Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit

Yıl 1998, Cilt 62, Sayı 234, 337 - 390, 20.08.1998

Öz

Seit der letzten Eiszeit gründeten die Menschen ihre Siedlungen in den Gebieten, in denen günstige klimatische und ökologische Bedingungen herrschten. Die archäologische Auswertung der menschlichen Hinterlassenschaften aus diesen Epochen läßt die Entwicklungen und Änderungen ihres Lebensweisen erkennen. Die Oberflächenfunde, hauptsächlich Keramik, die Lage der Siedlungen im Gelände tmd zueinander und - soweit an der Oberfläche erkennbar - Größe und Form der Orte, erlauben Schlüsse auf Wirtschafts-und Lebensweisen der früheren Einwohner. Die Kenntnis der damaligen Umweltbedingungen, der politischen Praktiken, der historischen Ereignisse und des technologischen Stands tragen ebenfalls dazu bei, Licht in eine noch schwach erforschte Region zu bringen. In dieser Arbeit wird das obere Kızılırmak-Gebiet behandelt, das zwischen dem zentralanatolischen Plateau und dem ostanatolischen Bergland liegt. Im Norden begrenzen die ostpontische Gebirge das Gebiet und im Süden Plateaus und die westlichen Ausläufer der osttaurische Gebirge.

Kaynakça

  • Akurgal, E. 1955 Phrygische Kunst, Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Alagöz, C. A. 1967 Sivas Çevresi ve Doğusunda Jips Karstı Olayları. Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Yayınları, No. 175, Ankara.
  • Barnett, R. D. 1975 The Sea Peoples, Cambridge Ancient History II/2: The Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1380-1000 BC, Cambridge, Ch. XXVIII, 359-378; Phrygia and the Peoples of Anatolia in the Iron Age, Ch. XXX, 417-442.
  • Bartl, K. 1994 Die Frühe Eisenzeit in Ostanatolien und ihre Verbindungen zu den benachbarten Regionen, Baghdader-Mitteilungen 25, 473-518.
  • Baykal, F. 1966 1:500.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası: Sivas / Explanatory Text of the Geological Map of Turkey: Sivas, Maden Tetkik Arama Enstitüsü Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Beckman, G. 1996 Hittite Diplomatic Texts. Society of Biblical Literature, Writings from the Ancient World, Vol. 7, Atlanta.
  • Belli, O. 1994 Van Bölgesinde Bulunan Yeni Urartu Barajları, III. Anadolu Demirçağları Sempozyumu Bildirileri, Van 1990 / The Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium Held at Van, 1990 (Ed.: A. Çilingiroğlu, D. French), British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph No. 16, Ankara, 9-30.
  • 1995 Neue Funde urartäischer Bewässerungsanlagen in Ostanatolien, Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens, Festschrift für Reiner Michael Boehmer (Hrsg. u. Finkbeiner, R. Dittmann, H. Hauptmann), Mainz, 19-48.
  • Bilgi, Ö. 1993 Some Unstratified Metal Weapons from the East Anatolian Museums, Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains. Archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica. Alba Palmieri Dedicata, (Ed.: M. Frangipane et al.), Roma, 601-604.
  • Bittel, K. 1934 Neue Funde vorklassischer Zeit aus Kleinasien, Archäologischer Anzeiger 49, 349-364.
  • 1964 Einige Kapitel zur Hethitischen Archäologie, Historia, Einzelschriften, Heft 7: Neuere Hethiterforschung, (Ed.: G. Walser), Wiesbaden, 119-144.
  • 1975 Altkleinasiatische Pferdetrensen, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 25, 301- 311.
  • 1976 a Beitrag zur Kenntnis Hethitischer Bildkunst, Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, 4. Abhandlung, Heidelberg.
  • 1976 b Die Hethiter, Die Kunst Anatoliens vom Ende des 3. bis zum Anfang des 1. Jts. v.Chr., München.
  • Boessneck, J. und A. van den Driesch 1975 Tierknochenfunde von Korucutepe bei Elazığ - Ostanatolien, Korucutepe, Vol.1, Final Report on the Excavations 1968-70. (Ed.: M. Van Loon), Amsterdam, California, 1-220.
  • Bottema, s., H. Woldring und B. Aytuğ 1995 Late Quarternary Vegetation History of Northern Turkey, Palaeohistoria. Acta et Communicationes Instituti Bio-Archaeologici 35/36 (1993/1994), Rotterdam/Brookfield, 13-72.
  • Bökönyi, S. 1982 The Climatic Interpretation of Macrofaunal Assemblages in the Near East, Palaeoclimates, Palaeoenvironments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory (Ed.: J. L. Bintliff und W. van Zeist), British Archaeological Report, International Series 133, Oxford, 149-160.
  • Brentjes, B. 1982 Holozän-Geologie und Archäologie. Gedanken und Fragen zur Korrelation der Resultate zweier Wissenschaften, Palaeoclimates, Palaeoenvironments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory (Ed.:J. L. Bintliff und W. van Zeist), British Archaeological Report, International Series 133, Oxford, 453-484.
  • Bryce, T. R. 1986-87 The Boundaries of Hatti and Hittite Border Policy, Tel Aviv 13-14, 85-102.
  • Budanur, G. 1977 M.T.A. Enstitüsünce Bilinen Türkiye Yeraltı Kaynakları Envanteri. Maden Tetkik Arama Enstitüsü Yayınlarından, No. 168, Ankara.
  • Burney, C. 1958 Eastern Anatolia in the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age, Anatolian Studies 8, 157-209.
  • Butzer, K. W. 1972 Environment and Archaeology. An Ecological Approach to Prehistory, London.
  • Christaller, R. 1933 Diezentralen Orte in Süddeutschland, Jena. (Übersetzung: C. W. Baskin, Central Places in Southern Germany, New Jersey 1966.)
  • Christiansen-Weniger, F. 1970 Ackerbauformen im Mittelmeerraum und Nahen Osten, dargestellt am Beispiel der Türkei, Frankfurt.
  • Cihnioglu, M., O. İşbaşarır, Ü. Ceyhan und O. Adıgüzel 1994 Türkiye Demir Envanteri, Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Conti, A. M. und C. Persiani 1993 When Worlds Collide. Cultural Developments in Eastern Anatolia in the Early Bronze Age, Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains. Archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica. Alba Palmieri Dedicata (Ed.: M. Frangipane et al.), Roma, 362-413.
  • Cornelius, F. 1973 Geschichte der Hethiter, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der geographischen Verhältnisse und der Rechtsgeschichte, Darmstadt.
  • Cribb, R. 1991 Nomads in Archaeology. New Studies in Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Crossland, R. A. 1971 Immigrants from the North, Cambridge Ancient History I/2A: Early History of the Middle East, Cambridge, Ch. XXVII, 824-876.
  • Çilingiroğlu, A. 1990 Gaziantep Müzesindeki 'Van-Urmiye Boyalıları', Arkeoloji-Sanat Tarihi Dergisi 5, Ege Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, İzmir, 25-44.
  • Darga, A. M. 1985 Hitit Mimarlığı I: Yapı Sanatı. Arkeolojik ve Filolojik Veriler, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayını, No. 3221, İstanbul.
  • De Vries, K. 1990 The Gordion Excavation Seasons of 1969-1973 and Subsequent Research, American Journal of Archaeology 94, 371-406.
  • Durbin, G. E. S. 1971 Iron Age Pottery from the Provinces of Tokat and Sivas, Anatolian Studies 21, 99-124.
