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Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism

Yıl 2021, Cilt 85, Sayı 303, 463 - 506, 17.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.463

Öz

This article discusses Faḍlallāh al-Ḥurūfī’s relations with political and religious circles in detail from his early youth when he left Astarabad, until his execution at the behest of Mīrānshāh, Timur’s son, in 796/1394. The common opinion of why Faḍlallāh was executed is considered to be either his superstitious ideas or his pursuit of some messianic, and thus power-related, goals. We tried to find some clues to confute such stereotypical approaches. To this end, we tried to determine Faḍlallāh’s view and stance in regard to power by taking into consideration his relationships with statesmen. It was the ʿulamāʾ and the sufis who played the most critical and significant role in Faḍlallāh’s relationships with commoners and statesmen, as well as in his execution. That is why we have placed special emphasis on Faḍlallāh’s ties with the ʿulamāʾ and sufi circles. We discuss how the ʿulamāʾ and sufis tried to disqualify the other flourishing rival groups in the period leading up to Faḍlallāh’s execution.

Kaynakça

  • Abrū Ḥāfiẓ-i, Zubdat al-Tavārīkh, ed. Sayyid Javādī, Vazārat-i Farhang u Irshād-i Islāmī, Tehran 1380 H.sh., Vol. I-IV.
  • Abṭaḥī, Mīr Sayyid Ḥujjat Muvaḥḥid, Rīshahā ve Jilvehā-yi Tashayyuʿ ve Ḥavza-i ʿIlmiyya-i Iṣfahān der ṭūl-i Tārīkh, Daftar-i Tablīghāt al-Mahdī, Isfahan 1376 H.sh., Vol. I-III.
  • ʿAlī al-Aʿlā, Kursī-nāma, Bibliotheque Nationale, Persan, No. 255.
  • ʿAsqalānī, Ibn Ḥājar, Inbāʾ al-ghumr bi-abnā’ al-ʿumr, Iḥyā al-Turāth, Cairo 1415/1994, fas. II, p. 219.
  • Astarābādī, Faḍlallāh, Jāvidān-nāma, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 1046
  • Astarābādī, Faḍlallāh, Vasiyat-nāma, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 1009.
  • Āzhand, Yaʿqūb, Hurufiyya dar Tārīkh, Ney, Tehran 1369 H.sh.
  • Bashir, Shahzad, Fazlallah Astarabadi and the Hurufis, Oneworld, Oxford 2005.
  • Binbas, Ilker Evrim, “The Anatomy of a Regicide Attempt: Shāhrukh, the Hurufis, and the Timurid Intellectuals in 830/1426-27”, JRAS, XXIII (2013), pp. 391-428.
  • Chahārdah Risāla-yi Fārsī az-Ṣāʾin al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Turke-yi Iṣfahānī, ed. S. A. M. Bihbahānī and S. I. Dībājī, Taqī Sharīf Riḍāʾī, Tehran 1351 H.sh.
  • Davlatshāh, Tadhkirat al-Shuʿarā, ed. E. Brown, Brill, Leiden 1900.
  • Faḍlallāh’s Caliphs, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 993, f. 104b.
  • Farrukh, Rukn al-Dīn Humāyūn, Ḥāfiẓ-i Kharābātī, Asāṭīr, Tehran 1361 H.sh., Vol. I-VIII.
  • Firishteoghlu, ʿAbd al-Majīd, Tarjama-i Khwāb-nāma, I.B.B. Ataturk Library, ʿOthmān Ergin Manuscripts, No. 1321.
  • Gölpınarlı, Abdülbaki, Ḥurûfilik Metinleri Katalogu, TTK, Ankara 1989.
  • Gölpınarlı, Abdülbaki, “Faḍl-Allah Ḥurūfī”, El2, Vol. II, pp. 733-735.
  • Khwāfī, Faṣīḥ, Mujmal-i Faṣīhī. Ed. Sayyid Muḥsin Nājī Naṣr-ābādī, Esāṭīr, Tehran, 1386 H.sh., Vol. I-III.
