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Ahhiyawa Sorunu: Yeniden Değerlendirme

Yıl 2021, Cilt 85, Sayı 303, 333 - 360, 17.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.333

Öz

Hyrozny’nin Hitit dilini çözmesinin ardından neredeyse otuz bin Hitit tabletinin çevirisi yapıldı. Bu tabletlerin yaklaşık otuz tanesinde doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak “Ahhiyawa” krallığından ve kralından bahsediliyordu. Geç Bronz Çağı’nda bir Ahhiyawa Krallığı’nın varlığının öğrenilmesinden sonra, nerede olduğu, coğrafi sınırları, kültürü, kralı ve Ahhiyawa Kralı’nın “Büyük Kral” olup olmadığı, Hitit kralına eşit olup olmadığı konusunda bir tartışma başladı. Bugüne kadar uzmanlık olanları doğrultusunda birçok hititolog, arkeolog, filolog, protohistorian, yakın doğu uzmanı ve klasik arkeolog “Ahhiyawa Sorunu” hakkında görüşlerini bildirdi. Bu öneriler hâla bazı sorunlar içermektedir ve bundan dolayı bu çalışma hazırlanmış, “Ahhiyawa Problemi” yeniden değerlendirşmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Akurgal, Ekrem, Die Kunst der Hethiter, München 1961.
  • Beckman, Gary - Bryce, Trevor - Cline, Eric, The Ahhiyawa Texts, Atlanta 2011.
  • Boysal, Yusuf, “Karia Bölgesi’nde Yeni Araştırmalar”, Anatolia XI, 1967, pp. 1–29.
  • Boysal, Yusuf, “Batı Anadolu’da Son Araştırmalar: Ahhiyawa Sorunu”, Anatolia XV, 1973, pp. 63–72.
  • Bryce, Trevor, “Ahhiyawa and Troy: A Case of Mistaken Identity?”, Historia 26.1, 1977, pp. 24–32.
  • Bryce, Trevor, “The Nature of Mycenaean Involvement in Western Anatolia”, Historia 38.1, 1989, pp. 1-21.
  • Bryce, Trevor, “Anatolian Scribes in Mycenaean Greece”, Historia 48, 1999, pp. 257–264.
  • Bryce, Trevor, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Oxford 2005.
  • Bryce, Trevor, “The Land of Hiyawa (Que) revisited”, Anatolian Studies 66, 2016, pp. 67–79.
  • Cline, Eric, “A Possible Hittite Embergo againts the Mycenaeans”, Historia 40, 1991, pp. 1–9
  • Cline, Eric, Sailing the Wine–Dark Sea: International Trade and the Late Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford, BAR International Series 591, 1994.
  • Cline, Eric, “Assuwa and the Achaeans: the ‘Mycenaean’ Sword at Hattusas and Its Possible Implications”, BSA 91, 1996, pp. 137–51.
  • Cline, Eric, M.Ö. 1177: Medeniyetlerin Çöktüğü Yıl, İstanbul 2018.
  • Çapar, Ömer, “Ahhiyava Sorunu”, Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi 14, 1981–1982, pp. 387–413.
  • Dinçol, Belkız – Dinçol, Ali – Hawkins, J. David –Peker, Hasan – Öztan. Aliye, “Two new inscribed Storm–god stelae from Arsuz (İskenderun): ARSUZ 1 and 2”, Anatolian Studies 65, 2015, pp. 59–77.
  • Forrer, Emil, “Vorhomerische Griechen in den Keilschrifttexten von Boghazkoi”, MDOG, 83, 1924, pp. 1–22.
  • Friedrich, Johannes, “Werden in den hethitischen Keilschrifttexten die Griechen erwähnt?”, KF 1, 1927, pp. 87–107.
  • Gates, Charles, “Defining Boundaries of the State: The Mycenenans and Their Anatolian Frontier”, edited by R. Laffineur, W.D. Niemeier, Politeia: Society and State in the Bronze Age, Aegaeum 12, Liege 1995, pp. 289–297.
