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A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World

Yıl 2022, Cilt 86, Sayı 305, 39 - 60, 12.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2022.039

Öz

The belief systems in Mesopotamia and Ancient Greece were based on the idea that knowledge was transferred from gods to humans. The common belief regarding the source of knowledge in both societies was somehow different. While Mesopotamian societies believed that knowledge was transferred from gods to humans through a being called Oannes, Ancient Greek society believed that Prometheus stole fire, which was the first knowledge, from Zeus. As written in cuneiform scripts, coming ashore as a half-fish and half-man creature, Oannes was thought to teach Mesopotamians various skills, ranging from building houses to agriculture. On the other hand, it is mentioned in the works of Hesiod and Aeschylus in Ancient Greece that Prometheus created humans and taught them all necessary knowledge to continue their lives. The present study compares different beliefs regarding the source of knowledge in two different societies which existed in two different geographical regions and time periods. Additionally, it aims to reveal the ways in which both societies shaped their world views through divine knowledge. For a closer analysis of both belief systems, Mesopotamian cuneiform scripts and Ancient Greek manuscripts were used as primary sources. After each source was examined in detail, modern interpretations of these sources were also analyzed. Finally, common points in both primary sources were identified in order to characterize the present study based on these common points.

Kaynakça

  • Adams, Robert, “Strategies of Maximization, Sability, and Resilience in Mesopotamian Society, Settlement, and Agriculture,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 122 / 5, (1978), pp. 329 - 335.
  • Adams, S. M. “Hesiod’s Pandora,” The Classical Review, 46 / 5, (1932), pp. 193 - 196.
  • Aeschylus Aeschylus I. Persians, Seven Against Thebes, Suppliants, Prometheus Bound (ed., trans. Peter M. Smith) Loeb Classical Library, (2008).
  • Annus, Amar, “On the Origin of Watchers: A Comparative Study of the Antediluvian Wisdom in Mesopotamian and Jewish Traditions,” Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha, 19 / 4, (2010), pp. 277-320.
  • Ataç, M. A., The Mythology of Kingship in Neo-Assyrian Art, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2010.
  • Bacchilega, Cristina ve Brown, Marie Alohalani, The Penguin Book of Mermaids, Penguin Classics, New York 2019.
  • Beall, E. F., “Hesiod’s Prometheus and Development in Myth,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 1, (1991), pp. 355-371.
  • Beazley, J. D. “Prometheus Fire-lighter,” American Journal of Archaeology, 43 / 4, (1939), pp. 618-639.
  • Borger, Rykle, “The Incantation Series Bit Meseri and Enoch’s Ascension to Heaven” I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11, (Ed., R. S. Hess - D. T. Tsumura), Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake 1994, pp. 224-233.
  • Bottéro, Jean, Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning and the Gods, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1995.
  • Breucker, G. D., “Alexander Polyhistor and the Babyloniaca of Berossos,” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, 55 / 2, (2012), pp. 57-68.
  • Breucker, G. D., “Berossos and the Mesopotamian Temple as Centre of Knowledge during the Hellenistic Period” Learned Antiquity Scholarship and Society, (ed. A. A. MacDonald, M. W. Twomey ve G. J. Reinink), Peeters Press, Leuven 2003, pp. 13-24.
  • Buccellati, Giorgio, “Wisdom and not: The case of Mesopotamia,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 101 / 1, (1981), pp. 35-47.
  • Burkert, Walter, “Oriental and Greek Mythology: The Meeting of Parallels” Interpretations of Greek Mythology, ed., Jan N. Bremmer, Routledge, London 1987, pp. 10-40.
  • Burstein, S. M., The Babyloniaca of Berossus, Undena Publications, Malibu 1978.
  • Charpin, Dominique, Writing, Law, and Kingship in Old Babylonian Mesopotamia, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2010.
  • Cory, I. P., The Ancient Fragments: Containing what Remains of the Writings of Sanchoniatho, Berossus, Abydenus, Megasthenes, and Manetho,Alpha Editions, London 1828.
  • Curnow, Trevor, Wisdom in the Ancient World, Bristol Classical Press, London 2010.