  • Khwāndamīr, Tārīkh-i Ḥabīb al-Siyar, Kitābfurūshī Khayyām, Tehran 1362 H.sh., Vol. I-IV.
  • Kiyā, Ṣādiq, Vāzhanāma-yi Gurgānī, Dānishgāh-i Tehrān, Tehran 1330 H.sh.
  • Kutubī, Maḥmūd, Tārīkh-i āl-i Muẓaffar, Amīr Kabīr, Tehran 1364 H.sh.
  • Manz, Beatrice, Power, Politics and Religion in Timurid Iran, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007.
  • Maqrizī, Durar al-ʿuqūd al-farīda fī terājim al-aʿyān al-mufīda (Beirut, 1423/2002).
  • Marʿashī, Ẓāhir al-Dīn, Tārīkh-i Gīlān ve Daylamistān, Iṭṭilāʿāt, Tehran 1364 H.sh.
  • Melvin-Koushki, Matthew S., The Quest for a Universal Science: The Occult Philosophy of Ṣāʾin al-Dīn Turka Isfahan! (1369-1432) and Intellectual Millenarianism in Early Temürid Iran, PhD Dissertation, Yale University 2012.
  • Minorski, Vladimir F., Tārīkh-i Shirvān and Darband, trans. Muḥsin Khādim, Bunyād-i Dāʾira-i Maʿārif-i Islāmī, Tehran 1375 H.sh.
  • Mir-Kasimov, Orkhan, Faḍlallāh Astarābādī, EIr.
  • Mir-Kasimov, Orkhan (ed.), Unity in diversity. Mysticism, messianism and the construction of religious authority in Islam, Brill, Leiden 2013.
  • Mir-Kasimov, Orkhan, “Le ‘Journal des Rêves’ de Fadlullah Astarabadi: Edition et Traduction annotée”, Studia Iranica XXXVIII (2009), pp. 249-304.
  • Nāfajī, Khwāb-nāma, Vatican Library, Persian Manuscripts, No. 17.
  • Nuṣayrī, Muḥammad Riḍā, Asar-i Āferīnān, Anjuman-i Āṣār u Mafākhir-i Farhangī, Tehran 1384 H.sh., Vol. I, p. 299.
  • Qazvīnī, Muḥammad Yūsuf Vāleh Iṣfahānī, Khuld-i Berīn: Sections 6-7, ed. Mīr Ḥāshim Muḥaddith, Amīr Kabīr, Tehran 2001.
  • Qomī, Shaykh ʿAbbās, Mashāhir-i Dānishmandān-i Islām, Kitābfurūsh-i Islāmiya, Tehran 1350 H.sh., Vol. I, p. 34.
  • Ritter, Hellmut, “Studien zur Geschichte der Islamischen Frömmigkeit: Die Anfange der Hurufisekte”, Oriens, no. 7, June 1954 trans. Ḥ. Muʾayyad, Farhang-i Īrān Zemīn, no. 10, 1341 H.sh., pp. 319-393.
  • Roemer, H.R., “Temür in Iran”, in The Cambridge History of Iran, ed. P. Jackson, L. Lockhart, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1997, Vol. VI, p. 70.
  • Rūmlu, Aḥsan al-Tavārīkh, ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn Navāʾī, Asāṭīr, Tehran 1384 H.sh., Vol. I, p. 213.
  • Sakhawī, Al-ḍawʾ al-lāmiʿa li-ahl al-qarn al-tāsiʿa, Dār al-ghayb al-Islāmī, Beirut 1412/1992), Vol. I-VI.
  • Sayyid Isḥāq, Khwāb-nāma, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 1042.
  • Sayyid Isḥāq, Maḥram-nāma, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 1031.
  • Smith, John M., History of the Sarbadar Dynasty: 1336-1381 A.D. and its sources, Mouton, The Hague Paris 1970.
  • Şıxıyeva, Səadət, “Hürufiliyin tarixi: ənənəviləşmiş təhriflər, unudulmuş gerçəkliklər”, Metafizika I/2 (2018), pp. 65-96.
  • Usluer, Fatih, Ḥurūfilik; Ilk Elden Kaynaklarla Doguşundan Itibaren, Kabalci, Istanbul 2009.
  • Usluer, Fatih, “Hurufism: The Faḍlallāh Family, Children, and Testament”, Iranian Studies, DOI: 10.1080/00210862.2020.1777393 (2020).
  • Usluer, Fatih, Hâbnâmeler, Kut, Çorum 2020.