  • Göetze, Albrecht, “Zur Geographie des Hethiterreiches”, KF 1, 1927, pp. 108– 114.
  • Göetze, Albrecht, Die Annalen des Muråiliå, Leipzig 1933.
  • Gurney, Oliver, The Hittites, London 1976.
  • Gür, Barış. Myken Uygarlığı ve Ahhiyawa, İstanbul 2014.
  • Güterbock, Hans, “The Hittites and the Aegean World: Part 1. The Ahhiyawa Problem Reconsidered”, AJA 87.2, 1983, pp. 133–138.
  • Hawkins, J. David, “Tarkasnawa, King of Mira, ‘Tarkondemos,’ Boğazköy Sealings and Karabel”, Anatolian Studies 48, 1998, pp. 1–31.
  • Hawkins, J. David, “Addendum to ‘Phoenician and Luwian in Early Iron Age Cilicia’ by Ilya Yakubovich”, Anatolian Studies 65, 2015, pp. 54–55.
  • Hope–Simpson, Richard, “The Dodecanese and the Ahhiyawa Question”, BSA 98, 2003, pp. 203–237.
  • Hrozny, Bedrich, “Hethiter und Griechen”, ArOr I, 1929, pp. 323–343.
  • Huxley, L. George, Achaeans and Hittites, Oxford, 1960.
  • Kelder, Jorrit, “Mycenaeans in Western Anatolia”, Talanta 36–37, 2004–2005, pp. 49–88.
  • Kelder, Jorrit, “The Chariots of Ahhiyawa.” Dacia, Revue d’Archéologie et d’Histoire Ancienne 48–49, 2005, pp. 151–160.
  • Kelder, Jorrit, The Kingdom of Mycenae: A Great Kingdom in the Late Bronze Age Aegean, Bethesda, Maryland, 2010.
  • Kelder, Jorrit, “Ahhiyawa and The World of the Great Kings: A Re–Evaluation of Mycenaean Political Structures”, Talanta XLIV, 2012, pp. 41–52.
  • Kretschmer, Paul, “Zur Frage der griechischen Namen in den hethitischen Texten”, Glotta 18, 1930, pp. 161–170.
  • Kretschmer, Paul. “Achaer in Kleinasien zur Hethiterzeit”, Glotta 33, 1954, pp. 1–25.
  • Macqueen, G. James, “Geography and History in Western Asia Minor in the Second Millennium BC”, Anatolian Studies XVIII, 1968, pp. 169–185.
  • MacQueen, G. James, “Hittiler ve Hitit Çağında Anadolu”, Ankara 2001, London.
  • Mellaart James, “Anatolian Trade with Europe and Anatolian Geography and Culture Provinces in the Late Bronze Age”, Anatolian Studies XVIII, 1968, pp. 187–202.
  • Mellaart, James, Western Anatolia, Beycesultan and The Hittites”, Mansel’e Armağan, Ankara, 1974, pp. 493–526
  • Mountjoy, Penelope, “The East Aegean–West Anatolian Interface in the Late Bronze Age Mycenaeans and the Ahhiyawa”, Anatolian Studies 48, 1998, pp. 33–67.
  • Muhly, James, “Hittites and Achaeans: Ahhijawā redomitus”, Historia 23.2, 1947, pp. 129–145.
  • Mylonas, George Emmanuel, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age, Princeton, 1966.
  • Niemeier, Wolf Dietrich “The Mycenaeans in Western Anatolia and the Problem of the Origins of the Sea Peoples”, eds. S. Gitin et al. Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE, Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, 1998, pp. 17–65.
  • Oreshko, Rostislav, “Hieroglyphisch–luwische Inschrift auf der ANKARA– Silberschale: Versuch einer neuen epigraphischen und historischen Interpretation”, Vestnik Drevnej Istorii 2, 2012, pp. 3–28.