  • Duru, R. 1979 Keban Projesi Değirmentepe Kazısı 1973, ODTÜ Keban Projesi Yayınları / Keban Project Değirmentepe Excavations 1973. Middle East Technical University, Keban Project Publications, Series III, No. 2, Ankara.
  • Emre, K. 1993 The Hittite Dam of Karakuyu, Essays on Anatolian Archaeology (Ed.: T. Mikasa), Wiesbaden, 1-42.
  • Erinç, S. 1978 Changes in the Physical Environment in Turkey Since the End of the Last Glacial, The Environmental History of the Near East and Middle East Since the Last Ice Age (Ed.: W. Brice), London, 87-110.
  • Erseçen, N. 1989 Türkiye'nin Bilinen Maden ve Mineral Kaynakları, Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Yayın no. 185 / Known Ore and Mineral Resources of Turkey, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Publication No. 185, Ankara.
  • Flannery, K. V. 1972 The Origins of the Village as a Settlement Type in Mesoamerica and the Near East. A Comparative Study, Man, Settlement and Urbanism (Ed.: P.J. Ucko et al.), Proceedings of a Meeting of the Research Seminar in Archaeology and Related Subjects Held at the Institute of Archaeology, London, 24-53.
  • Friedrich, J. 1959 Hethitische Gesetze, Leiden.
  • Garstang, J. 1943 Hittite Military Roads in Asia Minor, American Journal of Archaeology 47, 35-62.
  • Garstang, J. und O. R. Gurney 1959 The Geography of the Hittite Empire, London.
  • Gökgöl, M. 1935 Türkiye Buğdayları / Die Türkischen Weizen, Tom I-II, İstanbul.
  • Götze, A. 1980 Anatolia From Shuppiluliumash to the Egyptian War of Muwattalish, Cambridge Ancient History II/2: The Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1800-1350 BC., Cambridge, Ch. XXI, 117-129.
  • Gurney, O. R. 1973 Anatolia c. 1750-1600 BC., Anatolia c. 1600-1380 BC, Cambridge Ancient History II/1: The Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1800-1380 BC, Cambridge, Ch. VI, 228-255, Ch. XV, 659-682.
  • Güterbock, H. G. 1956 The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as Told by His Son, Mursili II, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 10, 107-130.
  • Hauptmann, H. 1969/70 Norşun-Tepe, Historische Geographie und Ergebnisse der Grabungen 1968-1969, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 19/20, 21-78.
  • Hawkins, D. 1974 Assyrians and Hittites, Iraq 36, 67-83.
  • Heinz, M. 1995 Migration und Assimilation im 2. Jt. v. Chr. Die Kassiten, Zwischen Euphrat und Indus. Aktuelle Forschungsprobleme in der vorderasiatischen Archäologie (Ed.: K. Bartl, R. Bernbeck, M. Heinz), Hildesheim - Zürich - New York, 165174.
  • Henrickson, R. C. 1994 Continuity and Discontinuity in the Ceramic Tradition of Gordion During the Iron Age, III. Anadolu Demirçağları Sempozyumu Bildirileri, Van 1990 / The Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium Held at Van, 1990 (Ed.: A. Çilingiroğlu. D. French), British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph No. 16, Ankara, 95-129.
  • Hoffner, H. A. Jr. 1992 The Last Days of Khattusha, The Crisis Years: The 12th Century BC. From Beyond the Danube to the Tigris (Ed.: W. A. Ward, M. S. Joukowsky), Iowa. 46-52.
  • Hogarth, D. G. 1976 The Hittites of Syria, Cambridge Ancient History III: The Assyrian Empire, Cambridge, Ch. VI, 132-147.
  • Hopf, M. 1992 Plant Remains From Boğazköy, Turkey. Festschrift for Professor Van Zeist, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 73 (Ed.: J. P. Pals, J. Buurman und M. van der Veen), Amsterdam, 99-104.
  • De Jesus, P. S. 1978 Metal Resources in Ancient Anatolia, Anatolian Studies 28, 97-102. 1980 The Development of Prehistoric Mining and Metallurgy in Anatolia. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 74, Oxford.
  • Kaptan, E. 1990 Türkiye Madencilik Tarihine Ait Koyulhisar-Kurşunlu Köyü Yöresindeki Buluntular, VI. Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1990, 41-50.
  • 1995 Anadolu'da Eski Madencilik, Eski Yakındoğu Kültürleri Üzerine İncelemeler. İ. Metin Akyurt ve Bahattin Devam Anı Kitabı / Studien über alte vorderasiatische Kulturen in Memoriam İ. Metin Akyurt und Bahattin Devam (Ed.: A. Erkanal et al.), İstanbul, 189-196.
  • Kayan, İ. 1991 Holocene Geomorphic Evolution of the Beşik Plain and Changing Environment of Ancient Man, Studia Troica 1, 79-92.
  • Kisch, E. und P. Larsen 1995 Das Verhältnis zwischen Seßhaften und Nichtseßhaften in Mesopotamien am Ende des 3. und zu Beginn des 2. Jt. v. Chr., Zwischen Euphrat und Indus. Aktuelle Forschungsprobleme in der vorderasiatischen Archäologie (Ed.: K. Bartl, R. Bernbeck und M. Heinz), Hildesheim - Zürich - New York, 148-164.
  • Kleiss, W. und H. Hauptmann 1976 Topographische Karte von Urartu. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, Ergänzungsband 3, Berlin.
  • Klengel, H., et al. 1989 Kulturgeschichte des alten Vorderasien, Veröffentlichungen des Zentralinstituts für alte Geschichte und Archäologie der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Band 18, Berlin.
  • Kokten, İ. K. 1944 Orta, Doğu ve Kuzey Anadolu'da Yapılan Tarih Öncesi Araştırmalar, Belleten VIII/32, 659-680.
  • 1944-45 Kuzey-Doğu Anadolu Prehistoryasında Bayburt Çevresinin Yeri, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi III, 465-486.
  • 1947 1945 Yılında Türk Tarih Kurumu Adına Yapılan Tarihöncesi Araştırmalar, Belleten XI, 431-472.
  • 1948 1947 Yılı Tarihöncesi Araştırmaları, Belleten XII, 233-327.
  • 1953 1952 Yılında Yaptığım Tarihöncesi Araştırmalar Hakkında, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi XI, 177-209.
  • Kramer, C. 1982 Village Ethnoarchaeology. Rural Iran in Archaeological Perspective. Studies in Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University Evanston/Illinois - New York - London.
  • Kuhrt, A. 1995 The Ancient Near East c. 3000-330 BC. Vol. I. Routhedge History of Ancient World, London - New York.
  • Kunç, Ş. und Ş. Gül 1983 Türkiye'de Eski Maden Yatakları ve Doğal Bakırda Eser Element Analizleri, Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araştırma Kurumu Arkeometri Ünitesi Bilimsel Toplantı Bildirileri III, 85-102.
  • Kuniholm, P. I. 1990 The Archaeological Evidence and Non-Evidence for Climatic Change, The Earth's Climate and Variability of the Sun Over Recent Millennia (Eds. S. K. Runcorn, J.-C. Pecker), Phil. Trans. R. Soc., London, A: 645-655.
  • Kühne, C. 1971 Der Sausgamuwa-Vertrag. Studien zu den Boğazköy-Texten 16, Wiesbaden.
  • Larsen, M. T. 1976 The Old Assyrian City-State and its Colonies. Mesopotamia Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology 4, Copenhagen.
  • Lewy, H. 1971 Anatolia in the Old Assyrian Period, Cambridge Ancient History I/2A: Early History of the Middle East, Cambridge, Ch. XXIV(b), 707-728.
  • Liverani, M. 1987 The Collapse of the Near Eastern Regional System at the End of the Bronze Age: The Case of Syria, Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World (Ed. M. Rowlands, M. Larsen und K. Kristiansen), Cambridge, 66-73.