  • Curnow, Trevor, Wisdom: A History, Reaktion Books, London 2015.
  • Dalley, S. and Reyes, A. T., “Mesopotamian Contact and Influence in the Greek World” The Legacy of Mesopotamia, Editör, Stephanie Dalley, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1998, pp. 107-124.
  • Dillery, Jhon, Clio’s Other Sons: Berossus and Manetho, University of Michigan Press, Michigan 2015.
  • Dougherty, Carol, Prometheus, Routledge, New York 2006.
  • Drews, Robert, “The Babylonian Chronicles and Berossus,” Iraq, 37 / 1, (1975), pp. 39-55.
  • Foster, B. R., “Wisdom and the Gods in Ancient Mesopotamia,” Orientalia, 43, (1974), pp. 344-354.
  • Frazer, J. G., Myths of the Origin of Fire, Routledge, London 2019.
  • Galter, H. D., “The Mesopotamian God Enki/Ea,” Religion Compass, 9/3, (2015), pp. 66-76.
  • Goetze, Albrecht, “Mesopotamian Laws and the Historian,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 69/3, (1949), pp. 115-120.
  • Gong, Y. - Haiying, Y. - Yinghui, G., “The Accounts of the Origin of Writing from Sumer, Egypt and China - A Comparative Perspective,” Wiener Zeitschriftfür die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 99, (2009), pp. 137-158.
  • Grene, David, “Aeschylus: Myth, Religion, and Poetry,” History of Religions, 23/1, (1983), pp. 1-17.
  • Grene, David, “Prometheus Bound,” Classical Philology, 35/1, (1940), pp. 22-38.
  • Harris, Rivkah, “The Conflict of Generations in Ancient Mesopotamian Myths,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 34/4, (1992), pp. 621-635.
  • Haubold, Johannes, Greece and Mesopotamia: Dialogues in Literature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013.
  • Helle, Sophus, “The Role of Authors in the “Uruk List of Kings and Sages”: Canonization and Cultural Contact,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 77/2, (2018), pp. 219-234.
  • Herington, C. J., “Introduction to Prometheus Bound,” Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics, 1/4, (1973), pp. 640-667.
  • Hesiod Hesiod Theogony, Works and days, Testimonia (Vol. 1). Loeb Classical Library, (2006).
  • Hodges, E. R., Cory’s Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and Other Authors, Leopold Classic Library, London 1876.
  • Jackson, S. A., A Comparison of Ancient Near Eastern Law Collections Prior to the First Millennium BC., Gorgias Press, New Jersey 2008.
  • Jacobsen, Thorkild, “Primitive Democracy in Ancient Mesopotamia,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 2/3, (1943), pp. 159-172.
  • Jacobsen, Thorkild, “The Battle between Marduk and Tiamat,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 88/1, (1968), pp. 104-108.
  • Kerényi, Carl, Prometheus: Archetypal Image of Human Existence, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2020.
  • Kofman S. and Woodhull, W., “Prometheus, the First Philosopher,” Substance, 15/2, (1986), pp. 26-35.
  • Komoróczy, Geza, “Berosos and the Mesopotamian Literature,” Acta Antiqua Académica Scientiarum Hungarica 21, (1973), pp. 125-152.
  • Kvanvig, Helge, Primeval History: Babylonian, Biblical, and Enochic, Brill, Leiden 2011.
  • Lambert, W. G., “Berossus and Babylonianerz Eschatology,” Iraq, 38, (1976), pp. 171-173.
  • Larmour, D. H., “Eyes, Knowledge and Power in the Prometheus Bound,” Scholia: Studies in Classical Antiquity, 1/1, (1992), pp. 28-37.
  • Leick, Gwendolyn, Mesopotamia: The Invention of the City, Penguin Books, London 2002.
  • Lenzi, Alan, “The Uruk List of Kings and Sages and Late Mesopotamian Scholarship,” Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions, 8/2, (2008), pp. 137-169.
  • Loney, A. C., “Hesiod’s Incorporative Poetics in the “Theogony” and the Contradictions of Prometheus,” American Journal of Philology, 135/4, (2014), pp. 503-531.
