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Küresel Ekonominin Yeni Ağirlik Merkezleri ve Gücün Ötekilere Geçişi

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 12 - 24, 31.12.2019

Öz

Günümüz küresel ekonomi düzeninin öncüsü ve uygulayıcısı konumunda olan Amerika Birleşik Devletleri öncülüğündeki Batı, küresel ekonomik sorunları çözmekte yeterli olamamaktadır. Avrupa Birliği birçok söz vermeye devam etmekte fakat kendi içerisindeki sorunlar ve dış siyasetindeki tutarsızlıklar, kararlılıkla eylemde bulunmasını zayıflatmaktadır. Ellerinde mevcut olan tüm olanaklara ve oldukça güçlü konumları ve geniş imkanları olan uluslararası kuruluşlara sahip olmalarına rağmen ‘Batı kulübü’ öncülük etme ve yönetme becerisini giderek artan bir biçimde kaybetmektedir. Bu olumsuzluklara son zamanlarda Avrupa Birliği ile Amerika Birleşik Devletleri arasındaki çıkar çatışmaları da eklenmiştir. ‘Ötekiler’ yani yakaladıkları hızlı büyüme oranlarıyla küresel gelirdeki paylarını ciddi düzeylerde artıran bir grup gelişmekte olan ülke ve onların örneğini izlemeye koyulan, küresel gelirin %60’ını temsil eden hem az gelişmiş hem de gelişmekte olan diğer ülkeler küresel ekonominin yeni ağırlık merkezlerini oluşturma yolunda hızla ilerlemektedirler. İstatistikler incelendiğinde 2030’lara gelindiğinde dengelerin ne derece değişmiş olabileceği anlaşılmaktadır. Yazında, yakın zamanda bu konuyla ilgili olarak yapılan çalışmaların kayda değer bir artış gösterdiği gözlemlenmiştir. Bu çalışmada küresel ekonominin olası yeni ağırlık merkezleri mevcut olanlara ek olarak araştırılmış ve gücün batıdan veya kuzeyden, doğuya veya güneye geçiş süreci incelenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular ve anlayışlar sonuç bölümünde paylaşılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Arslan, G. E. (2013), ‘Euro Uygulaması Neden Krizde?’, Büyüteç, Ankara Sanayi Odası Yayın Organı, Ocak/Şubat 2013, sf. 53-62.
  • Babb, S. & Kentikelenis, A. E. (2018). ‘International Financial Institutions as Agents of Neoliberalism’. The SAGE Handbook of Neoliberalism, edited by D. Cahill, M. Cooper, M. Konings, & D. Primrose, Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, p.16-27.
  • Balcı, Z. (2018) ‘Çin’in Yeni ‘İpek Yolu’ Projesi’, İNSAMER, Araştırma 52, Ocak 2018, sf. 1-9.
  • Contipelli, E.P. & Picciau, S. (2015). ‘BRICS Members’ Interests and Priorities for Cooperation’, International Organizations Research Journal, 10/2, p. 120-128
  • Cox, R. W. (1981). ‘Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory’, Millennium - Journal of International Studies, 10 (2), p. 126–155.
  • Cukierman, A. (2015). ‘Will the Global Financial Crisis Have a Lasting Impact on the Position of Major Currencies vis-à-vis the Renminbi?’ Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York, 2015), p. 93-98
  • DCDC. (2010). Global Strategic Trends out to 2040- Fourth Edition, January, (Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre: Wiltshire, U.K.)
  • Hobsbawm, E. (2003). İmparatorluk Çağı: 1875-1914, (Dost Kitapevi Yayınları: Ankara, 2003)
  • IMF. (2017). World Economic Outlook, April 2017: Gaining Momentum? (International Monetary Fund Publications: Washington DC)
  • IMF. (2018). World Economic Outlook, April 2018: Cyclical Upswing, Structural Change, (International Monetary Fund Publications: Washington DC)
  • Juutinen, M. Käkönen, J. (2016). Battle for Gobalizations? BRICS and US Mega-Regional Trade Agreements in a changing world order, (Observer Research Foundation: New Delhi).