  • Lupton, A. 1996 Stability and Change. Socio-Political Development in North Mesopotamia and South-East Anatolia 4000-2700 BC. British Archaeological Report, International Series 627, Oxford.
  • Matthiae, P. 1962 Das hethitische Malatya, Ausgrabungen einer italienischen Mission, 1961/62, RAGGI, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte und Archäologie 4-2, 15-26.
  • Mellaart, J. 1958 The End of the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia and the Aegean, American Journal of Archaeology 62, 9-33.
  • 1966 The Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Ages in the Near East and Anatolia, Beirut.
  • 1971 Anatolia c. 2300-1750 BC., Cambridge Ancient History I/2A: Early History of the Middle East, Cambridge, Ch. XXIV(a), 681-703.
  • Meriggi, P. 1965 Quatro Viaggio Anatolico, Oriens Antiquus 4, 263-315.
  • Moret, A. und G. Davy 1970 From Tribe to Empire. Social Organization Among Primitives in the Ancient East, New York.
  • Mortensen, P. 1983 Patterns of Interaction Between Seasonal Settlements and Early Villages in Mesopotamia, The Hilly Flanks and Beyond. Essays on the Prehistory of Southwestern Asia Presented to Robert J. Braidwood (Ed.: T. C. Young et al.), Chicago/Illinois, 207-229.
  • Muhly, J. D., R. Maddin, T. Stech und E. Özgen 1988 Iron in Anatolia and the Nature of the Hittit Iron Industry, Anatolian Studies 35, 67-84.
  • Müller-Karpe, A. 1988 Hethitische Töpferei der Oberstadt von Hattusa. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis spät-großreichszeitlicher Keramik und Töpferbetriebe. Marburger Studien zur Vor-und Frühgeschichte, 10, Marburg.
  • 1993 Yeni Bir Hitit Merkezi: Kuşaklı (Başören/Sivas) 1992 Yılı Yüzey Araştırması, XI. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1993, 259-264.
  • 1995 Untersuchungen in Kuşaklı, Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient- Gesellschaft 127, 5-36.
  • 1996 Kuşaklı: Ausgrabungen in einer hethitischen Stadt, Antike Welt 4, 305-312.
  • Müller-Karpe, H. 1980 Handbuch der Vorgeschichte IV: Bronzezeit, München.
  • Naumann, R. 1975 Eski Anadolu Mimarlığı (Çev. B. Madra), Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları IV. Dizi, sa. 9, Ankara.
  • Nesbitt, M. ve D. Samuel 1996 From Staple Crop to Extinction? The Archaeology and History of the Hulled Wheats, Hulled Wheats. Proceeding of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats. 21-22. July 1995 (Ed. S. Padulosi, K. Hammer ve J. Heller), Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops, 4, Rome, 41-100.
  • Nesbitt, M. und G. D. Summers 1988 Some Recent Discoveries of Millet (Panicum Miliaceum L. and Setaria Halica (L.) P. Beauv.) at Excavations in Turkey and Iran, Anatolian Studies 38, 85-97.
  • Nesbitt, M. 1993 Ancient Crop Husbandry at Kaman-Kalehöyük: 1991 Archaeobotanical Report, Essays on Anatolian Archaeology, Bulletin of the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan, VII (Ed.: T. Mikasa), Wiesbaden, 75-97.
  • 1995 Plants and People in Ancient Anatolia, Biblical Archaeologist 58/2, Anatolian Archaeology: Perspectives on the Ancient World From Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean. A Tribute to Peter Neve (Ed.: D. C. Hopkins), Publication of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 68-81.
  • Neumann, J. und S. Parpola 1987 Glimatic Change and die Eleventh-Tenth-Century Eclipse of Assyria and Babylonia, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46,161-182.
  • Neve, P. 1993 Die Ausgrabungen in Bogazkoy-Hattusa 1992, Archäologischer Anzeiger 1993, 621-652.
  • Oğuz, E. 1979 Dördüncü Çağ (Kuvaterner) Jeoloji ve Jeomorfolojisinin Ana Çizgileri. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Yayınları No. 289, Ankara.
  • Omura, S. 1995 1993 Yılı Kaman-Kalehoyük Kazıları, XVI. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı I,1994, 313-330.
  • Orthmann, W. 1963 Die Keramik der Frühen Bronzezeit aus Inneranatolien, Istanbuler Forschungen 24, Berlin.
  • Osten, H. H. von der 1929 Explorations in Hittite Asia Minor, 1927-1928, Oriental Institute Communications 6, Chicago.
  • 1930 Explorations in Hittite Asia Minor, 1929, Oriental Institute Communications 8, Chicago.
  • 1933 Discoveries in Anatolia 1930-1931, Oriental Institute Communications 14, Cilicago.
  • Ökse, A. T. 1993 a Sivas İlinde Höyük Tahribatı Üzerine Gözlemler, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 59, 28-32.
  • 1993 b Sivas İli 1992 Yüzey Araştırması, XI. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1993, 243-258.
  • 1993 c Verbreitung der Frühtranskaukasischen Kultur in der Sivas-Region, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 43, 133-146.
  • 1993 d Sivas'da Arkeolojik Araştırmaların Tarihçesi, Revak 1993, Sivas Vakıflar Bölge Müdürlüğünün XI. Vakıf Haftasına Armağanı, 21-35.
  • 1994 a Sivas İli 1993 Yüzey Araştırması, XII. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1994, 317-329.
  • 1994 b Sivas'da Bulunan İskit Tipi Okuçları / Bronzene Pfeilspitzen Skythischen Typus aus Sivas, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 64/65, 24-32.
  • 1995 a Sivas İli 1994 Yüzey Araştırması, XIII. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1995, 205-228.
  • 1995 b Yıldızeli-Uyuzsuyu Kalesi Buluntuları (Zusammenfassung: Funde aus Uyuzsuyu Kalesi - Yıldızeli), Eski Yakındoğu Kültürleri Üzerine İncelemeler. İ. Metin Akyurt ve Bahattin Devam Anı Kitabı/Studien über alte vorderasiatische Kulturen In Memoriam İ. Metin Akyurt und Bahattin Devam (Ed.: A. Erkanal et al.), Istanbul, 245-258.
  • 1996 Sivas İli 1995 Yüzey Araştırması, XIV. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı II, Ankara 1996, 375-400.
  • Ökse, A. T. und N. Toy 1993 Sivas Müzesinde Bulunan Tunç Baltalar (Summary: Bronze Axes in Museum of Sivas), Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 30, 135-147.
  • Ökse, A. T., İ. M. Akyurt und M. Törnük 1993 Sivas Yöresinde Bulunan Bir Altın Yüzük-Mühür (Summary: A Golden Seal-Ring From Sivas-Region), Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 30, 217-225.
  • Öktü, A. 1973 Intermediate-Keramik In Kleinasien, München.
  • Özdoğan, M. 1977 Lower Euphrates Basin 1977 Survey. Middle East Technical University, Lower Euphrates Project Publications, Series I, No. 2, Istanbul.
  • 1992 Tarihöncesi Dönemde İstanbul, İstanbul Yazıları. Semavi Eyice Armağanı, Türkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu Yayını, İstanbul, 39-54.
  • Özgen, S., Ö. Turgay und L. Tümer 1980 Türkiye Maden Envanteri (İllere Göre), Maden Tetkik Arama Enstitüsü Yayınlarından No. 179, Ankara.
  • Özgüç, N. 1949 Dövlek Köyünden (Şarkışla İlçesi) Getirilen Eti Heykelciği. Türk Tarih Arkeologya ve Etnografya Dergisi V, 46-51.