  • Long, H. S., “Notes on Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound”,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 102/3, (1958), pp. 229-280.
  • Martin, R. P., “Hesiodic Theology” The Oxford Handbook of Hesiod, Editörler, A. Loney ve S. Scully, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2018, pp. 125-142.
  • McCants, W. F., Kültür Mitleri Tanrıları Yaratmak Ulusları İcat Etmek, transl. Merve Tabur, İthaki, İstanbul 2018.
  • McInerney, Jeremy, “Fish or Man, Babylonian or Greek? Oannes between Cultures” Interactions between Animals and Humans in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, Editörler, T. Fögen ve E. Thomas pp. 253-273, De Gruyter, Berlin 2017.
  • McIntosh, Jane, Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara 2005.
  • Monaghan, Paul, “Péladan’s Symbolist “Prométhéide” and the Transformation of the World” in Fin De Siècle” Paris,” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, 126, (2013), pp. 401-414.
  • Nardo, Don, Ancient Mesopotamia, North Star Editions, New York 2009.
  • Oppenheim, A. L., Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2013.
  • Penglase, Charles, Greek Myths and Mesopotamia: Parallels and Influence in the Homeric Hymns and Hesiod, Routledge, New York 1997.
  • Philips, F. C., “Narrative Compression and the Myths of Prometheus in Hesiod,” The Classical Journal, 68/4, (1973), pp. 289-305.
  • Prentice, W. K., “Promethius Bound of Aeschylus,” The Classical Weekly, 15/4, (1921), pp. 26-29.
  • Ready, J. L., “Homer, Hesiod and the Epic Tradition,” in The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece, edited by H. A. Shapiro, , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007, pp. 111-140.
  • Reiner, Erica, “Fortune-telling in Mesopotamia,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 19/1, (1960), pp. 23 - 35.
  • Reiner, Erica, “The Etiological Myth of the “Seven Sages”,” Orientalia, 30/1, (1961), pp. 1-11.
  • Richardson, Seth, “Early Mesopotamia: The Presumptive State,” Past & Present, 215/1, (2012), pp. 3-49.
  • Ristvet, Lauren, Ritual, Performance, and Politics in the Ancient Near East, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2014.
  • Ruffell, Ian, Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound, Bristol Classical Press, London 2012.
  • Rutherford, Ian, “Hesiod and the Literary Traditions of the Near East” Brill’s Companion to Hesiod, Editör, Franko Montanari, Brill, Leiden 2009, pp. 9-35.
  • Schlegel, C. and Weinfield, H. M. Hesiod, Theogony: And, Works and Days, University of Michigan Press, Michigan 2006.
  • Selz, G. J., “Of Heroes and Sages: Considerations on the Early Mesopotamian Background of Some Enochic Traditions” The Dead Sea Scrolls, Editörler, Armin Lange, Emanuel Tov, ve Matthias Weigold, Brill, Leiden 2011 pp. 777-800,
  • Spek, R. J. van der., “Debates on the World of Berossus,” Zeitschriftfür Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte, 24, (2018), pp. 137-151.
  • Spence, Lewis, Myths and Legends of Babylonia and Assyria, Sagwan Press, New York 2010.
  • Sproul, B. C., Primal Myths: Creation Myths around the World, HarperOne, San Francisco 1979.
  • Todd, O. J., “The Character of Zeus in Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound,” The Classical Quarterly, 19/2, (1925), pp. 61-67.
  • Tuplin, Christophes, “Berossus and Greek Historiography” The World of Berossos, Editörler, J. Haubold, G. B. Lanfranchi, R. Rollinger ve J. Steele, , Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2013, pp. 177-179.
  • Waugh, Arthur, “The Folklore of the Merfolk,” Folklore, 71/2, (1960), pp. 73- 84.
  • Webster, Agusta, ThePrometheus Bound of Aeschylus, Generic, London 1866.
  • West, M. L., “The Prometheus Trilogy,” The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 99, (1979), pp. 130-148.
  • West, Stephanie, “Prometheus Orientalized,” Museum Helveticum, 51/3, (1994), pp. 129-149.