Fazlullah Hurufî ve Dünyası: İktidar, Din ve Sufilik

Yıl 2021, Cilt 85, Sayı 303, 463 - 506, 17.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.463

Öz

Bu makale, Fazlullah Hurufî’nin Esterabad’dan ayrıldığı ilk gençlik çağlarından başlayarak Timur’un oğlu Miranşah’ın yönetimi altında idam edildiği (796/1394) döneme kadarki süreçte politik ve dini çevrelerle ilişkilerini detaylı bir şekilde incelemektedir. Fazlullah’ın idam edilmesinin nedenleri arasında onun batıl fikirleri, mesihçi hedefleri veya iktidara ulaşma gayreti gösterilmiştir. Çalışmamızda bunun gibi basmakalıp tezleri çürütmek için bazı ipuçları bulmaya çalıştık. Bu amaçla, Fazlullah’ın devlet adamlarıyla ilişkilerinden hareketle iktidara ve iktidar olmaya karşı duruşunu ve bakışını belirlemeye çalıştık. Onun idamında devlet adamlarıyla ilişkileri yanında ulema ve mutasavvıflarla ilişkilerinin belirleyici rol oynadığını söyleyebiliriz. Bu nedenle ulema ve sufi çevrelerle ilişkilerini özellikle irdeledik. Fazlullah’ın idam edildiği dönemde ulema ve sufilerin, ortaya çıkan rakip grupları nasıl saf dışı bırakmaya çalıştıklarını göstermeye çalıştık.