  • Ozgüç, T. 1946 Anadolu'da Arkeoloji Araştırmaları I, Belleten X/40, 557, 624.
  • 1947 a Sivas ve Maltepe Kazıları, Belleten XI/41,164-166.
  • 1947 b TTK adına yapılan Maltepe (Sivas Yakınında) Kazısı, Belleten XI/44, 641-655.
  • 1947 c Die Ausgrabungen von Topraktepe, der Burg von Sivas, Halil Edhem Hâtıra Kitabı, Ankara, 227-233.
  • 1971 Demir Devrine Kültepe ve Civarı / Kültepe and Its Vicinity in the Iron Age, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, V. Seri, No. 29, Ankara.
  • 1986 Kültepe-Kaniş II. Eski Yakındoğu'nun Ticaret Merkezinde Yeni Araştırmalar / New Researches at the Trading Center of the Ancient Near East, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, V. Dizi, Sayı 41, Ankara.
  • Özgüç, T. und N. Özgüç 1949 Türk Tarih Kurumu Tarafından Yapılan Karahoyük Hafriyatı Raporu, 1947 / Ausgrabungen in Konya Karahoyük. Bericht über die im Auftrage der türkischen Geschichtskommission in 1947 durchgeführten Ausgrabungen, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, V. Dizi, Sayı 7, Ankara.
  • Parzinger, H. 1993 Studien zur Chronologie und Kulturgeschichte der Jungstein-, Kupfer- und Frühbronzezeit zwischen Karpaten und Mittlerem Taurus, Mainz.
  • 1996 Bemalte Keramik aus Bogazkoy-Hattusa und die frühe Eisenzeit im westlichen Ostanatolien, Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens, Festschrift für Rainer Michael Boehmer (Ed. U. Finkbeiner et al.), Mainz, 527-536.
  • Pecorella, P. E. 1975 Malatya III: Rapporta Preliminare Delle Campagne 1963-1968, Roma.
  • Prayon, F. und A.-M. Wittke 1994 Kleinasien vom 12. bis 6. Jh. v. Chr. Kartierung und Erläuterung archäologischer Befunde und Denkmäler, Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des vorderen Orients B 82, Wiesbaden.
  • Postgate, J. N. 1992 Early Mesopotamia. Society and Economy at the Dawn of History, London-New York.
  • Roth, M. T. 1995 Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, Society of Biblical Literature, Writings from the Ancient World, Vol. 6, Atlanta.
  • Russell, H. F. 1980 Pre-Classical Pottery of Eastern Anatolia, Based on a Survey by Charles Burney, of Sites Along the Euphrates and Around Lake Van, British Archaeological Report, International Series 85, London.
  • Sagona, A. 1993 Settlement and Society in Late Prehistoric Trans-Caucasus, Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains. Archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica. Alba Palmieri Dedicata (Ed.: M. Frangipane et al.), Roma, 453-474.
  • Salvini, M. 1995 Geschichte und Kultur der Urartaer, Darmstadt.
  • Sandars, N. K. 1978 The Sea Peoples. Warriors of the Ancient Mediterranean 1250-1150 BC., London.
  • Seeher, J. 1995 Boğazköy-Hattuşa 1994 Yılı Kazı ve Onarım Çalışmaları, XVII: Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı I, Ankara 1995, 246-261.
  • 1996 Boğazköy-Hattuşa 1995 Yılı Kazı ve Onarım Çalışmaları, XVIII: Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı I, Ankara 1996, 323-338.
  • Sevin, V. 1988 Elazığ Yöresi Erken Demir Çağı ve Muşkiler Sorunu, Höyük 1, 51-64.
  • Siegelova, J. 1986 Hethitische Verwaltungspraxis im Lichte der Wirtschafts- und Inventardokumente, Praha.
  • Steiner, G. 1989 Kültepe-Kanis und der “Anitta-Text", Anatolia and the Ancient Near East. Studies in Honor of Tahsin Özgüç (Ed.: K. Emre et al.), Ankara, 471-480.
  • Sürenhagen, D. 1996 Politischer Niedergang und kulturelles Nachleben des hethitischen Großreiches im Lichte neuer Forschung, Vom Halys zum Euphrat. Thomas Beran zu Ehren, mit Beiträgen von Freunden und Schülern (Ed. U. Magen und M. Rashad), Altertumskunde des vorderen Orients, Band 7, Münster, 283-293.
  • Todorova, H. 1993 Die Protobronzezeit auf der Balkanhalbinsel, Anatolia and The Balkans. Symposium on Pre-Bronze Age Relations Held in Istanbul 1992, Anatolica XIX (Ed.: J. Roodenberg), 307-318.
  • Umurtak, G. 1996 Korucutepe II, 1973-1975 Dönemi Kazılarında Bulunmuş olan Hitit Çanak Çömleği, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları V. Dizi, Sa- 42a, Ankara.
  • Ünal, A. 1977 M.Ö. II. Binyıl Anadolu'sunda Doğal Âfetler / Naturkatastrophen in Anatolien im 2. Jt. v. Chr., Belleten XLI, Sayı 163, 423-472.
  • 1981-83 Orta ve Kuzey Anadolu'nun MÖ 2. Binyıl İskân Tarihiyle İlgili Sorunlar, Anadolu XXII, 17-37.
  • Vorys-Canby, J. 1969 Some Hittite Figurines in the Aegean, Hesperia 38, 141-149.
  • Whallon, R. 1979 An Archaeological Survey of the Keban Reservoir Area of East- Central Turkey. Memoires of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Nr. 11, Ann Arbor.
  • Wilhelm, G. 1995 Die Tontafelfunde der 2. Ausgrabungskampagne 1994 in Kuşaklı, Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 127, 37-42.
  • Winn, M. M. 1980 The Early Iron Age Pottery, Korucutepe III: Final Report on the Excavations of the Universities of Chicago, California (Los Angeles) and Amsterdam in the Keban Reservoir, Eastern Anatolia, 1968-1970, Amsterdam - New York - Oxford, 155-175.
  • Yakar, J. 1985 The Later Prehistory of Anatolia. The Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. British Archaeological Report, International Series 268, Oxford.
  • 1992 Beyond the Eastern Borders of the Hittite Empire: An Archaeological Assessment, Hittite and other Anatolian and Near Eastern Studies in Honour of Sedat Alp (Ed.: H. Otten et al.), Ankara, 507-520.
  • 1993 Anatolian Civilization Following the Disintegration of the Hittite Empire, An Archaeological Appraisal, Tel Aviv 20, 3-28.
  • Yakar, J. und A. Gürsan-Salzmann 1979 Archaeological Survey in the Malatya and Sivas Provinces - 1977, Tel Aviv 6, 34-53.
  • Yoffee, N. 1995 Collapse of Mesopotamian States and Civilization, The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations (Ed. N. Yoffee, G. L. Cowgill), Tucson, London, 44-68.
  • Zeist, W. van und S. Bottema 1982 Vegetational History of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East During the Last 20.000 Years, Palaeoclimates, Palaeoenvironments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory (Ed.: J. L. Bintliff und W. van Zeist), British Archaeological Report, International Series 133, Oxford, 277-323.

Yıl 1998, Cilt 62, Sayı 234, 337 - 390, 20.08.1998

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Akurgal, E. 1955 Phrygische Kunst, Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Alagöz, C. A. 1967 Sivas Çevresi ve Doğusunda Jips Karstı Olayları. Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Yayınları, No. 175, Ankara.