  • Oreshko, Rostislav, “The Achаean hides caged in yonder beams: the value of Hieroglyphic Luwian sign *429 reconsidered and a new light on the Cilician Ahhiyawa”, Kadmos 52.1, 2013, pp. 19–33
  • Oreshko, Rostislav, “Aegean Etnic Group in the Eastern Mediterranenan”, eds. Łukasz Niesiołowski–Spanò and Marek Węcowski, and Marek Węcowski. Change, Continuity, and Connectivity North–Eastern Mediterranean at the turn of the Bronze Age and in the early Iron Age, 2018.
  • Page, Dany, History and the Homeric Illiad, Berkeley 1959.
  • Pieniazek, Magda –Pavúk, Peter – Kozal, Ekin. “The Troad, South Aegean, and the Eastern Mediterranean: Long–Distance Connections during the Middle and Late Bronze Age”, Bronzezeitlicher Transport: Akteure, Mittel und Wege, Ressourcen Kulturen Band 8, Tubingen University Press, Tubingen 2018, pp. 375–410.
  • Schaeffer, Claude, Encomi–Alasia I: nouvelles mission en Chypre, 1946–1950, Michigan 1952.
  • Sommer, Ferdinand, Die Ahhijavã–Urkunden, Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich 1932.
  • Sommer, Ferdinand, “Ahhijawã und kein Ende?”, IGForsch 55, 1937, pp. 169–297.
  • Steiner, Gerd, “The Case of Wilusa and Ahhiyawa”, BibO LXIV, No. 5–6, 2007, pp. 590–612.
  • Strobel, Karl, “The 13th to 11th Centuries BC: Questions of Chronology and History in Central and Western Anatolia”, eds. Armağan Erkanal Ötkü, Ulaş Deniz, Sevinç Günel, Batı ve Doğu Akdeniz Geç Tunç Çağı Kültürleri Üzerine Yeni Araştırmalar, Ankara, 2013, pp. 193–208.
  • Tekooğlu, Recai – Lemaire, Andre. “La bilingue royale louvito–phénicienne de Çineköy” CRAIBL, 2000, pp. 961–1007
  • Ünal, Ahmet, Hititler Devrinde Anadolu 2, İstanbul 2003.
  • Ünal, Ahmet, Eski Anadolu: Siyasi Tarihi, Ankara 2018.
  • Weiner, Malcolm, “Locating Ahhiyawa”, DORON: Festschrift for Professor Spyros Iakovidis, 2010, pp. 701–715.
  • Wijngaarden, Gert Jan Van, Use and Appreciation of Mycenaean Pottery in the Levant, Cyprus and Italy (1600–120O BC), Amsterdam 2002.
  • Yakar, Jak, “Hittite Involvement in Western Anatolia”, Anatolian Studies 26, 1976, pp. 117–128.
  • Yakar, Jak, Anadolu’nun Etnoarkeolojisi, İstanbul 2007.
  • Yakubovich, Ilya, “Adanawa or Ahhiyawa? Reply to the addendum by J.D. Hawkins”, Anatolian Studies 65, 2015, pp. 56–58.

The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered

Yıl 2021, Cilt 85, Sayı 303, 333 - 360, 17.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.333

Öz

Since Hrozny deciphered the Hittite language, nearly thirty thousand Hittite texts have been translated. About thirty of these texts directly or indirectly refer to the “Ahhiyawa” Kingdom and its king. Upon learning of the existence of an Ahhiyawa Kingdom in the Late Bronze Age, deliberations as where and when it existed, its geographical boundaries, its culture, its kings, and whether the Ahhiyawa king was the “Great King” and whether he was equal to the Hittite king began. To date, in line with their specialties, many scientists including Hittitologists, archaeologists, philologists, proto–historians, Near Eastern archaeologists, and classical archaeologists have given their opinions about the “Ahhiyawa Question”. However, as these proposals present some problems, it became necessary to prepare this study and to re–evaluate the “Ahhiyawa Question”.

Kaynakça

  • Akurgal, Ekrem, Die Kunst der Hethiter, München 1961.