  • Kappel, R. (2015). ‘Global Power Shifts and Challenges for the Global Order’, Paper from the 1st Lisbon Conference on Development. IMVF Policy Paper 2/2015, June 2015
  • Krastev,I. & Leonard M. with Bechev, D., Kobzova, J. & Wilson, A. (2010). The Spectre of a Multipolar Europe, (European Council on Foreign Relations: London, 2010)
  • Lind, M. (2008). ‘A Concert-Balance Strategy for a Multipolar World’, Parameters, Autumn 2008, p. 48-60
  • Liqun, J. (2015). ‘Bretton Woods: The System and the Institutions’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York, 2015), p. 211-216.
  • Mckinnon, R. I. (2015). ‘Bretton Woods Reconsidered: The Dollar Standard and the Role of China’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York, 2015), p. 217-229.
  • Mminele, D. (2015). ‘Perspectives on the Global Financial Architecture and the Future of the International Monetary System’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan, (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York), p. 231-237.
  • Moghalu, K.C. (2015). ‘Bretton Woods, the West and the Rest’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan, (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York), p. 238-246.
  • N.I.C. (2008). Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World, (National Intelligence Council of the USA: Washington DC, November 2008)
  • Ocampo, J. A. (2015). ‘The Future of Global Currencies’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan, (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York), p.271-275
  • Omar, M.A. (2015). ‘Reform of the International Financial Architecture: A Discussion of the Bretton Woods System as well as the Prevailing International Financial Architecture in the Light of Islamic Finance’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan, (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York), p. 277-283
  • Purtaş, F. (2011). Orta Asya ile Güney Asya Arasında Modern İpek Yolu Projesi: Afganistan, Pakistan ve Hindistan'ın Orta Asya Türk Cumhuriyetleri ile İlişkileri, İnceleme-Araştırma dizisi; Yayın no: 6, Editör: Murat Yılmaz – (Hoca Ahmet Yesevi Uluslararası Türk-Kazak Üniversitesi: Ankara, Eylül 2011).
  • Stuenkel, O. (2013). ‘Will Brics change the course of history?’, BRICS in Africa anti-imperialist, sub-imperialist or in between? A reader for the Durban Summit, edited by Patrick Bond with ground work and the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance and in Conjunction with Pambazuka News, p. 59-60
  • Subacchi, P. & Pickford, S. (2015). International Economic Governance: Last Chance for the G20, (International Economics Department, Chatham House Briefing, London: 2015)
  • UNCTAD. (2017). The Least Developed Countries Report 2017, Transformational energy access (United Nations Publication: New York and Geneva)
  • United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2018). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision, Online Edition.
  • Varlık, A.B. (2009). Küreselleşme ve Küreselleşmenin Orta Doğu’ya Etkileri, Doktora Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Uluslararası İlişkiler Ana Bilim Dalı, Ankara
  • World Bank. (2016a). Global Economic Prospects: Divergences and Risks. June, (World Bank Group: Washington DC)
  • World Bank. (2016b). Global Economic Prospects: Spillovers amid Weak Growth. January, (World Bank Group: Washington DC)
  • World Bank. (2018). Global Economic Prospects: The Turning of the Tide? June, (World Bank Group: Washington DC)