  • Barnett, R. D. 1975 The Sea Peoples, Cambridge Ancient History II/2: The Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1380-1000 BC, Cambridge, Ch. XXVIII, 359-378; Phrygia and the Peoples of Anatolia in the Iron Age, Ch. XXX, 417-442.
  • Bartl, K. 1994 Die Frühe Eisenzeit in Ostanatolien und ihre Verbindungen zu den benachbarten Regionen, Baghdader-Mitteilungen 25, 473-518.
  • Baykal, F. 1966 1:500.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası: Sivas / Explanatory Text of the Geological Map of Turkey: Sivas, Maden Tetkik Arama Enstitüsü Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Beckman, G. 1996 Hittite Diplomatic Texts. Society of Biblical Literature, Writings from the Ancient World, Vol. 7, Atlanta.
  • Belli, O. 1994 Van Bölgesinde Bulunan Yeni Urartu Barajları, III. Anadolu Demirçağları Sempozyumu Bildirileri, Van 1990 / The Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium Held at Van, 1990 (Ed.: A. Çilingiroğlu, D. French), British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph No. 16, Ankara, 9-30.
  • 1995 Neue Funde urartäischer Bewässerungsanlagen in Ostanatolien, Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens, Festschrift für Reiner Michael Boehmer (Hrsg. u. Finkbeiner, R. Dittmann, H. Hauptmann), Mainz, 19-48.
  • Bilgi, Ö. 1993 Some Unstratified Metal Weapons from the East Anatolian Museums, Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains. Archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica. Alba Palmieri Dedicata, (Ed.: M. Frangipane et al.), Roma, 601-604.
  • Bittel, K. 1934 Neue Funde vorklassischer Zeit aus Kleinasien, Archäologischer Anzeiger 49, 349-364.
  • 1964 Einige Kapitel zur Hethitischen Archäologie, Historia, Einzelschriften, Heft 7: Neuere Hethiterforschung, (Ed.: G. Walser), Wiesbaden, 119-144.
  • 1975 Altkleinasiatische Pferdetrensen, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 25, 301- 311.
  • 1976 a Beitrag zur Kenntnis Hethitischer Bildkunst, Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, 4. Abhandlung, Heidelberg.
  • 1976 b Die Hethiter, Die Kunst Anatoliens vom Ende des 3. bis zum Anfang des 1. Jts. v.Chr., München.
  • Boessneck, J. und A. van den Driesch 1975 Tierknochenfunde von Korucutepe bei Elazığ - Ostanatolien, Korucutepe, Vol.1, Final Report on the Excavations 1968-70. (Ed.: M. Van Loon), Amsterdam, California, 1-220.
  • Bottema, s., H. Woldring und B. Aytuğ 1995 Late Quarternary Vegetation History of Northern Turkey, Palaeohistoria. Acta et Communicationes Instituti Bio-Archaeologici 35/36 (1993/1994), Rotterdam/Brookfield, 13-72.
  • Bökönyi, S. 1982 The Climatic Interpretation of Macrofaunal Assemblages in the Near East, Palaeoclimates, Palaeoenvironments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory (Ed.: J. L. Bintliff und W. van Zeist), British Archaeological Report, International Series 133, Oxford, 149-160.
  • Brentjes, B. 1982 Holozän-Geologie und Archäologie. Gedanken und Fragen zur Korrelation der Resultate zweier Wissenschaften, Palaeoclimates, Palaeoenvironments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory (Ed.:J. L. Bintliff und W. van Zeist), British Archaeological Report, International Series 133, Oxford, 453-484.
  • Bryce, T. R. 1986-87 The Boundaries of Hatti and Hittite Border Policy, Tel Aviv 13-14, 85-102.
  • Budanur, G. 1977 M.T.A. Enstitüsünce Bilinen Türkiye Yeraltı Kaynakları Envanteri. Maden Tetkik Arama Enstitüsü Yayınlarından, No. 168, Ankara.
  • Burney, C. 1958 Eastern Anatolia in the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age, Anatolian Studies 8, 157-209.
  • Butzer, K. W. 1972 Environment and Archaeology. An Ecological Approach to Prehistory, London.
  • Christaller, R. 1933 Diezentralen Orte in Süddeutschland, Jena. (Übersetzung: C. W. Baskin, Central Places in Southern Germany, New Jersey 1966.)
  • Christiansen-Weniger, F. 1970 Ackerbauformen im Mittelmeerraum und Nahen Osten, dargestellt am Beispiel der Türkei, Frankfurt.
  • Cihnioglu, M., O. İşbaşarır, Ü. Ceyhan und O. Adıgüzel 1994 Türkiye Demir Envanteri, Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Conti, A. M. und C. Persiani 1993 When Worlds Collide. Cultural Developments in Eastern Anatolia in the Early Bronze Age, Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains. Archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica. Alba Palmieri Dedicata (Ed.: M. Frangipane et al.), Roma, 362-413.
  • Cornelius, F. 1973 Geschichte der Hethiter, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der geographischen Verhältnisse und der Rechtsgeschichte, Darmstadt.
  • Cribb, R. 1991 Nomads in Archaeology. New Studies in Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Crossland, R. A. 1971 Immigrants from the North, Cambridge Ancient History I/2A: Early History of the Middle East, Cambridge, Ch. XXVII, 824-876.
  • Çilingiroğlu, A. 1990 Gaziantep Müzesindeki 'Van-Urmiye Boyalıları', Arkeoloji-Sanat Tarihi Dergisi 5, Ege Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, İzmir, 25-44.
  • Darga, A. M. 1985 Hitit Mimarlığı I: Yapı Sanatı. Arkeolojik ve Filolojik Veriler, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayını, No. 3221, İstanbul.
  • De Vries, K. 1990 The Gordion Excavation Seasons of 1969-1973 and Subsequent Research, American Journal of Archaeology 94, 371-406.
  • Durbin, G. E. S. 1971 Iron Age Pottery from the Provinces of Tokat and Sivas, Anatolian Studies 21, 99-124.
  • Duru, R. 1979 Keban Projesi Değirmentepe Kazısı 1973, ODTÜ Keban Projesi Yayınları / Keban Project Değirmentepe Excavations 1973. Middle East Technical University, Keban Project Publications, Series III, No. 2, Ankara.
  • Emre, K. 1993 The Hittite Dam of Karakuyu, Essays on Anatolian Archaeology (Ed.: T. Mikasa), Wiesbaden, 1-42.
  • Erinç, S. 1978 Changes in the Physical Environment in Turkey Since the End of the Last Glacial, The Environmental History of the Near East and Middle East Since the Last Ice Age (Ed.: W. Brice), London, 87-110.
  • Erseçen, N. 1989 Türkiye'nin Bilinen Maden ve Mineral Kaynakları, Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Yayın no. 185 / Known Ore and Mineral Resources of Turkey, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Publication No. 185, Ankara.
  • Flannery, K. V. 1972 The Origins of the Village as a Settlement Type in Mesoamerica and the Near East. A Comparative Study, Man, Settlement and Urbanism (Ed.: P.J. Ucko et al.), Proceedings of a Meeting of the Research Seminar in Archaeology and Related Subjects Held at the Institute of Archaeology, London, 24-53.
  • Friedrich, J. 1959 Hethitische Gesetze, Leiden.
  • Garstang, J. 1943 Hittite Military Roads in Asia Minor, American Journal of Archaeology 47, 35-62.
  • Garstang, J. und O. R. Gurney 1959 The Geography of the Hittite Empire, London.
  • Gökgöl, M. 1935 Türkiye Buğdayları / Die Türkischen Weizen, Tom I-II, İstanbul.
