (1953). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.3.6200.pdf
  • The Water Law, Publ. L. No. 831. (1926). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.3.831.pdf
  • The World Bank. (2016). Republic of Turkey : Sustainable Urban Water Supply and Sanitation. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/907151483607340902/pdf/P161143-01-04- 2017-1483543404823.pdf
  • Tramblay, Y., Koutroulis, A., Samaniego, L., Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Volaire, F., Boone, A., Boone, A., Le Page, M., Llasat, C. M., Albergel, C., Burak, S., Cailleret, M. Kalin, C. K., Davi, H. Dupuy, J., Greve, P., Grillakis, M., Hanich, L., Jarlan, L., Martin-StPaul, N., … Polcher, J. (2020). Challenges for drought assessment in the Mediterranean region under future climate scenarios. Earth-Science Reviews, 210, 103348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2020.103348
  • United Nations Environment Programme/Mediterranean Action Plan. (2012). State and pressure of the marine and coastal Mediterranean environment. http://www.umsl.edu/~robertsondb/248/State_of_the_Mediterranean_2012.pdf
  • Urban Wastewater Treatment Regulation. (2006). https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/anasayfa/MevzuatFihristDetayIframe?MevzuatTur=7&Mevzua tNo=9844&MevzuatTertip=5
  • Uslu, O. (1985). Marine outfalls as a wastewater treatment and disposal alternative in developing countries. In C. Kriton (Ed.), Appropriate Waste Management for Developing Countries (pp. 459– 473). Springer.
  • Ülker, D., & Baltaoğlu, S. (2018). Ship born oil pollution ın Turkish Straits sea area and MARPOL 73/78. In S. Ünlü, B. Alpar, & B. Öztürk (Eds.), Oil spill along the Turkish Straits sea area; Accidents, environmental pollution, socio-economic ımpacts and protection (pp.363-370). Istanbul: TUDAV.
  • Ülker, D., Ergüven, O., & Gazioğlu, C. (2018). Socio-economic impacts in a changing climate: Case study Syria. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, 5(1), 84–93. https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.406273
  • Ülker, D., Bayırhan, İ., & Burak, S. (2020). Assessment and comparison of commonly used eutrophication ındexes. Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management, 4(1), 4–30. https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.583530
  • Wilk & Wittgren (Eds). (2009). Adapting Water Management Policy, to Climate Change. Swedish Water House Brief Nr. 7. SIWI, 2009. https://siwi.org/wpcontent/ uploads/2015/03/1250679072664policy_brief_water_and_climate-3.pdf
  • Zeki, S., Aslan, A., Burak, S., & Rose, J. B. (2021). Occurrence of a human-associated microbial source tracking marker and its relationship with faecal indicator bacteria in an urban estuary. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 72(2), 167–177. https://doi.org/10.1111/lam.13405

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Mühendislik, Ortak Disiplinler
Bölüm TÜRKİYE SU BİLİMLERİ VE YÖNETİMİ DERGİSİ
Yazarlar

Zinet Selmin BURAK
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DENİZ BİLİMLERİ VE İŞLETMECİLİĞİ ENSTİTÜSÜ, DENİZEL ÇEVRE ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0003-0780-0687
Türkiye


Sibel ZEKİ (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DENİZ BİLİMLERİ VE İŞLETMECİLİĞİ ENSTİTÜSÜ, DENİZEL ÇEVRE ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-9001-4996
Türkiye


Duygu ÜLKER
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DENİZ BİLİMLERİ VE İŞLETMECİLİĞİ ENSTİTÜSÜ, DENİZEL ÇEVRE ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-6279-7321
Türkiye


İrşad BAYIRHAN
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DENİZ BİLİMLERİ VE İŞLETMECİLİĞİ ENSTİTÜSÜ, DENİZEL ÇEVRE ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0001-9404-399X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 13 Ocak 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tjwsm946225, journal = {Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management}, issn = {2536-474X}, eissn = {2564-7334}, address = {Orman ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü Beştepe Mahallesi Alparslan Türkeş Caddesi No: 71 -Yenimahalle / ANKARA, PK: 06560}, publisher = {Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü}, year = {2022}, volume = {6}, pages = {121 - 144}, doi = {10.31807/tjwsm.946225}, title = {The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Burak, Zinet Selmin and Zeki, Sibel and Ülker, Duygu and Bayırhan, İrşad} }
APA Burak, Z. S. , Zeki, S. , Ülker, D. & Bayırhan, İ. (2022). The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey . Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management , 6 (1) , 121-144 . DOI: 10.31807/tjwsm.946225
MLA Burak, Z. S. , Zeki, S. , Ülker, D. , Bayırhan, İ. "The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey" . Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management 6 (2022 ): 121-144 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tjwsm/issue/67914/946225>
Chicago Burak, Z. S. , Zeki, S. , Ülker, D. , Bayırhan, İ. "The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey". Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management 6 (2022 ): 121-144
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey AU - Zinet Selmin Burak , Sibel Zeki , Duygu Ülker , İrşad Bayırhan Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.31807/tjwsm.946225 DO - 10.31807/tjwsm.946225 T2 - Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 121 EP - 144 VL - 6 IS - 1 SN - 2536-474X-2564-7334 M3 - doi: 10.31807/tjwsm.946225 UR - https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.946225 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Türkiye Su Bilimi ve Yönetimi Dergisi The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey %A Zinet Selmin Burak , Sibel Zeki , Duygu Ülker , İrşad Bayırhan %T The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey %D 2022 %J Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management %P 2536-474X-2564-7334 %V 6 %N 1 %R doi: 10.31807/tjwsm.946225 %U 10.31807/tjwsm.946225
ISNAD Burak, Zinet Selmin , Zeki, Sibel , Ülker, Duygu , Bayırhan, İrşad . "The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey". Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management 6 / 1 (Ocak 2022): 121-144 . https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.946225
AMA Burak Z. S. , Zeki S. , Ülker D. , Bayırhan İ. The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey. Turkish J. Water Sci. Manag.. 2022; 6(1): 121-144.
Vancouver Burak Z. S. , Zeki S. , Ülker D. , Bayırhan İ. The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management. 2022; 6(1): 121-144.
IEEE Z. S. Burak , S. Zeki , D. Ülker ve İ. Bayırhan , "The Legal Framework of Water Quality Management in Turkey", Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management, c. 6, sayı. 1, ss. 121-144, Oca. 2022, doi:10.31807/tjwsm.946225