Kaynakça

  • Abrū Ḥāfiẓ-i, Zubdat al-Tavārīkh, ed. Sayyid Javādī, Vazārat-i Farhang u Irshād-i Islāmī, Tehran 1380 H.sh., Vol. I-IV.
  • Abṭaḥī, Mīr Sayyid Ḥujjat Muvaḥḥid, Rīshahā ve Jilvehā-yi Tashayyuʿ ve Ḥavza-i ʿIlmiyya-i Iṣfahān der ṭūl-i Tārīkh, Daftar-i Tablīghāt al-Mahdī, Isfahan 1376 H.sh., Vol. I-III.
  • ʿAlī al-Aʿlā, Kursī-nāma, Bibliotheque Nationale, Persan, No. 255.
  • ʿAsqalānī, Ibn Ḥājar, Inbāʾ al-ghumr bi-abnā’ al-ʿumr, Iḥyā al-Turāth, Cairo 1415/1994, fas. II, p. 219.
  • Astarābādī, Faḍlallāh, Jāvidān-nāma, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 1046
  • Astarābādī, Faḍlallāh, Vasiyat-nāma, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 1009.
  • Āzhand, Yaʿqūb, Hurufiyya dar Tārīkh, Ney, Tehran 1369 H.sh.
  • Bashir, Shahzad, Fazlallah Astarabadi and the Hurufis, Oneworld, Oxford 2005.
  • Binbas, Ilker Evrim, “The Anatomy of a Regicide Attempt: Shāhrukh, the Hurufis, and the Timurid Intellectuals in 830/1426-27”, JRAS, XXIII (2013), pp. 391-428.
  • Chahārdah Risāla-yi Fārsī az-Ṣāʾin al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Turke-yi Iṣfahānī, ed. S. A. M. Bihbahānī and S. I. Dībājī, Taqī Sharīf Riḍāʾī, Tehran 1351 H.sh.
  • Davlatshāh, Tadhkirat al-Shuʿarā, ed. E. Brown, Brill, Leiden 1900.
  • Faḍlallāh’s Caliphs, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 993, f. 104b.
  • Farrukh, Rukn al-Dīn Humāyūn, Ḥāfiẓ-i Kharābātī, Asāṭīr, Tehran 1361 H.sh., Vol. I-VIII.
  • Firishteoghlu, ʿAbd al-Majīd, Tarjama-i Khwāb-nāma, I.B.B. Ataturk Library, ʿOthmān Ergin Manuscripts, No. 1321.
  • Gölpınarlı, Abdülbaki, Ḥurûfilik Metinleri Katalogu, TTK, Ankara 1989.
  • Gölpınarlı, Abdülbaki, “Faḍl-Allah Ḥurūfī”, El2, Vol. II, pp. 733-735.
  • Khwāfī, Faṣīḥ, Mujmal-i Faṣīhī. Ed. Sayyid Muḥsin Nājī Naṣr-ābādī, Esāṭīr, Tehran, 1386 H.sh., Vol. I-III.
  • Khwāndamīr, Tārīkh-i Ḥabīb al-Siyar, Kitābfurūshī Khayyām, Tehran 1362 H.sh., Vol. I-IV.
  • Kiyā, Ṣādiq, Vāzhanāma-yi Gurgānī, Dānishgāh-i Tehrān, Tehran 1330 H.sh.
  • Kutubī, Maḥmūd, Tārīkh-i āl-i Muẓaffar, Amīr Kabīr, Tehran 1364 H.sh.
  • Manz, Beatrice, Power, Politics and Religion in Timurid Iran, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007.
  • Maqrizī, Durar al-ʿuqūd al-farīda fī terājim al-aʿyān al-mufīda (Beirut, 1423/2002).
  • Marʿashī, Ẓāhir al-Dīn, Tārīkh-i Gīlān ve Daylamistān, Iṭṭilāʿāt, Tehran 1364 H.sh.
  • Melvin-Koushki, Matthew S., The Quest for a Universal Science: The Occult Philosophy of Ṣāʾin al-Dīn Turka Isfahan! (1369-1432) and Intellectual Millenarianism in Early Temürid Iran, PhD Dissertation, Yale University 2012.
  • Minorski, Vladimir F., Tārīkh-i Shirvān and Darband, trans. Muḥsin Khādim, Bunyād-i Dāʾira-i Maʿārif-i Islāmī, Tehran 1375 H.sh.
  • Mir-Kasimov, Orkhan, Faḍlallāh Astarābādī, EIr.
  • Mir-Kasimov, Orkhan (ed.), Unity in diversity. Mysticism, messianism and the construction of religious authority in Islam, Brill, Leiden 2013.
  • Mir-Kasimov, Orkhan, “Le ‘Journal des Rêves’ de Fadlullah Astarabadi: Edition et Traduction annotée”, Studia Iranica XXXVIII (2009), pp. 249-304.
  • Nāfajī, Khwāb-nāma, Vatican Library, Persian Manuscripts, No. 17.
  • Nuṣayrī, Muḥammad Riḍā, Asar-i Āferīnān, Anjuman-i Āṣār u Mafākhir-i Farhangī, Tehran 1384 H.sh., Vol. I, p. 299.
  • Qazvīnī, Muḥammad Yūsuf Vāleh Iṣfahānī, Khuld-i Berīn: Sections 6-7, ed. Mīr Ḥāshim Muḥaddith, Amīr Kabīr, Tehran 2001.
  • Qomī, Shaykh ʿAbbās, Mashāhir-i Dānishmandān-i Islām, Kitābfurūsh-i Islāmiya, Tehran 1350 H.sh., Vol. I, p. 34.
  • Ritter, Hellmut, “Studien zur Geschichte der Islamischen Frömmigkeit: Die Anfange der Hurufisekte”, Oriens, no. 7, June 1954 trans. Ḥ. Muʾayyad, Farhang-i Īrān Zemīn, no. 10, 1341 H.sh., pp. 319-393.
  • Roemer, H.R., “Temür in Iran”, in The Cambridge History of Iran, ed. P. Jackson, L. Lockhart, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1997, Vol. VI, p. 70.
  • Rūmlu, Aḥsan al-Tavārīkh, ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn Navāʾī, Asāṭīr, Tehran 1384 H.sh., Vol. I, p. 213.
  • Sakhawī, Al-ḍawʾ al-lāmiʿa li-ahl al-qarn al-tāsiʿa, Dār al-ghayb al-Islāmī, Beirut 1412/1992), Vol. I-VI.
  • Sayyid Isḥāq, Khwāb-nāma, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 1042.
  • Sayyid Isḥāq, Maḥram-nāma, Millet Library, ʿAlī Amīrī, Persian, No. 1031.
  • Smith, John M., History of the Sarbadar Dynasty: 1336-1381 A.D. and its sources, Mouton, The Hague Paris 1970.
  • Şıxıyeva, Səadət, “Hürufiliyin tarixi: ənənəviləşmiş təhriflər, unudulmuş gerçəkliklər”, Metafizika I/2 (2018), pp. 65-96.
  • Usluer, Fatih, Ḥurūfilik; Ilk Elden Kaynaklarla Doguşundan Itibaren, Kabalci, Istanbul 2009.
  • Usluer, Fatih, “Hurufism: The Faḍlallāh Family, Children, and Testament”, Iranian Studies, DOI: 10.1080/00210862.2020.1777393 (2020).
  • Usluer, Fatih, Hâbnâmeler, Kut, Çorum 2020.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Tarih
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Fatih USLUER Bu kişi benim
Ankara University, Faculty of Languages History and Geography, Department of Turkish Language and Literature
0000-0001-5543-770X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 85, Sayı 303