New Center of Gravities of The Global Economy and Transition of The Power to The Others

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 12 - 24, 31.12.2019

Öz

The West, the inventor and implementer of today's global economy, is not solving enough the global economic problems. The European Union continues to make many promises, but the problems within itself and the inconsistencies in its foreign policy undermine its determination to act decisively. Despite substantial facilities and the international institutions in strong pozitions and vast opportunities they have the ‘Club of the West’ is progressively losing its abilities to govern and to lead. These adversities have recently been accompanied by conflicts of interest between the European Union and the United States. ‘The others’, a group of developing countries and both developing and least developed countries following thier example, with the rapid growth rates they have achieved and representing 60 percent of the global income, are moving forward to create new centers of gravity of the global economy. As the statistics are examined, it is assumed that the balance may have considerably changed in 2030s. Recently, studies on this subject have shown a significant increase in the literature. In this study, the possible new centers of gravity of the global economy in addition to existing ones and the process of transition of power from west or north, to east or south was examined. The findings and insights obtained were shared in the conclusion section.

Kaynakça

  • Arslan, G. E. (2013), ‘Euro Uygulaması Neden Krizde?’, Büyüteç, Ankara Sanayi Odası Yayın Organı, Ocak/Şubat 2013, sf. 53-62.
  • Babb, S. & Kentikelenis, A. E. (2018). ‘International Financial Institutions as Agents of Neoliberalism’. The SAGE Handbook of Neoliberalism, edited by D. Cahill, M. Cooper, M. Konings, & D. Primrose, Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, p.16-27.
  • Balcı, Z. (2018) ‘Çin’in Yeni ‘İpek Yolu’ Projesi’, İNSAMER, Araştırma 52, Ocak 2018, sf. 1-9.
  • Contipelli, E.P. & Picciau, S. (2015). ‘BRICS Members’ Interests and Priorities for Cooperation’, International Organizations Research Journal, 10/2, p. 120-128
  • Cox, R. W. (1981). ‘Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory’, Millennium - Journal of International Studies, 10 (2), p. 126–155.
  • Cukierman, A. (2015). ‘Will the Global Financial Crisis Have a Lasting Impact on the Position of Major Currencies vis-à-vis the Renminbi?’ Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York, 2015), p. 93-98
  • DCDC. (2010). Global Strategic Trends out to 2040- Fourth Edition, January, (Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre: Wiltshire, U.K.)
  • Hobsbawm, E. (2003). İmparatorluk Çağı: 1875-1914, (Dost Kitapevi Yayınları: Ankara, 2003)
  • IMF. (2017). World Economic Outlook, April 2017: Gaining Momentum? (International Monetary Fund Publications: Washington DC)
  • IMF. (2018). World Economic Outlook, April 2018: Cyclical Upswing, Structural Change, (International Monetary Fund Publications: Washington DC)
  • Juutinen, M. Käkönen, J. (2016). Battle for Gobalizations? BRICS and US Mega-Regional Trade Agreements in a changing world order, (Observer Research Foundation: New Delhi).
  • Kappel, R. (2015). ‘Global Power Shifts and Challenges for the Global Order’, Paper from the 1st Lisbon Conference on Development. IMVF Policy Paper 2/2015, June 2015
  • Krastev,I. & Leonard M. with Bechev, D., Kobzova, J. & Wilson, A. (2010). The Spectre of a Multipolar Europe, (European Council on Foreign Relations: London, 2010)
  • Lind, M. (2008). ‘A Concert-Balance Strategy for a Multipolar World’, Parameters, Autumn 2008, p. 48-60
  • Liqun, J. (2015). ‘Bretton Woods: The System and the Institutions’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York, 2015), p. 211-216.
  • Mckinnon, R. I. (2015). ‘Bretton Woods Reconsidered: The Dollar Standard and the Role of China’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York, 2015), p. 217-229.
  • Mminele, D. (2015). ‘Perspectives on the Global Financial Architecture and the Future of the International Monetary System’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan, (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York), p. 231-237.
  • Moghalu, K.C. (2015). ‘Bretton Woods, the West and the Rest’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan, (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York), p. 238-246.
  • N.I.C. (2008). Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World, (National Intelligence Council of the USA: Washington DC, November 2008)
  • Ocampo, J. A. (2015). ‘The Future of Global Currencies’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan, (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York), p.271-275
  • Omar, M.A. (2015). ‘Reform of the International Financial Architecture: A Discussion of the Bretton Woods System as well as the Prevailing International Financial Architecture in the Light of Islamic Finance’, Bretton Woods: The Next 70 years, Edited by Marc Uzan, (Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee: New York), p. 277-283
  • Purtaş, F. (2011). Orta Asya ile Güney Asya Arasında Modern İpek Yolu Projesi: Afganistan, Pakistan ve Hindistan'ın Orta Asya Türk Cumhuriyetleri ile İlişkileri, İnceleme-Araştırma dizisi; Yayın no: 6, Editör: Murat Yılmaz – (Hoca Ahmet Yesevi Uluslararası Türk-Kazak Üniversitesi: Ankara, Eylül 2011).
  • Stuenkel, O. (2013). ‘Will Brics change the course of history?’, BRICS in Africa anti-imperialist, sub-imperialist or in between? A reader for the Durban Summit, edited by Patrick Bond with ground work and the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance and in Conjunction with Pambazuka News, p. 59-60
  • Subacchi, P. & Pickford, S. (2015). International Economic Governance: Last Chance for the G20, (International Economics Department, Chatham House Briefing, London: 2015)
  • UNCTAD. (2017). The Least Developed Countries Report 2017, Transformational energy access (United Nations Publication: New York and Geneva)
  • United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2018). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision, Online Edition.
  • Varlık, A.B. (2009). Küreselleşme ve Küreselleşmenin Orta Doğu’ya Etkileri, Doktora Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Uluslararası İlişkiler Ana Bilim Dalı, Ankara
  • World Bank. (2016a). Global Economic Prospects: Divergences and Risks. June, (World Bank Group: Washington DC)
  • World Bank. (2016b). Global Economic Prospects: Spillovers amid Weak Growth. January, (World Bank Group: Washington DC)
  • World Bank. (2018). Global Economic Prospects: The Turning of the Tide? June, (World Bank Group: Washington DC)

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İş
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Ayşenur TARAKCIOĞLU ALTINAY (Sorumlu Yazar)
UŞAK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6963-2346
Türkiye


Özden Sevgi AKINCI
DUMLUPINAR UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-9250-4446
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Tarakcıoğlu Altınay, A. & Akıncı, Ö. S. (2019). Küresel Ekonominin Yeni Ağirlik Merkezleri ve Gücün Ötekilere Geçişi . International Journal of Business and Economic Studies , 1 (1) , 12-24 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/uiecd/issue/51486/653554

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BES JOURNAL- International Journal of Business and Economic Studies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.