  • Götze, A. 1980 Anatolia From Shuppiluliumash to the Egyptian War of Muwattalish, Cambridge Ancient History II/2: The Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1800-1350 BC., Cambridge, Ch. XXI, 117-129.
  • Gurney, O. R. 1973 Anatolia c. 1750-1600 BC., Anatolia c. 1600-1380 BC, Cambridge Ancient History II/1: The Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1800-1380 BC, Cambridge, Ch. VI, 228-255, Ch. XV, 659-682.
  • Güterbock, H. G. 1956 The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as Told by His Son, Mursili II, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 10, 107-130.
  • Hauptmann, H. 1969/70 Norşun-Tepe, Historische Geographie und Ergebnisse der Grabungen 1968-1969, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 19/20, 21-78.
  • Hawkins, D. 1974 Assyrians and Hittites, Iraq 36, 67-83.
  • Heinz, M. 1995 Migration und Assimilation im 2. Jt. v. Chr. Die Kassiten, Zwischen Euphrat und Indus. Aktuelle Forschungsprobleme in der vorderasiatischen Archäologie (Ed.: K. Bartl, R. Bernbeck, M. Heinz), Hildesheim - Zürich - New York, 165174.
  • Henrickson, R. C. 1994 Continuity and Discontinuity in the Ceramic Tradition of Gordion During the Iron Age, III. Anadolu Demirçağları Sempozyumu Bildirileri, Van 1990 / The Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium Held at Van, 1990 (Ed.: A. Çilingiroğlu. D. French), British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph No. 16, Ankara, 95-129.
  • Hoffner, H. A. Jr. 1992 The Last Days of Khattusha, The Crisis Years: The 12th Century BC. From Beyond the Danube to the Tigris (Ed.: W. A. Ward, M. S. Joukowsky), Iowa. 46-52.
  • Hogarth, D. G. 1976 The Hittites of Syria, Cambridge Ancient History III: The Assyrian Empire, Cambridge, Ch. VI, 132-147.
  • Hopf, M. 1992 Plant Remains From Boğazköy, Turkey. Festschrift for Professor Van Zeist, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 73 (Ed.: J. P. Pals, J. Buurman und M. van der Veen), Amsterdam, 99-104.
  • De Jesus, P. S. 1978 Metal Resources in Ancient Anatolia, Anatolian Studies 28, 97-102. 1980 The Development of Prehistoric Mining and Metallurgy in Anatolia. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 74, Oxford.
  • Kaptan, E. 1990 Türkiye Madencilik Tarihine Ait Koyulhisar-Kurşunlu Köyü Yöresindeki Buluntular, VI. Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1990, 41-50.
  • 1995 Anadolu'da Eski Madencilik, Eski Yakındoğu Kültürleri Üzerine İncelemeler. İ. Metin Akyurt ve Bahattin Devam Anı Kitabı / Studien über alte vorderasiatische Kulturen in Memoriam İ. Metin Akyurt und Bahattin Devam (Ed.: A. Erkanal et al.), İstanbul, 189-196.
  • Kayan, İ. 1991 Holocene Geomorphic Evolution of the Beşik Plain and Changing Environment of Ancient Man, Studia Troica 1, 79-92.
  • Kisch, E. und P. Larsen 1995 Das Verhältnis zwischen Seßhaften und Nichtseßhaften in Mesopotamien am Ende des 3. und zu Beginn des 2. Jt. v. Chr., Zwischen Euphrat und Indus. Aktuelle Forschungsprobleme in der vorderasiatischen Archäologie (Ed.: K. Bartl, R. Bernbeck und M. Heinz), Hildesheim - Zürich - New York, 148-164.
  • Kleiss, W. und H. Hauptmann 1976 Topographische Karte von Urartu. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, Ergänzungsband 3, Berlin.
  • Klengel, H., et al. 1989 Kulturgeschichte des alten Vorderasien, Veröffentlichungen des Zentralinstituts für alte Geschichte und Archäologie der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Band 18, Berlin.
  • Kokten, İ. K. 1944 Orta, Doğu ve Kuzey Anadolu'da Yapılan Tarih Öncesi Araştırmalar, Belleten VIII/32, 659-680.
  • 1944-45 Kuzey-Doğu Anadolu Prehistoryasında Bayburt Çevresinin Yeri, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi III, 465-486.
  • 1947 1945 Yılında Türk Tarih Kurumu Adına Yapılan Tarihöncesi Araştırmalar, Belleten XI, 431-472.
  • 1948 1947 Yılı Tarihöncesi Araştırmaları, Belleten XII, 233-327.
  • 1953 1952 Yılında Yaptığım Tarihöncesi Araştırmalar Hakkında, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi XI, 177-209.
  • Kramer, C. 1982 Village Ethnoarchaeology. Rural Iran in Archaeological Perspective. Studies in Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University Evanston/Illinois - New York - London.
  • Kuhrt, A. 1995 The Ancient Near East c. 3000-330 BC. Vol. I. Routhedge History of Ancient World, London - New York.
  • Kunç, Ş. und Ş. Gül 1983 Türkiye'de Eski Maden Yatakları ve Doğal Bakırda Eser Element Analizleri, Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araştırma Kurumu Arkeometri Ünitesi Bilimsel Toplantı Bildirileri III, 85-102.
  • Kuniholm, P. I. 1990 The Archaeological Evidence and Non-Evidence for Climatic Change, The Earth's Climate and Variability of the Sun Over Recent Millennia (Eds. S. K. Runcorn, J.-C. Pecker), Phil. Trans. R. Soc., London, A: 645-655.
  • Kühne, C. 1971 Der Sausgamuwa-Vertrag. Studien zu den Boğazköy-Texten 16, Wiesbaden.
  • Larsen, M. T. 1976 The Old Assyrian City-State and its Colonies. Mesopotamia Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology 4, Copenhagen.
  • Lewy, H. 1971 Anatolia in the Old Assyrian Period, Cambridge Ancient History I/2A: Early History of the Middle East, Cambridge, Ch. XXIV(b), 707-728.
  • Liverani, M. 1987 The Collapse of the Near Eastern Regional System at the End of the Bronze Age: The Case of Syria, Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World (Ed. M. Rowlands, M. Larsen und K. Kristiansen), Cambridge, 66-73.
  • Lupton, A. 1996 Stability and Change. Socio-Political Development in North Mesopotamia and South-East Anatolia 4000-2700 BC. British Archaeological Report, International Series 627, Oxford.
  • Matthiae, P. 1962 Das hethitische Malatya, Ausgrabungen einer italienischen Mission, 1961/62, RAGGI, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte und Archäologie 4-2, 15-26.
  • Mellaart, J. 1958 The End of the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia and the Aegean, American Journal of Archaeology 62, 9-33.
  • 1966 The Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Ages in the Near East and Anatolia, Beirut.
  • 1971 Anatolia c. 2300-1750 BC., Cambridge Ancient History I/2A: Early History of the Middle East, Cambridge, Ch. XXIV(a), 681-703.
  • Meriggi, P. 1965 Quatro Viaggio Anatolico, Oriens Antiquus 4, 263-315.
  • Moret, A. und G. Davy 1970 From Tribe to Empire. Social Organization Among Primitives in the Ancient East, New York.
  • Mortensen, P. 1983 Patterns of Interaction Between Seasonal Settlements and Early Villages in Mesopotamia, The Hilly Flanks and Beyond. Essays on the Prehistory of Southwestern Asia Presented to Robert J. Braidwood (Ed.: T. C. Young et al.), Chicago/Illinois, 207-229.
  • Muhly, J. D., R. Maddin, T. Stech und E. Özgen 1988 Iron in Anatolia and the Nature of the Hittit Iron Industry, Anatolian Studies 35, 67-84.
