Yıl 2020, Cilt 21 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 143 - 164 2020-01-01

Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes

Hatice Gökçe BİLGİÇ [1] , Hakan TUZUN [2]


This study aimed to examine the core issues and challenges with web-based distance education programs in Turkish higher education institutes. Formative research method, which is a qualitative research method in nature, was selected to analyze web-based distance education programs thoroughly. The study group comprised 4 higher education institutes, offering web-based distance education services, located in different provinces of different geographical regions in Turkey, and with varying experiences. The research used interview transcripts from semi-structured interviews, documents (weekly reports, meeting reports, presentations, organization chart, and implementation procedures) shared by the distance education centers, and information gathered from their web sites. Primary research data were compiled from interviews with representatives of the distance education centers managing and upholding distance education services while the documents acquired from these centers were used to verify the interview findings. The study resulted in 9 core issues related to (1) program launching process, (2) legislation, (3) program structure, (4) instructional design, (5) assessment and evaluation, (6) communication and interaction, (7) support, (8) technical issues, and (9) program evaluation.
distance education, post-secondary education, country-specific developments, pedagogical issues, architectures for educational technology system
  • Aldiab, A., Chowdhury, H., Kootsookos, A., Alam, F., & Allhibi, H. (2019). Utilization of learning management systems (LMSs) in higher education system: A case review for Saudi Arabia. Energy Procedia, 160, 731-737. Alsabawy, A. Y., Cater-Steel, A., & Soor, J. (2016). Determinants of perceived usefulness of e-learning systems. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 843-858. Aparicio, M., Bacao, F., & Oliveira, T. (2016). Cultural impacts on e-learning systems’ success. Internet and Higher Education, 31, 58-70. Asoodar, M., Vaezi, S., & Izanloo, B. (2016). Framework to improve e-learner satisfaction and further strengthen e-learning implementation. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 704-716. Aydin, C. H., & Tasci, D. (2005). Measuring readiness for e-learning: Reflections from an emerging country. Educational Technology & Society, 8(4), 244-257. Balci, B. (2010). E-ogrenme programi tasarim surecleri [Design processes of e-learning programs]. In G. Telli-Yamamoto, U. Demiray, & M. Kesim (Eds.), Turkiye’de e-ogrenme: Gelismeler ve uygulamalar [E-learning in Turkey: Developments and applications] (pp. 83-110). Ankara: Cem Web Ofset. 162 Bhuasiri, W., Xaymoungkhoun, O., Zo, H., Rho, J. J., & Ciganek, A. P. (2012). Critical success factors for e-learning in developing countries: A comparative analysis between ICT experts and faculty. Computers & Education, 58, 843-855. Bilke, T., Xia, J., Bailey, B. D., Rodchua, S., & Sinn, J. (2006). Quality model in web-based distance learning: A case study. Journal of Industrial Technology, 22(4). Boehler, T. (1999). A design plan for online distance learning program delivery. Doctoral Dissertation. Pepperdine. Bonk, C. (2001). Online teaching in an online world. Retrieved from http://www.publicationshare.com/ docs/faculty_survey_report.pdf. Boroits, S., & Poulymenakou, A. (2004). E-learning readiness components: Key issues to consider before adopting e-learning interventions. In J. Nall & R. Robson (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2004 (pp. 1622-1629). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Council of Higher Education [COHE] (2014). Procedures and principles regarding distance education in higher education institutions. Retrieved from https://www.yok.gov.tr/documents/10279/38502/ uzaktan_ogretim_esas_usul_25022014.pdf/78353e67-ac60-46d4-85b1-10a3f4cec880. Council of Higher Education [COHE], 2017. Higher education information management: Student statistics. Retrieved from https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr/. Cronje, J. C. (2001). Metaphors and models in internet-based learning. Computers and Education, 37(3-4), 241-256. Darab, B., & Montazer, G. A. (2011). An eclectic model for assessing e-learning readiness in the Iranian universities. Computers & Education, 56, 900-910. Doll, W. J., & Torkzadeh, G. (1988). The measurement of end-user computing satisfaction. MIS Quarterly, 259-274. Falowo, R. O. (2007). Factors impeding implementation of web-based distance learning. AACE Journal, 15(3), 315-338. Galusha, J. M. (1997). Barriers to learning in distance education. Interpersonel Computing and Technology: An Electronic Journal for the 21st Century, 5(3-4), 6-14. Girginer, N. (2002). Uzaktan egitime gecis icin kurumsal yapilanma [Institutional organization for transitioning to distance education]. Acik ve Uzaktan Egitim Sempozyumu [Open and Distance Education Symposium]. Anadolu Universitesi, Eskisehir, 23-25 Mayis. Glaser, B. G. (1992). Emergence vs. forcing: Basics of grounded theory analysis. Mill Walley, CA: The Sociology Press. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine. Guney, Z. (2010). E-ogrenme ve etkilesimli ortam tasarimi [E-learning and interactive media design]. In G. Telli-Yamamoto, U. Demiray, & M. Kesim (Eds.), Turkiye’de e-ogrenme: Gelismeler ve uygulamalar [E-learning in Turkey: Developments and applications] (pp. 51-82). Ankara: Cem Web Ofset. Hamidi, H., & Chavoshi, A. (2018). Analysis of the essential factors for the adoption of mobile learning in higher education: A case study of students of the University of Technology. Telematics and Informatics, 35(4), 1053-1070. Hassanzadeh, A., Kanaani, F., & Elahi, S. (2012). A model for measuring e-learning systems success in universities. Computers & Education, 39, 10959-10966. Hetty Rohayani, A.H., Kurniabudi, & Sharipuddin, (2015). A literature review: Readiness factors to measuring e-learning readiness in higher education. Procedia Computer Science, 59, 230-234. 163 Islam, A. K. M. N. (2013). Investigating e-learning system usage outcomes in the university context. Computers & Education, 69, 387-399. Islam, A. K. M. N. (2016). E-learning system use and its outcomes: Moderating role of perceived compatibility. Telematics and Informatics, 33, 48-55. Li, X. (2009). Review of distance education used in higher education in China. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 7(2). Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Markova, T., Glazkova, I., & Zaborova, E. (2017). Quality issues of online distance learning. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 685-691. National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], (2018). Number and percentage of students in degreegranting postsecondary institutions, by distance education Participation, location of student, level of enrollment, and control and level of institution: Fall 2015 and fall 2016. [Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d17/tables/dt17_311.15.asp?current=yes ]. Neroni, J., Meijs, C., Gijselaers, H.J.M., Kirschner, P.A., & Groot, R.H.M. (2019). Learning strategies and academic performance in distance education. Learning and Individual Differences, 73, 1-7. Newman, A. (2003). Measuring success in web-based distance learning. EDUCASE Center of Applied Research, 2003(4). Ozaygen, A. (2000). Internet’e dayali uzaktan egitim [Internet based distance education]. Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi, 388. Pardue, S. L. (2001). Education and production. The virtual revolution: Implication for academe. Poultry Science, 80(5), 553-561. Passerini, K., & Granger, M. J. (2000). A Developmental model for distance learning using the Internet. Computers & Education, 34(1), 1-15. Pearson (2017). Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education Enrollment Report 2017. [Retrieved from: https://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/digtiallearningcompassenrollment2017info.pdf ]. Pina, A. A. (2008). How institutionalized is distance learning? A study of institutional role, locale and academic level. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 11(1). Reigeluth, C. M., & Frick, T. W. (1999). Formative research. A methodology for creating and improving design theories. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional design theories and models (pp. 633-651). Manwah, NJ: Lawrence-Erlbaum Associates. Rizvi, S., Rienties, B., & Khoja, S. A. (2019). The role of demographics in online learning: A decision tree based approach. Computers & Education, 137, 32-47. Sae-Khow, J. (2014). Developing of Indicators of an E-Learning Benchmarking Model for Higher Education Institutions. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 13(2), 35-43. Selim, H. M. (2007). Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance: Confirmatory factor models. Computers & Education, 49(2), 396-413. Simonson, M. (2007). Institutional policy issues for distance education. Retrieved from http://www. schoolofed.nova.edu/~simsmich/best_practices/Policy%20Issues%20in%20Distance%20 Education.pdf Soong, M. H., Chan, H., Chua, B., & Loh, K. (2001). Critical success factors for on-line course resources. Computers & Education, 36(2), 101-120. Stoffregen, J., Pawlowski, J. M., & Pirkkalainen, H. (2015). A barrier framework for open e-learning in public administrations. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 674-684. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. 