  • Wiggermann, F. A. M., “The Mesopotamian Pandemonium,” Studi e Materiali di Storia delle Religioni, 77, (2011), pp. 298-322.
  • Wright, D. P., Inventing God’s Law: How the Covenant Code of the Bible Used and Revised the Laws of Hammurabi, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2009.
  • Yıldırım, Ercüment, Eskiçağ Mezopotamyasında Liderler Krallar Kahramanlar, Arkeoloji Sanat Yayınları, İstanbul 2017.
  • Yoffee, Norman, Myths of the Archaic State. Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States, and Civilizations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004.
  • Yu, A. C., “New Gods and Old Order: Tragic Theology in the “Prometheus Bound”,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 39/1, (1971), pp. 19- 42.
  • Ziolkowski, Theodore, The Sin of Knowledge: Ancient Themes and Modern Variations, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2000.

Mezopotamya’daki Oannes Anlatımı ile Antik Yunan’daki Prometheus Mitosunun Karşılaştırması

Yıl 2022, Cilt 86, Sayı 305, 39 - 60, 12.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2022.039

Öz

Mezopotamya’daki ve Antik Yunan’daki inanç, bilginin tanrılardan insanlara ulaştırıldığı fikrine dayanmaktaydı. Fakat, her iki toplumda bilginin kaynağına dair bu ortak inançta bazı farklılıklar bulunmaktaydı. Mezopotamya’da bilginin Oannes isimli bir varlık tarafından tanrılardan insanlara getirildiğine dair bir inanç vardı. Antik Yunan’da ise Prometheus’un ilk bilgi olan ateşi, Tanrı Zeus’tan çaldığına inanılmaktaydı. Denizden gelen yarı balık biçimli bir canlı olan Oannes’in, Mezopotamya insanlarına ev yapmaktan tarıma kadar birçok bilgiyi öğrettiğine çivi yazılı metinlerde rastlanılmaktadır. Antik Yunan’da ise özellikle Hesiod ve Aeschylus’un eserlerinde Prometheus’un insanları yaratıp, yaşamlarını sürdürmek için gereken bilgiyi verdiğinden bahsedilmektedir. Bu çalışma, birbirinden farklı zaman dilimlerinde ve coğrafyalarda yaşayan bu iki toplumun bilginin kökenlerine dair inançlarını kıyaslamaya odaklanmıştır. Bunların ötesinde her iki toplumun tanrılardan gelen bilgi ile dünyayı nasıl anlamlandırdıkları ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmamızda, Mezopotamya çivi yazılı metinleri ile Antik Yunan yazmaları ana kaynak olarak kullanılmıştır. Her kaynak ayrıntılı biçimde okunduktan sonra bunlar üzerinde yapılmış modern yorumlar incelenmiştir. Her iki ana kaynakta yer alan ortak yönler tespit edilmiş ve çalışma bu ortak yönler üzerinden kurgulanmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Adams, Robert, “Strategies of Maximization, Sability, and Resilience in Mesopotamian Society, Settlement, and Agriculture,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 122 / 5, (1978), pp. 329 - 335.
  • Adams, S. M. “Hesiod’s Pandora,” The Classical Review, 46 / 5, (1932), pp. 193 - 196.
  • Aeschylus Aeschylus I. Persians, Seven Against Thebes, Suppliants, Prometheus Bound (ed., trans. Peter M. Smith) Loeb Classical Library, (2008).
  • Annus, Amar, “On the Origin of Watchers: A Comparative Study of the Antediluvian Wisdom in Mesopotamian and Jewish Traditions,” Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha, 19 / 4, (2010), pp. 277-320.
  • Ataç, M. A., The Mythology of Kingship in Neo-Assyrian Art, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2010.
  • Bacchilega, Cristina ve Brown, Marie Alohalani, The Penguin Book of Mermaids, Penguin Classics, New York 2019.
  • Beall, E. F., “Hesiod’s Prometheus and Development in Myth,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 1, (1991), pp. 355-371.
  • Beazley, J. D. “Prometheus Fire-lighter,” American Journal of Archaeology, 43 / 4, (1939), pp. 618-639.