  • Müller-Karpe, A. 1988 Hethitische Töpferei der Oberstadt von Hattusa. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis spät-großreichszeitlicher Keramik und Töpferbetriebe. Marburger Studien zur Vor-und Frühgeschichte, 10, Marburg.
  • 1993 Yeni Bir Hitit Merkezi: Kuşaklı (Başören/Sivas) 1992 Yılı Yüzey Araştırması, XI. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1993, 259-264.
  • 1995 Untersuchungen in Kuşaklı, Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient- Gesellschaft 127, 5-36.
  • 1996 Kuşaklı: Ausgrabungen in einer hethitischen Stadt, Antike Welt 4, 305-312.
  • Müller-Karpe, H. 1980 Handbuch der Vorgeschichte IV: Bronzezeit, München.
  • Naumann, R. 1975 Eski Anadolu Mimarlığı (Çev. B. Madra), Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları IV. Dizi, sa. 9, Ankara.
  • Nesbitt, M. ve D. Samuel 1996 From Staple Crop to Extinction? The Archaeology and History of the Hulled Wheats, Hulled Wheats. Proceeding of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats. 21-22. July 1995 (Ed. S. Padulosi, K. Hammer ve J. Heller), Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops, 4, Rome, 41-100.
  • Nesbitt, M. und G. D. Summers 1988 Some Recent Discoveries of Millet (Panicum Miliaceum L. and Setaria Halica (L.) P. Beauv.) at Excavations in Turkey and Iran, Anatolian Studies 38, 85-97.
  • Nesbitt, M. 1993 Ancient Crop Husbandry at Kaman-Kalehöyük: 1991 Archaeobotanical Report, Essays on Anatolian Archaeology, Bulletin of the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan, VII (Ed.: T. Mikasa), Wiesbaden, 75-97.
  • 1995 Plants and People in Ancient Anatolia, Biblical Archaeologist 58/2, Anatolian Archaeology: Perspectives on the Ancient World From Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean. A Tribute to Peter Neve (Ed.: D. C. Hopkins), Publication of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 68-81.
  • Neumann, J. und S. Parpola 1987 Glimatic Change and die Eleventh-Tenth-Century Eclipse of Assyria and Babylonia, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46,161-182.
  • Neve, P. 1993 Die Ausgrabungen in Bogazkoy-Hattusa 1992, Archäologischer Anzeiger 1993, 621-652.
  • Oğuz, E. 1979 Dördüncü Çağ (Kuvaterner) Jeoloji ve Jeomorfolojisinin Ana Çizgileri. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Yayınları No. 289, Ankara.
  • Omura, S. 1995 1993 Yılı Kaman-Kalehoyük Kazıları, XVI. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı I,1994, 313-330.
  • Orthmann, W. 1963 Die Keramik der Frühen Bronzezeit aus Inneranatolien, Istanbuler Forschungen 24, Berlin.
  • Osten, H. H. von der 1929 Explorations in Hittite Asia Minor, 1927-1928, Oriental Institute Communications 6, Chicago.
  • 1930 Explorations in Hittite Asia Minor, 1929, Oriental Institute Communications 8, Chicago.
  • 1933 Discoveries in Anatolia 1930-1931, Oriental Institute Communications 14, Cilicago.
  • Ökse, A. T. 1993 a Sivas İlinde Höyük Tahribatı Üzerine Gözlemler, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 59, 28-32.
  • 1993 b Sivas İli 1992 Yüzey Araştırması, XI. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1993, 243-258.
  • 1993 c Verbreitung der Frühtranskaukasischen Kultur in der Sivas-Region, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 43, 133-146.
  • 1993 d Sivas'da Arkeolojik Araştırmaların Tarihçesi, Revak 1993, Sivas Vakıflar Bölge Müdürlüğünün XI. Vakıf Haftasına Armağanı, 21-35.
  • 1994 a Sivas İli 1993 Yüzey Araştırması, XII. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1994, 317-329.
  • 1994 b Sivas'da Bulunan İskit Tipi Okuçları / Bronzene Pfeilspitzen Skythischen Typus aus Sivas, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 64/65, 24-32.
  • 1995 a Sivas İli 1994 Yüzey Araştırması, XIII. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, Ankara 1995, 205-228.
  • 1995 b Yıldızeli-Uyuzsuyu Kalesi Buluntuları (Zusammenfassung: Funde aus Uyuzsuyu Kalesi - Yıldızeli), Eski Yakındoğu Kültürleri Üzerine İncelemeler. İ. Metin Akyurt ve Bahattin Devam Anı Kitabı/Studien über alte vorderasiatische Kulturen In Memoriam İ. Metin Akyurt und Bahattin Devam (Ed.: A. Erkanal et al.), Istanbul, 245-258.
  • 1996 Sivas İli 1995 Yüzey Araştırması, XIV. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı II, Ankara 1996, 375-400.
  • Ökse, A. T. und N. Toy 1993 Sivas Müzesinde Bulunan Tunç Baltalar (Summary: Bronze Axes in Museum of Sivas), Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 30, 135-147.
  • Ökse, A. T., İ. M. Akyurt und M. Törnük 1993 Sivas Yöresinde Bulunan Bir Altın Yüzük-Mühür (Summary: A Golden Seal-Ring From Sivas-Region), Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 30, 217-225.
  • Öktü, A. 1973 Intermediate-Keramik In Kleinasien, München.
  • Özdoğan, M. 1977 Lower Euphrates Basin 1977 Survey. Middle East Technical University, Lower Euphrates Project Publications, Series I, No. 2, Istanbul.
  • 1992 Tarihöncesi Dönemde İstanbul, İstanbul Yazıları. Semavi Eyice Armağanı, Türkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu Yayını, İstanbul, 39-54.
  • Özgen, S., Ö. Turgay und L. Tümer 1980 Türkiye Maden Envanteri (İllere Göre), Maden Tetkik Arama Enstitüsü Yayınlarından No. 179, Ankara.
  • Özgüç, N. 1949 Dövlek Köyünden (Şarkışla İlçesi) Getirilen Eti Heykelciği. Türk Tarih Arkeologya ve Etnografya Dergisi V, 46-51.
  • Ozgüç, T. 1946 Anadolu'da Arkeoloji Araştırmaları I, Belleten X/40, 557, 624.
  • 1947 a Sivas ve Maltepe Kazıları, Belleten XI/41,164-166.
  • 1947 b TTK adına yapılan Maltepe (Sivas Yakınında) Kazısı, Belleten XI/44, 641-655.
  • 1947 c Die Ausgrabungen von Topraktepe, der Burg von Sivas, Halil Edhem Hâtıra Kitabı, Ankara, 227-233.
  • 1971 Demir Devrine Kültepe ve Civarı / Kültepe and Its Vicinity in the Iron Age, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, V. Seri, No. 29, Ankara.
  • 1986 Kültepe-Kaniş II. Eski Yakındoğu'nun Ticaret Merkezinde Yeni Araştırmalar / New Researches at the Trading Center of the Ancient Near East, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, V. Dizi, Sayı 41, Ankara.
  • Özgüç, T. und N. Özgüç 1949 Türk Tarih Kurumu Tarafından Yapılan Karahoyük Hafriyatı Raporu, 1947 / Ausgrabungen in Konya Karahoyük. Bericht über die im Auftrage der türkischen Geschichtskommission in 1947 durchgeführten Ausgrabungen, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, V. Dizi, Sayı 7, Ankara.
  • Parzinger, H. 1993 Studien zur Chronologie und Kulturgeschichte der Jungstein-, Kupfer- und Frühbronzezeit zwischen Karpaten und Mittlerem Taurus, Mainz.