164 Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Sun, P.C., Tsai, R. J., Finger, G., Chen, Y.Y., & Yeh, D. (2008). What drives a successful e-Learning? An empirical investigation of the critical factors influencing learner satisfaction. Computers & Education, 50(4), 1183-1202. The Institute for Higher Education Policy (2000). Quality on the line: Benchmarks for success in Internet-based distance education. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/HE/QualityOnTheLine.pdf Tirzui, A-M,. & Vrabie, C. (2014). Education 2.0: E-learning methods. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 376-380. Turkoglu, R. (2003). Development process of web-based education program. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 2(3), 116-126. Tuzun, H. (2001). Guidelines for converting existing courses into web-based format. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 360-370). Tuzun, H., Bilgic, H.B., Kalayci, E., Cinar, M., Akinci, A., Yildirim, D., & Yuksel, Y. (2011). Yerlesik bir dersin web-tabanli uzaktan egitim icin yeniden tasarimi [Redesign of a residential course into web-based distance education form]. In B. B. Demirci, G. T. Yamamoto and U. Demiray (Eds). Turkiye’de e-ogrenme: Gelismeler ve uygulamalar II [E-learning in Turkey: Developments and applications] (pp. 175-199). Eskisehir, Turkiye: Anadolu Universitesi Yayinlari. Tuzun, H. & Cinar, M. (2016). Guidelines for transferring residential courses into web. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(4), 145-165. UNESCO (2002). Open and distance learning: Trends, policy and strategy considerations. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001284/128463e.pdf. UWB LT (2011). The Challenges of distance learning. Retrieved from: https://depts.washington.edu/etuwb/ ltblog/the-challenges-of-distance-learning/ Yazici, A., Altas, I, & Demiray, U. (2001). Distance education on the Net: A model for developing countries. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 2(2), 24-35. Wolverton, C. C. (2018). Utilizing synchronous discussions to create an engaged classroom in online executive education. The International Journal of Management Education, 16, 239-244.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Articles
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0002-3925-2497
Yazar: Hatice Gökçe BİLGİÇ (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Computer Education and Instructional Technology Department Ondokuz Mayis University Samsun, TURKEY
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-1153-5556
Yazar: Hakan TUZUN
Kurum: Computer Education and Instructional Technology Department Hacettepe University Ankara, TURKEY
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 1 Ocak 2020

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tojde690385, journal = {Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education}, issn = {1302-6488}, address = {}, publisher = {Anadolu Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {21}, pages = {143 - 164}, doi = {10.17718/tojde.690385}, title = {Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes}, key = {cite}, author = {BİLGİÇ, Hatice Gökçe and TUZUN, Hakan} }
APA BİLGİÇ, H , TUZUN, H . (2020). Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 21 (1) , 143-164 . DOI: 10.17718/tojde.690385
MLA BİLGİÇ, H , TUZUN, H . "Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes". Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 21 (2020 ): 143-164 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tojde/issue/52523/690385>
Chicago BİLGİÇ, H , TUZUN, H . "Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes". Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 21 (2020 ): 143-164
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes AU - Hatice Gökçe BİLGİÇ , Hakan TUZUN Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.17718/tojde.690385 DO - 10.17718/tojde.690385 T2 - Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 143 EP - 164 VL - 21 IS - 1 SN - 1302-6488- M3 - doi: 10.17718/tojde.690385 UR - https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.690385 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes %A Hatice Gökçe BİLGİÇ , Hakan TUZUN %T Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes %D 2020 %J Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education %P 1302-6488- %V 21 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17718/tojde.690385 %U 10.17718/tojde.690385
ISNAD BİLGİÇ, Hatice Gökçe , TUZUN, Hakan . "Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes". Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 21 / 1 (Ocak 2020): 143-164 . https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.690385
AMA BİLGİÇ H , TUZUN H . Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education. 2020; 21(1): 143-164.
Vancouver BİLGİÇ H , TUZUN H . Issues and Challenges with Web-Based Distance Education Programs in Turkish Higher Education Institutes. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education. 2020; 21(1): 164-143.