  • Borger, Rykle, “The Incantation Series Bit Meseri and Enoch’s Ascension to Heaven” I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11, (Ed., R. S. Hess - D. T. Tsumura), Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake 1994, pp. 224-233.
  • Bottéro, Jean, Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning and the Gods, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1995.
  • Breucker, G. D., “Alexander Polyhistor and the Babyloniaca of Berossos,” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, 55 / 2, (2012), pp. 57-68.
  • Breucker, G. D., “Berossos and the Mesopotamian Temple as Centre of Knowledge during the Hellenistic Period” Learned Antiquity Scholarship and Society, (ed. A. A. MacDonald, M. W. Twomey ve G. J. Reinink), Peeters Press, Leuven 2003, pp. 13-24.
  • Buccellati, Giorgio, “Wisdom and not: The case of Mesopotamia,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 101 / 1, (1981), pp. 35-47.
  • Burkert, Walter, “Oriental and Greek Mythology: The Meeting of Parallels” Interpretations of Greek Mythology, ed., Jan N. Bremmer, Routledge, London 1987, pp. 10-40.
  • Burstein, S. M., The Babyloniaca of Berossus, Undena Publications, Malibu 1978.
  • Charpin, Dominique, Writing, Law, and Kingship in Old Babylonian Mesopotamia, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2010.
  • Cory, I. P., The Ancient Fragments: Containing what Remains of the Writings of Sanchoniatho, Berossus, Abydenus, Megasthenes, and Manetho,Alpha Editions, London 1828.
  • Curnow, Trevor, Wisdom in the Ancient World, Bristol Classical Press, London 2010.
  • Curnow, Trevor, Wisdom: A History, Reaktion Books, London 2015.
  • Dalley, S. and Reyes, A. T., “Mesopotamian Contact and Influence in the Greek World” The Legacy of Mesopotamia, Editör, Stephanie Dalley, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1998, pp. 107-124.
  • Dillery, Jhon, Clio’s Other Sons: Berossus and Manetho, University of Michigan Press, Michigan 2015.
  • Dougherty, Carol, Prometheus, Routledge, New York 2006.
  • Drews, Robert, “The Babylonian Chronicles and Berossus,” Iraq, 37 / 1, (1975), pp. 39-55.
  • Foster, B. R., “Wisdom and the Gods in Ancient Mesopotamia,” Orientalia, 43, (1974), pp. 344-354.
  • Frazer, J. G., Myths of the Origin of Fire, Routledge, London 2019.
  • Galter, H. D., “The Mesopotamian God Enki/Ea,” Religion Compass, 9/3, (2015), pp. 66-76.
  • Goetze, Albrecht, “Mesopotamian Laws and the Historian,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 69/3, (1949), pp. 115-120.
  • Gong, Y. - Haiying, Y. - Yinghui, G., “The Accounts of the Origin of Writing from Sumer, Egypt and China - A Comparative Perspective,” Wiener Zeitschriftfür die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 99, (2009), pp. 137-158.
  • Grene, David, “Aeschylus: Myth, Religion, and Poetry,” History of Religions, 23/1, (1983), pp. 1-17.
  • Grene, David, “Prometheus Bound,” Classical Philology, 35/1, (1940), pp. 22-38.
  • Harris, Rivkah, “The Conflict of Generations in Ancient Mesopotamian Myths,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 34/4, (1992), pp. 621-635.
  • Haubold, Johannes, Greece and Mesopotamia: Dialogues in Literature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013.
  • Helle, Sophus, “The Role of Authors in the “Uruk List of Kings and Sages”: Canonization and Cultural Contact,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 77/2, (2018), pp. 219-234.
  • Herington, C. J., “Introduction to Prometheus Bound,” Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics, 1/4, (1973), pp. 640-667.
  • Hesiod Hesiod Theogony, Works and days, Testimonia (Vol. 1). Loeb Classical Library, (2006).
  • Hodges, E. R., Cory’s Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and Other Authors, Leopold Classic Library, London 1876.
  • Jackson, S. A., A Comparison of Ancient Near Eastern Law Collections Prior to the First Millennium BC., Gorgias Press, New Jersey 2008.