  • Beckman, Gary - Bryce, Trevor - Cline, Eric, The Ahhiyawa Texts, Atlanta 2011.
  • Boysal, Yusuf, “Karia Bölgesi’nde Yeni Araştırmalar”, Anatolia XI, 1967, pp. 1–29.
  • Boysal, Yusuf, “Batı Anadolu’da Son Araştırmalar: Ahhiyawa Sorunu”, Anatolia XV, 1973, pp. 63–72.
  • Bryce, Trevor, “Ahhiyawa and Troy: A Case of Mistaken Identity?”, Historia 26.1, 1977, pp. 24–32.
  • Bryce, Trevor, “The Nature of Mycenaean Involvement in Western Anatolia”, Historia 38.1, 1989, pp. 1-21.
  • Bryce, Trevor, “Anatolian Scribes in Mycenaean Greece”, Historia 48, 1999, pp. 257–264.
  • Bryce, Trevor, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Oxford 2005.
  • Bryce, Trevor, “The Land of Hiyawa (Que) revisited”, Anatolian Studies 66, 2016, pp. 67–79.
  • Cline, Eric, “A Possible Hittite Embergo againts the Mycenaeans”, Historia 40, 1991, pp. 1–9
  • Cline, Eric, Sailing the Wine–Dark Sea: International Trade and the Late Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford, BAR International Series 591, 1994.
  • Cline, Eric, “Assuwa and the Achaeans: the ‘Mycenaean’ Sword at Hattusas and Its Possible Implications”, BSA 91, 1996, pp. 137–51.
  • Cline, Eric, M.Ö. 1177: Medeniyetlerin Çöktüğü Yıl, İstanbul 2018.
  • Çapar, Ömer, “Ahhiyava Sorunu”, Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi 14, 1981–1982, pp. 387–413.
  • Dinçol, Belkız – Dinçol, Ali – Hawkins, J. David –Peker, Hasan – Öztan. Aliye, “Two new inscribed Storm–god stelae from Arsuz (İskenderun): ARSUZ 1 and 2”, Anatolian Studies 65, 2015, pp. 59–77.
  • Forrer, Emil, “Vorhomerische Griechen in den Keilschrifttexten von Boghazkoi”, MDOG, 83, 1924, pp. 1–22.
  • Friedrich, Johannes, “Werden in den hethitischen Keilschrifttexten die Griechen erwähnt?”, KF 1, 1927, pp. 87–107.
  • Gates, Charles, “Defining Boundaries of the State: The Mycenenans and Their Anatolian Frontier”, edited by R. Laffineur, W.D. Niemeier, Politeia: Society and State in the Bronze Age, Aegaeum 12, Liege 1995, pp. 289–297.
  • Göetze, Albrecht, “Zur Geographie des Hethiterreiches”, KF 1, 1927, pp. 108– 114.
  • Göetze, Albrecht, Die Annalen des Muråiliå, Leipzig 1933.
  • Gurney, Oliver, The Hittites, London 1976.
  • Gür, Barış. Myken Uygarlığı ve Ahhiyawa, İstanbul 2014.
  • Güterbock, Hans, “The Hittites and the Aegean World: Part 1. The Ahhiyawa Problem Reconsidered”, AJA 87.2, 1983, pp. 133–138.
  • Hawkins, J. David, “Tarkasnawa, King of Mira, ‘Tarkondemos,’ Boğazköy Sealings and Karabel”, Anatolian Studies 48, 1998, pp. 1–31.
  • Hawkins, J. David, “Addendum to ‘Phoenician and Luwian in Early Iron Age Cilicia’ by Ilya Yakubovich”, Anatolian Studies 65, 2015, pp. 54–55.
  • Hope–Simpson, Richard, “The Dodecanese and the Ahhiyawa Question”, BSA 98, 2003, pp. 203–237.
  • Hrozny, Bedrich, “Hethiter und Griechen”, ArOr I, 1929, pp. 323–343.