  • 1996 Bemalte Keramik aus Bogazkoy-Hattusa und die frühe Eisenzeit im westlichen Ostanatolien, Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens, Festschrift für Rainer Michael Boehmer (Ed. U. Finkbeiner et al.), Mainz, 527-536.
  • Pecorella, P. E. 1975 Malatya III: Rapporta Preliminare Delle Campagne 1963-1968, Roma.
  • Prayon, F. und A.-M. Wittke 1994 Kleinasien vom 12. bis 6. Jh. v. Chr. Kartierung und Erläuterung archäologischer Befunde und Denkmäler, Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des vorderen Orients B 82, Wiesbaden.
  • Postgate, J. N. 1992 Early Mesopotamia. Society and Economy at the Dawn of History, London-New York.
  • Roth, M. T. 1995 Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, Society of Biblical Literature, Writings from the Ancient World, Vol. 6, Atlanta.
  • Russell, H. F. 1980 Pre-Classical Pottery of Eastern Anatolia, Based on a Survey by Charles Burney, of Sites Along the Euphrates and Around Lake Van, British Archaeological Report, International Series 85, London.
  • Sagona, A. 1993 Settlement and Society in Late Prehistoric Trans-Caucasus, Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains. Archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica. Alba Palmieri Dedicata (Ed.: M. Frangipane et al.), Roma, 453-474.
  • Salvini, M. 1995 Geschichte und Kultur der Urartaer, Darmstadt.
  • Sandars, N. K. 1978 The Sea Peoples. Warriors of the Ancient Mediterranean 1250-1150 BC., London.
  • Seeher, J. 1995 Boğazköy-Hattuşa 1994 Yılı Kazı ve Onarım Çalışmaları, XVII: Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı I, Ankara 1995, 246-261.
  • 1996 Boğazköy-Hattuşa 1995 Yılı Kazı ve Onarım Çalışmaları, XVIII: Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı I, Ankara 1996, 323-338.
  • Sevin, V. 1988 Elazığ Yöresi Erken Demir Çağı ve Muşkiler Sorunu, Höyük 1, 51-64.
  • Siegelova, J. 1986 Hethitische Verwaltungspraxis im Lichte der Wirtschafts- und Inventardokumente, Praha.
  • Steiner, G. 1989 Kültepe-Kanis und der “Anitta-Text", Anatolia and the Ancient Near East. Studies in Honor of Tahsin Özgüç (Ed.: K. Emre et al.), Ankara, 471-480.
  • Sürenhagen, D. 1996 Politischer Niedergang und kulturelles Nachleben des hethitischen Großreiches im Lichte neuer Forschung, Vom Halys zum Euphrat. Thomas Beran zu Ehren, mit Beiträgen von Freunden und Schülern (Ed. U. Magen und M. Rashad), Altertumskunde des vorderen Orients, Band 7, Münster, 283-293.
  • Todorova, H. 1993 Die Protobronzezeit auf der Balkanhalbinsel, Anatolia and The Balkans. Symposium on Pre-Bronze Age Relations Held in Istanbul 1992, Anatolica XIX (Ed.: J. Roodenberg), 307-318.
  • Umurtak, G. 1996 Korucutepe II, 1973-1975 Dönemi Kazılarında Bulunmuş olan Hitit Çanak Çömleği, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları V. Dizi, Sa- 42a, Ankara.
  • Ünal, A. 1977 M.Ö. II. Binyıl Anadolu'sunda Doğal Âfetler / Naturkatastrophen in Anatolien im 2. Jt. v. Chr., Belleten XLI, Sayı 163, 423-472.
  • 1981-83 Orta ve Kuzey Anadolu'nun MÖ 2. Binyıl İskân Tarihiyle İlgili Sorunlar, Anadolu XXII, 17-37.
  • Vorys-Canby, J. 1969 Some Hittite Figurines in the Aegean, Hesperia 38, 141-149.
  • Whallon, R. 1979 An Archaeological Survey of the Keban Reservoir Area of East- Central Turkey. Memoires of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Nr. 11, Ann Arbor.
  • Wilhelm, G. 1995 Die Tontafelfunde der 2. Ausgrabungskampagne 1994 in Kuşaklı, Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 127, 37-42.
  • Winn, M. M. 1980 The Early Iron Age Pottery, Korucutepe III: Final Report on the Excavations of the Universities of Chicago, California (Los Angeles) and Amsterdam in the Keban Reservoir, Eastern Anatolia, 1968-1970, Amsterdam - New York - Oxford, 155-175.
  • Yakar, J. 1985 The Later Prehistory of Anatolia. The Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. British Archaeological Report, International Series 268, Oxford.
  • 1992 Beyond the Eastern Borders of the Hittite Empire: An Archaeological Assessment, Hittite and other Anatolian and Near Eastern Studies in Honour of Sedat Alp (Ed.: H. Otten et al.), Ankara, 507-520.
  • 1993 Anatolian Civilization Following the Disintegration of the Hittite Empire, An Archaeological Appraisal, Tel Aviv 20, 3-28.
  • Yakar, J. und A. Gürsan-Salzmann 1979 Archaeological Survey in the Malatya and Sivas Provinces - 1977, Tel Aviv 6, 34-53.
  • Yoffee, N. 1995 Collapse of Mesopotamian States and Civilization, The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations (Ed. N. Yoffee, G. L. Cowgill), Tucson, London, 44-68.
  • Zeist, W. van und S. Bottema 1982 Vegetational History of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East During the Last 20.000 Years, Palaeoclimates, Palaeoenvironments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory (Ed.: J. L. Bintliff und W. van Zeist), British Archaeological Report, International Series 133, Oxford, 277-323.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Almanca
Konular Arkeoloji, Tarih
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

A. Tuba ÖKSE Bu kişi benim
Diğer
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 20 Ağustos 1998
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 1998, Cilt 62, Sayı 234

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ttkbelleten895398, journal = {BELLETEN}, issn = {0041-4255}, eissn = {2791-6472}, address = {Türk Tarih Kurumu, Bilimsel Çalışmalar Müdürlüğü, Kızılay Sokak, No:1, Sıhhiye/ANKARA}, publisher = {Türk Tarih Kurumu}, year = {1998}, volume = {62}, number = {234}, pages = {337 - 390}, title = {Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit}, key = {cite}, author = {Ökse, A. Tuba} }
APA Ökse, A. T. (1998). Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit . BELLETEN , 62 (234) , 337-390 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ttkbelleten/issue/60666/895398
MLA Ökse, A. T. "Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit" . BELLETEN 62 (1998 ): 337-390 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ttkbelleten/issue/60666/895398>
Chicago Ökse, A. T. "Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit". BELLETEN 62 (1998 ): 337-390
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit AU - A. TubaÖkse Y1 - 1998 PY - 1998 N1 - DO - T2 - BELLETEN JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 337 EP - 390 VL - 62 IS - 234 SN - 0041-4255-2791-6472 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 BELLETEN Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit %A A. Tuba Ökse %T Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit %D 1998 %J BELLETEN %P 0041-4255-2791-6472 %V 62 %N 234 %R %U
ISNAD Ökse, A. Tuba . "Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit". BELLETEN 62 / 234 (Ağustos 1998): 337-390 .
AMA Ökse A. T. Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit. TTK BELLETEN. 1998; 62(234): 337-390.
Vancouver Ökse A. T. Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit. BELLETEN. 1998; 62(234): 337-390.
IEEE A. T. Ökse , "Siedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Kızılırmak-Gebietes von der Frühbronze-bis zur Eisenzeit", BELLETEN, c. 62, sayı. 234, ss. 337-390, Ağu. 1998