  • Jacobsen, Thorkild, “Primitive Democracy in Ancient Mesopotamia,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 2/3, (1943), pp. 159-172.
  • Jacobsen, Thorkild, “The Battle between Marduk and Tiamat,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 88/1, (1968), pp. 104-108.
  • Kerényi, Carl, Prometheus: Archetypal Image of Human Existence, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2020.
  • Kofman S. and Woodhull, W., “Prometheus, the First Philosopher,” Substance, 15/2, (1986), pp. 26-35.
  • Komoróczy, Geza, “Berosos and the Mesopotamian Literature,” Acta Antiqua Académica Scientiarum Hungarica 21, (1973), pp. 125-152.
  • Kvanvig, Helge, Primeval History: Babylonian, Biblical, and Enochic, Brill, Leiden 2011.
  • Lambert, W. G., “Berossus and Babylonianerz Eschatology,” Iraq, 38, (1976), pp. 171-173.
  • Larmour, D. H., “Eyes, Knowledge and Power in the Prometheus Bound,” Scholia: Studies in Classical Antiquity, 1/1, (1992), pp. 28-37.
  • Leick, Gwendolyn, Mesopotamia: The Invention of the City, Penguin Books, London 2002.
  • Lenzi, Alan, “The Uruk List of Kings and Sages and Late Mesopotamian Scholarship,” Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions, 8/2, (2008), pp. 137-169.
  • Loney, A. C., “Hesiod’s Incorporative Poetics in the “Theogony” and the Contradictions of Prometheus,” American Journal of Philology, 135/4, (2014), pp. 503-531.
  • Long, H. S., “Notes on Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound”,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 102/3, (1958), pp. 229-280.
  • Martin, R. P., “Hesiodic Theology” The Oxford Handbook of Hesiod, Editörler, A. Loney ve S. Scully, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2018, pp. 125-142.
  • McCants, W. F., Kültür Mitleri Tanrıları Yaratmak Ulusları İcat Etmek, transl. Merve Tabur, İthaki, İstanbul 2018.
  • McInerney, Jeremy, “Fish or Man, Babylonian or Greek? Oannes between Cultures” Interactions between Animals and Humans in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, Editörler, T. Fögen ve E. Thomas pp. 253-273, De Gruyter, Berlin 2017.
  • McIntosh, Jane, Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara 2005.
  • Monaghan, Paul, “Péladan’s Symbolist “Prométhéide” and the Transformation of the World” in Fin De Siècle” Paris,” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, 126, (2013), pp. 401-414.
  • Nardo, Don, Ancient Mesopotamia, North Star Editions, New York 2009.
  • Oppenheim, A. L., Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2013.
  • Penglase, Charles, Greek Myths and Mesopotamia: Parallels and Influence in the Homeric Hymns and Hesiod, Routledge, New York 1997.
  • Philips, F. C., “Narrative Compression and the Myths of Prometheus in Hesiod,” The Classical Journal, 68/4, (1973), pp. 289-305.
  • Prentice, W. K., “Promethius Bound of Aeschylus,” The Classical Weekly, 15/4, (1921), pp. 26-29.
  • Ready, J. L., “Homer, Hesiod and the Epic Tradition,” in The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece, edited by H. A. Shapiro, , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007, pp. 111-140.
  • Reiner, Erica, “Fortune-telling in Mesopotamia,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 19/1, (1960), pp. 23 - 35.
  • Reiner, Erica, “The Etiological Myth of the “Seven Sages”,” Orientalia, 30/1, (1961), pp. 1-11.
  • Richardson, Seth, “Early Mesopotamia: The Presumptive State,” Past & Present, 215/1, (2012), pp. 3-49.
  • Ristvet, Lauren, Ritual, Performance, and Politics in the Ancient Near East, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2014.
  • Ruffell, Ian, Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound, Bristol Classical Press, London 2012.
  • Rutherford, Ian, “Hesiod and the Literary Traditions of the Near East” Brill’s Companion to Hesiod, Editör, Franko Montanari, Brill, Leiden 2009, pp. 9-35.
  • Schlegel, C. and Weinfield, H. M. Hesiod, Theogony: And, Works and Days, University of Michigan Press, Michigan 2006.