  • Huxley, L. George, Achaeans and Hittites, Oxford, 1960.
  • Kelder, Jorrit, “Mycenaeans in Western Anatolia”, Talanta 36–37, 2004–2005, pp. 49–88.
  • Kelder, Jorrit, “The Chariots of Ahhiyawa.” Dacia, Revue d’Archéologie et d’Histoire Ancienne 48–49, 2005, pp. 151–160.
  • Kelder, Jorrit, The Kingdom of Mycenae: A Great Kingdom in the Late Bronze Age Aegean, Bethesda, Maryland, 2010.
  • Kelder, Jorrit, “Ahhiyawa and The World of the Great Kings: A Re–Evaluation of Mycenaean Political Structures”, Talanta XLIV, 2012, pp. 41–52.
  • Kretschmer, Paul, “Zur Frage der griechischen Namen in den hethitischen Texten”, Glotta 18, 1930, pp. 161–170.
  • Kretschmer, Paul. “Achaer in Kleinasien zur Hethiterzeit”, Glotta 33, 1954, pp. 1–25.
  • Macqueen, G. James, “Geography and History in Western Asia Minor in the Second Millennium BC”, Anatolian Studies XVIII, 1968, pp. 169–185.
  • MacQueen, G. James, “Hittiler ve Hitit Çağında Anadolu”, Ankara 2001, London.
  • Mellaart James, “Anatolian Trade with Europe and Anatolian Geography and Culture Provinces in the Late Bronze Age”, Anatolian Studies XVIII, 1968, pp. 187–202.
  • Mellaart, James, Western Anatolia, Beycesultan and The Hittites”, Mansel’e Armağan, Ankara, 1974, pp. 493–526
  • Mountjoy, Penelope, “The East Aegean–West Anatolian Interface in the Late Bronze Age Mycenaeans and the Ahhiyawa”, Anatolian Studies 48, 1998, pp. 33–67.
  • Muhly, James, “Hittites and Achaeans: Ahhijawā redomitus”, Historia 23.2, 1947, pp. 129–145.
  • Mylonas, George Emmanuel, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age, Princeton, 1966.
  • Niemeier, Wolf Dietrich “The Mycenaeans in Western Anatolia and the Problem of the Origins of the Sea Peoples”, eds. S. Gitin et al. Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE, Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, 1998, pp. 17–65.
  • Oreshko, Rostislav, “Hieroglyphisch–luwische Inschrift auf der ANKARA– Silberschale: Versuch einer neuen epigraphischen und historischen Interpretation”, Vestnik Drevnej Istorii 2, 2012, pp. 3–28.
  • Oreshko, Rostislav, “The Achаean hides caged in yonder beams: the value of Hieroglyphic Luwian sign *429 reconsidered and a new light on the Cilician Ahhiyawa”, Kadmos 52.1, 2013, pp. 19–33
  • Oreshko, Rostislav, “Aegean Etnic Group in the Eastern Mediterranenan”, eds. Łukasz Niesiołowski–Spanò and Marek Węcowski, and Marek Węcowski. Change, Continuity, and Connectivity North–Eastern Mediterranean at the turn of the Bronze Age and in the early Iron Age, 2018.
  • Page, Dany, History and the Homeric Illiad, Berkeley 1959.
  • Pieniazek, Magda –Pavúk, Peter – Kozal, Ekin. “The Troad, South Aegean, and the Eastern Mediterranean: Long–Distance Connections during the Middle and Late Bronze Age”, Bronzezeitlicher Transport: Akteure, Mittel und Wege, Ressourcen Kulturen Band 8, Tubingen University Press, Tubingen 2018, pp. 375–410.
  • Schaeffer, Claude, Encomi–Alasia I: nouvelles mission en Chypre, 1946–1950, Michigan 1952.
  • Sommer, Ferdinand, Die Ahhijavã–Urkunden, Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich 1932.
  • Sommer, Ferdinand, “Ahhijawã und kein Ende?”, IGForsch 55, 1937, pp. 169–297.