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ttkbelleten983665, journal = {BELLETEN}, issn = {0041-4255}, eissn = {2791-6472}, address = {Türk Tarih Kurumu, Bilimsel Çalışmalar Müdürlüğü, Kızılay Sokak, No:1, Sıhhiye/ANKARA}, publisher = {Türk Tarih Kurumu}, year = {2021}, volume = {85}, number = {303}, pages = {463 - 506}, doi = {10.37879/belleten.2021.463}, title = {Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism}, key = {cite}, author = {Usluer, Fatih} }
APA Usluer, F. (2021). Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism . BELLETEN , 85 (303) , 463-506 . DOI: 10.37879/belleten.2021.463
MLA Usluer, F. "Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism" . BELLETEN 85 (2021 ): 463-506 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ttkbelleten/issue/64511/983665>
Chicago Usluer, F. "Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism". BELLETEN 85 (2021 ): 463-506
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Fazlullah Hurufî ve Dünyası: İktidar, Din ve Sufilik AU - FatihUsluer Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.37879/belleten.2021.463 DO - 10.37879/belleten.2021.463 T2 - BELLETEN JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 463 EP - 506 VL - 85 IS - 303 SN - 0041-4255-2791-6472 M3 - doi: 10.37879/belleten.2021.463 UR - https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.463 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 BELLETEN Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism %A Fatih Usluer %T Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism %D 2021 %J BELLETEN %P 0041-4255-2791-6472 %V 85 %N 303 %R doi: 10.37879/belleten.2021.463 %U 10.37879/belleten.2021.463
ISNAD Usluer, Fatih . "Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism". BELLETEN 85 / 303 (Ağustos 2021): 463-506 . https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.463
AMA Usluer F. Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism. TTK BELLETEN. 2021; 85(303): 463-506.
Vancouver Usluer F. Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism. BELLETEN. 2021; 85(303): 463-506.
IEEE F. Usluer , "Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism", BELLETEN, c. 85, sayı. 303, ss. 463-506, Ağu. 2021, doi:10.37879/belleten.2021.463