  • Selz, G. J., “Of Heroes and Sages: Considerations on the Early Mesopotamian Background of Some Enochic Traditions” The Dead Sea Scrolls, Editörler, Armin Lange, Emanuel Tov, ve Matthias Weigold, Brill, Leiden 2011 pp. 777-800,
  • Spek, R. J. van der., “Debates on the World of Berossus,” Zeitschriftfür Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte, 24, (2018), pp. 137-151.
  • Spence, Lewis, Myths and Legends of Babylonia and Assyria, Sagwan Press, New York 2010.
  • Sproul, B. C., Primal Myths: Creation Myths around the World, HarperOne, San Francisco 1979.
  • Todd, O. J., “The Character of Zeus in Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound,” The Classical Quarterly, 19/2, (1925), pp. 61-67.
  • Tuplin, Christophes, “Berossus and Greek Historiography” The World of Berossos, Editörler, J. Haubold, G. B. Lanfranchi, R. Rollinger ve J. Steele, , Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2013, pp. 177-179.
  • Waugh, Arthur, “The Folklore of the Merfolk,” Folklore, 71/2, (1960), pp. 73- 84.
  • Webster, Agusta, ThePrometheus Bound of Aeschylus, Generic, London 1866.
  • West, M. L., “The Prometheus Trilogy,” The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 99, (1979), pp. 130-148.
  • West, Stephanie, “Prometheus Orientalized,” Museum Helveticum, 51/3, (1994), pp. 129-149.
  • Wiggermann, F. A. M., “The Mesopotamian Pandemonium,” Studi e Materiali di Storia delle Religioni, 77, (2011), pp. 298-322.
  • Wright, D. P., Inventing God’s Law: How the Covenant Code of the Bible Used and Revised the Laws of Hammurabi, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2009.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Arkeoloji, Tarih
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Ercüment YILDIRIM Bu kişi benim
Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of History
0000-0001-5376-4061
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 12 Nisan 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 86, Sayı 305

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ttkbelleten1102139, journal = {BELLETEN}, issn = {0041-4255}, eissn = {2791-6472}, address = {Türk Tarih Kurumu, Bilimsel Çalışmalar Müdürlüğü, Kızılay Sokak, No:1, Sıhhiye/ANKARA}, publisher = {Türk Tarih Kurumu}, year = {2022}, volume = {86}, number = {305}, pages = {39 - 60}, doi = {10.37879/belleten.2022.039}, title = {A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World}, key = {cite}, author = {Yıldırım, Ercüment} }
APA Yıldırım, E. (2022). A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World . BELLETEN , 86 (305) , 39-60 . DOI: 10.37879/belleten.2022.039
MLA Yıldırım, E. "A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World" . BELLETEN 86 (2022 ): 39-60 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ttkbelleten/issue/69383/1102139>
Chicago Yıldırım, E. "A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World". BELLETEN 86 (2022 ): 39-60
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World AU - Ercüment Yıldırım Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.37879/belleten.2022.039 DO - 10.37879/belleten.2022.039 T2 - BELLETEN JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 39 EP - 60 VL - 86 IS - 305 SN - 0041-4255-2791-6472 M3 - doi: 10.37879/belleten.2022.039 UR - https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2022.039 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 BELLETEN A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World %A Ercüment Yıldırım %T A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World %D 2022 %J BELLETEN %P 0041-4255-2791-6472 %V 86 %N 305 %R doi: 10.37879/belleten.2022.039 %U 10.37879/belleten.2022.039
ISNAD Yıldırım, Ercüment . "A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World". BELLETEN 86 / 305 (Nisan 2022): 39-60 . https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2022.039
AMA Yıldırım E. A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World. TTK BELLETEN. 2022; 86(305): 39-60.
Vancouver Yıldırım E. A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World. BELLETEN. 2022; 86(305): 39-60.
IEEE E. Yıldırım , "A Comparative Approach to the Oannes Narrative in Mesopotamia and the Prometheus Myth in the Ancient Greek World", BELLETEN, c. 86, sayı. 305, ss. 39-60, Nis. 2022, doi:10.37879/belleten.2022.039