  • Steiner, Gerd, “The Case of Wilusa and Ahhiyawa”, BibO LXIV, No. 5–6, 2007, pp. 590–612.
  • Strobel, Karl, “The 13th to 11th Centuries BC: Questions of Chronology and History in Central and Western Anatolia”, eds. Armağan Erkanal Ötkü, Ulaş Deniz, Sevinç Günel, Batı ve Doğu Akdeniz Geç Tunç Çağı Kültürleri Üzerine Yeni Araştırmalar, Ankara, 2013, pp. 193–208.
  • Tekooğlu, Recai – Lemaire, Andre. “La bilingue royale louvito–phénicienne de Çineköy” CRAIBL, 2000, pp. 961–1007
  • Ünal, Ahmet, Hititler Devrinde Anadolu 2, İstanbul 2003.
  • Ünal, Ahmet, Eski Anadolu: Siyasi Tarihi, Ankara 2018.
  • Weiner, Malcolm, “Locating Ahhiyawa”, DORON: Festschrift for Professor Spyros Iakovidis, 2010, pp. 701–715.
  • Wijngaarden, Gert Jan Van, Use and Appreciation of Mycenaean Pottery in the Levant, Cyprus and Italy (1600–120O BC), Amsterdam 2002.
  • Yakar, Jak, “Hittite Involvement in Western Anatolia”, Anatolian Studies 26, 1976, pp. 117–128.
  • Yakar, Jak, Anadolu’nun Etnoarkeolojisi, İstanbul 2007.
  • Yakubovich, Ilya, “Adanawa or Ahhiyawa? Reply to the addendum by J.D. Hawkins”, Anatolian Studies 65, 2015, pp. 56–58.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Arkeoloji, Tarih
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Cenker ATİLA Bu kişi benim
Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Literature, Department of Archaeology
0000-0003-4239-053X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 85, Sayı 303

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ttkbelleten983643, journal = {BELLETEN}, issn = {0041-4255}, eissn = {2791-6472}, address = {Türk Tarih Kurumu, Bilimsel Çalışmalar Müdürlüğü, Kızılay Sokak, No:1, Sıhhiye/ANKARA}, publisher = {Türk Tarih Kurumu}, year = {2021}, volume = {85}, number = {303}, pages = {333 - 360}, doi = {10.37879/belleten.2021.333}, title = {The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered}, key = {cite}, author = {Atila, Cenker} }
APA Atila, C. (2021). The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered . BELLETEN , 85 (303) , 333-360 . DOI: 10.37879/belleten.2021.333
MLA Atila, C. "The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered" . BELLETEN 85 (2021 ): 333-360 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ttkbelleten/issue/64511/983643>
Chicago Atila, C. "The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered". BELLETEN 85 (2021 ): 333-360
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Ahhiyawa Sorunu: Yeniden Değerlendirme AU - CenkerAtila Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.37879/belleten.2021.333 DO - 10.37879/belleten.2021.333 T2 - BELLETEN JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 333 EP - 360 VL - 85 IS - 303 SN - 0041-4255-2791-6472 M3 - doi: 10.37879/belleten.2021.333 UR - https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.333 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 BELLETEN The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered %A Cenker Atila %T The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered %D 2021 %J BELLETEN %P 0041-4255-2791-6472 %V 85 %N 303 %R doi: 10.37879/belleten.2021.333 %U 10.37879/belleten.2021.333
ISNAD Atila, Cenker . "The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered". BELLETEN 85 / 303 (Ağustos 2021): 333-360 . https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.333
AMA Atila C. The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered. TTK BELLETEN. 2021; 85(303): 333-360.
Vancouver Atila C. The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered. BELLETEN. 2021; 85(303): 333-360.
IEEE C. Atila , "The Ahhiyawa Question: Reconsidered", BELLETEN, c. 85, sayı. 303, ss. 333-360, Ağu. 2021, doi:10.37879/belleten.2021.333